|Mobutu Sese Seko|
November 24, 1965 – May 16, 1997
|Preceded by||Joseph Kasa-Vubu|
|Succeeded by||Laurent-Désiré Kabila|
|Born||October 14, 1930|
Lisala, Belgian Congo
(now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo)
|Died||September 7, 1997 (aged 66)|
|Political party||Popular Movement of the Revolution|
|Spouse||Marie-Antoinette Mobutu (deceased)|
Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko (pronounced /məˈbuːtuː ˈsɛseɪ ˈsɛkoʊ/ in English), born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997) after deposing Joseph Kasavubu. The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Président de la République démocratique du Congo Rais wa Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo Mokonzi wa Republíki ya Kongó Demokratíki Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Joseph Kasa-Vubu (1910 sources have 1913 1915 and 1917 &ndash March 24, 1969) was the first President (1960&ndash1965 of the Republic of Laurent-Désiré Kabila ( November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Lisala is a city in Équateur province, in northwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Belgian Congo ( Dutch: Belgisch Kongo French: Congo Belge German: Belgisch Kongo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Rabat ( Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ) population 2 million ( 2007 estimate) is the The Popular Movement of the Revolution ( French: Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution or MPR was a Zairian Political party established in Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar The Republic of Zaire (pronunciation; République du Zaïre was the name of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo between October 27, 1971 The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Joseph Kasa-Vubu (1910 sources have 1913 1915 and 1917 &ndash March 24, 1969) was the first President (1960&ndash1965 of the Republic of His mismanagement of his country's economy, and enriching himself off its financial and natural resources, makes his name synonymous with kleptocracy in Africa. A kleptocracy (sometimes cleptocracy, occasionally kleptarchy) ( root klepto+kratein = rule by thieves) is a term applied to a
Mobutu was born in Lisala, Belgian Congo, a member of the Ngbandi ethnic group. Lisala is a city in Équateur province, in northwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Belgian Congo ( Dutch: Belgisch Kongo French: Congo Belge German: Belgisch Kongo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic Mobutu's mother, Marie Madeleine Yemo, was a hotel maid who had fled to Lisala from the harem of a local village chief. HAREM is the first evaluation contest of Named entity recognition (NER for Portuguese and its call for participation was announced in September 2004 There she met and married Albéric Gbemani, a cook for a Belgian judge. Two months later she gave birth to Mobutu. The name Mobutu was selected by an uncle. Gbemani died when Mobutu was eight. 
The wife of the Belgian judge took a liking to Mobutu and taught him to speak, read and write fluent French. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Yemo relied on the help of relatives to support her four children, and the family moved often. Mobutu's earliest studies were in Léopoldville, but his mother eventually sent him to an uncle in Coquilhatville, where he attended the Christian Brothers School, a Catholic mission boarding school. Kinshasa (formerly French: Léopoldville, formerly Dutch: Leopoldstad, German: Leopoldstadt) is the Capital Mbandaka, formerly known as Coquilhatville or Coquilhatstad (named after Camille-Aimé Coquilhat) is a city on the Congo River in the Democratic A physically imposing figure, he dominated school sports, but also excelled in academics, including running the class newspaper. He was also known for his pranks and impish sense of humor; a classmate recalled that when the Belgian priests, whose first language was Dutch, misspoke in French, Mobutu would leap to his feet in class and point out the mistake. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname In 1949 Mobutu stowed away aboard a boat to Léopoldville and met a girl. Kinshasa (formerly French: Léopoldville, formerly Dutch: Leopoldstad, German: Leopoldstadt) is the Capital The priests found him several weeks later, and at the end of the school year he was sent to the Force Publique (FP), the Belgian Congolese army, with a seven-year commitment, a punishment for rebellious students. The Belgian Congo ( Dutch: Belgisch Kongo French: Congo Belge German: Belgisch Kongo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic 
Mobutu found discipline in army life and a surrogate father figure in Sergeant Joseph Bobozo. Mobutu also kept up his studies through his old fellow students, borrowing European newspapers from the Belgian officers and books from wherever he could find them, reading them on sentry duty and whenever he had a spare moment. His personal favorites were the writings of French President Charles de Gaulle, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Italian philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 After passing a course in accounting, he began to dabble professionally in journalism. Still angry after his clashes with the school priests, he did not wed in a church. His contribution to the wedding festivities was a crate of beer, all his army salary could afford. 
