The Montonero Peronist Movement (Spanish: Movimiento Peronista Montonero) was an Argentine left-wing Peronist guerrilla group, active during the 1960s and 1970s. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Peronism (Peronismo or Justicialism (Spanish Justicialismo) is an Argentine political movement based on the ideas and programs associated with Its motto was venceremos ("we will win"). After Juan Perón's return from 20 years of exile and the June 20, 1973 Ezeiza massacre, which marked the definitive split between left and right-wing Peronism, the Montoneros were expelled from the Justicialist party in May 1974 by Perón. Juan Domingo Perón (October 8 1895 &ndash July 1 1974 was an Argentine Colonel and Politician, elected three times as President of Argentina The Ezeiza massacre took place on June 20, 1973 near the Ezeiza International Airport in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Justicialist Party ( Spanish: Partido Justicialista, PJ) is a Peronist political party in Argentina, and the largest component The group was almost completely dismantled in 1977, during Videla's dictatorship. Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 21, 1925 in Mercedes Buenos Aires) was the dictator and President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981 The National Reorganization Process (in Spanish, Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, often simply El Proceso) was the name used by its leaders
The group formed around 1970 from the confluence of Roman Catholic groups with Social Studies students' groups and with left-wing supporters of Juan Domingo Perón. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Juan Domingo Perón (October 8 1895 &ndash July 1 1974 was an Argentine Colonel and Politician, elected three times as President of Argentina Their best-known leader was Mario Firmenich. Montoneros hoped that Perón would return from exile in Francoist Spain and transform Argentina into a "Socialist Fatherland".
Montoneros initiated a campaign to destabilize by force what they deemed was a pro-American regime. Claiming retaliation against the June 1956 León Suárez massacre and Juan José Valle's execution, Montoneros kidnapped and executed former dictator Pedro Eugenio Aramburu (1955–1958) and other citizens who they said collaborated with him, such as unionists, politicians, diplomats, and businessmen. Juan José Valle (executed in Buenos Aires, July 12, 1956) was an Argentine military who headed a rebellion against General Aramburu Pedro Eugenio Aramburu Cilveti Army General Born in Río Cuarto, Córdoba on May 21, They financed their operations by kidnapping and collecting ransom for businessmen or executives, making as much as $14. 2 million in a single abduction for an Exxon executive in 1974. Exxon is a brand of fuel sold by ExxonMobil. History Exxon formally replaced the Esso, Enco,
On March 11, 1973, Argentina held general elections for the first time in ten years. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Perón loyalist Héctor Cámpora became president, before resigning in July to allow Perón to win the new elections held in October. Héctor José Cámpora Demaestre (1909-1980 was president of Argentina from May 25 until July 13 1973. However, a feud developed between right-wing Peronists and Montoneros. The right-wing of the Peronist party, the unions, and the Radical Party led by Ricardo Balbín, favoured a social pact between trade unions and employers rather than a violent socialist revolution. Ricardo Balbín (born on July 19, 1904 in Buenos Aires - died September 9 1981) was an Argentine lawyer and politician Right-wingers and Montoneros clashed at Perón's homecoming ceremony during the June 20, 1973 Ezeiza massacre, leaving 13 dead and more than 300 wounded. The Ezeiza massacre took place on June 20, 1973 near the Ezeiza International Airport in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Perón supported the unions, the radicals led by Ricardo Balbín and the right-wing peronists, among whom José López Rega, founder of the Alianza Anticomunista Argentina ("Triple A") death squad, which had organized the massacre, along with the Peronist right-wing. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Ricardo Balbín (born on July 19, 1904 in Buenos Aires - died September 9 1981) was an Argentine lawyer and politician José López Rega ( 17 October 1916  &ndash 9 June 1989) was Argentina 's Minister of Social Welfare during the Peronist The Argentine Anticommunist Alliance ( Alianza Anticomunista Argentina, usually known as Triple A or AAA was a Far-right Death squad active in A death squad is an armed Squad that kills civilians terrorists or guerillas
In May 1974, Montoneros were expelled from the Justicialist movement by Perón. The Justicialist Party ( Spanish: Partido Justicialista, PJ) is a Peronist political party in Argentina, and the largest component However, Montoneros waited until after the death of Perón in July 1974 to react, with the exception of the assassination of José Ignacio Rucci, general secretary of the CGT (General Confederation of Labour) on September 25, 1973, and some other military actions. The General Confederation of Labour ( Confederación General del Trabajo de la República Argentina, CGT is a national trade union center of Argentina founded Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar.
Montoneros claimed to have what they called the "social revolutionary vision of authentic Peronism" and started guerrilla operations against the government. In the government the more radically right-wing factions quickly took control; Isabel Perón, President since Juan Perón's death, was essentially a figurehead under the influence of former federal police corporal José López Rega. María Estela Martínez Cartas de Perón (born February 4, 1931) better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón or Isabel Perón, is a former José López Rega ( 17 October 1916  &ndash 9 June 1989) was Argentina 's Minister of Social Welfare during the Peronist
On July 15, 1974, Montoneros assassinated Arturo Mor Roig, a former foreign minister. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. In September, in order to finance their operations, they kidnapped two members of the Bunge and Born business family. Bunge y Born was an Argentina -based Multinational corporation. They demanded and received as ransom $60 million in cash and $1. 2 million worth of food and clothing to be given to the poor. This ransom is the highest ever paid according to the Guinness Book of Records. Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U
The Triple A under López Rega's auspices began hunting down, kidnapping, and killing Montoneros and members of Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP) as well as other leftist militant groups. The Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP was the military branch of the Communist PRT ( Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores, or Workers' Revolutionary
Montoneros and ERP went on to attack business and political figures throughout Argentina as well as raid military bases for weapons and explosives. The Montoneros killed executives from General Motors, Ford and Chrysler. General Motors Corporation ( GM) ( is a multinational automobile manufacturer founded in 1908 and headquartered in the United States. Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following Chrysler LLC is an American Automobile manufacturer that has been producing Automobiles since 1925 The group also sank an Argentine destroyer, the ARA Santisima Trinidad in 1975. In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On July 2, 1976 they detonated a powerful bomb in the Argentine Federal Police in Buenos Aires, killing 24 and injuring 66 people. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Their numbers (at their strongest, just a few thousand) were no match against the highly organized and ruthless branches of the military, who under the cloak of paramilitary forces (operating out of uniform and without any accountability) didn't hesitate to kidnap and kill even remote acquaintances of militants, or force captured members, through torture, to become informers and turn in their comrades-in-arms.
By the time Videla's military Junta took power in March of '76, approximately ten thousand political prisoners were being held in various prisons around Argentina, some with political connections and some just guilty by association. The 1976 Argentine coup was a Coup d'état that overthrew Isabel Perón on 24 March 1976, in Argentina. These political prisoners were held throughout the years of the dictatorship, many of them never receiving trials, in prisons such as La Plata, Devoto, Rawson, and Caseros. The Caseros Prison ( Cárcel de Caseros) was a Panopticon prison in Parque Patricios, a neighborhood in the southern part of Buenos
On 24 March 1976 Isabel Perón was ousted and a military junta installed, led by General Jorge Rafael Videla. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The National Reorganization Process (in Spanish, Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, often simply El Proceso) was the name used by its leaders Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 21, 1925 in Mercedes Buenos Aires) was the dictator and President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981 The Junta reinforced counter-revolutionary operations, leading to the so-called "Dirty War", which saw approximately 30,000 victims. This article refers to the Argentine Dirty War for the British film of the same name see Dirty War (film. The Junta relied on mass arrests, torture, and executions without trial to stifle any political opposition. The victims' bodies that were not helicoptered out into the Atlantic Ocean were left on the streets as an example to militants still at large. The so-called death flights (Spanish vuelos de la muerte) were a form of Forced disappearance routinely practiced during the Argentine " Dirty War," The Montoneros suffered heavy losses in 1976 - 1980 out of around 7000 active supporters were killed, with the rest forced to scatter.
Montoneros were effectively finished by 1977, although some did fight on until 1981. During the Falklands War against Great Britain, the Argentine military conceived the failed Operation Algeciras, a covert plan to support and convince some Montoneros (appealing to their patriotism) to sabotage British military facilities in Gibraltar. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the Operation Algeciras was a failed plan conceived by the Argentine Military to sabotage a Royal Navy Warship in Gibraltar British Forces Gibraltar is the name given to the British Armed Forces stationed in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar Argentina's defeat led to the fall of the Junta, and Raul Alfonsin became president in December 1983, thus initiating the democratic transition. Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Foulkes (born 13 March 1927 in Chascomús) is an Argentine politician who was the President of Argentina Democratization ( British English: Democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic Political regime.