As a soldier, Mobutu wrote pseudonymously on contemporary politics for a new magazine set up by a Belgian colonial, Actualités Africaines. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) In 1956 he quit the army and became a full-time journalist, writing for the Léopoldville daily L'Avenir. L'Avenir is a Daily newspaper published in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  In 1958 he went to Belgium to cover the 1958 World Expo and stayed to receive journalist training. Expo 58, also known as the Brussels World’s Fair, Brusselse Wereldtentoonstelling or Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles, was held from By this time Mobutu had met many of the young Congolese intellectuals challenging colonial rule. He became friends with Patrice Lumumba and joined Lumumba's Mouvement National Congolais (MNC). Patrice Émery Lumumba ( 2 July, 1925 – 17 January, 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime The Mouvement National Congolais (English Congolese National Movement, MNC is a poltical party in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mobutu eventually became Lumumba's personal aide, though several contemporaries indicate that Belgian intelligence had recruited Mobutu to be an informer by this point. 
During the 1960 talks in Brussels on Congolese independence the U. S. embassy held a reception to get a better sense of the Congolese delegation. Embassy staff were each assigned a list of delegation members to meet and then discuss their impressions. The ambassador noted, "One name kept coming up. But it wasn't on anyone's list because he wasn't an official delegation member, he was Lumumba's secretary. But everyone agreed that this was an extremely intelligent man, very young, perhaps immature, but a man with great potential. " Following the granting of independence on June 30, 1960, a coalition government was formed, led by Prime Minister Lumumba and President Joseph Kasa-Vubu. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Joseph Kasa-Vubu (1910 sources have 1913 1915 and 1917 &ndash March 24, 1969) was the first President (1960&ndash1965 of the Republic of The new nation quickly lurched into the Congo Crisis as the army mutinied against the remaining Belgian officers. The Congo Crisis (1960-1965 was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence Lumumba appointed Mobutu as chief of staff of the army, in which capacity Mobutu toured the country convincing soldiers to return to their barracks. Encouraged by a Belgian government intent on maintaining its access to rich Congolese mines, secessionist violence erupted in the south. Miffed that the United Nations force sent to help restore order was not helping to crush the secessionists, Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for assistance, receiving massive military aid and about a thousand Communist technical advisers in six weeks. Organisation des Nations Unies au Congo, abbreviated ONUC, (English The United Nations Organization in the Congo) was a United Nations Peacekeeping The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The U. S. government saw the Soviet activity as a maneuver to spread communist influence in central Africa. Kasavubu, riled by the Soviet arrival, dismissed Lumumba in an act of dubious legality. An outraged Lumumba attempted to depose Kasavubu, to no effect. Both Lumumba and Kasavubu then ordered Mobutu to arrest the other. As army chief of staff, Mobutu came under great pressure from multiple sources. The embassies of Western nations, who were helping to pay the salaries of his rebellious soldiers, as well as Kasavubu, the student and his own subordinates favored getting rid of the Soviet presence. On September 14, 1960, Mobutu took control, putting Lumumba under house arrest for the second time and keeping Kasavubu as president. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
|History of DR Congo|
All Soviet advisors were ordered to leave. Early history See also Early Congolese history The area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 10000 Early Congo history covers most of the Congo River basin occupied today by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, Angola Colonisation of the Congo refers to the period from Henry Morton Stanley 's first exploration of the Congo (1867 until its annexation as a personal possession of King The Congo Free State was a Corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization the The Belgian Congo ( Dutch: Belgisch Kongo French: Congo Belge German: Belgisch Kongo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic The Congo Crisis (1960-1965 was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence The Republic of Zaire (pronunciation; République du Zaïre was the name of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo between October 27, 1971 Shaba I was a conflict between the neighbouring states of Zaire and Angola in 1977 and was a consequence of Zaire's support for the FLNA and UNITA Shaba II was an invasion of the Shaba separatist movement FNLC (6500 Katangese gendarmes into the Zairian province of Shaba on 17 May 1978 The First Congo War (November 1996 to May 1997 ended when Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as The Second Congo War, also known as Africa's World War and the Great War of Africa, began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Congolese history in the 2000s has primarily revolved around the Second Congo War (1998-2003 and the empowerment of a transitional government. The Congo Crisis (1960-1965 was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence Next, Mobutu accused Lumumba of pro-communist sympathies, thereby hoping to gain the support of the United States. Lumumba tried to flee to Stanleyville, but he was captured and sent to Katanga where he was assassinated. Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville or Stanleystad, (population 500000 is a City in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa Katanga is a southern province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In 1964, partisans led by Pierre Mulele, started another rebellion. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Pierre Mulele ( August 11, 1929 - October 3 [[October 9] depending on the source] 1968 was a Congolese Revolutionary who was briefly They quickly occupied two third of Congo, but the Congolese army, led by Mobuto, was able to reconquer the entire territory in 1965.
On November 25, 1965, General Mobutu seized power for the second time in a bloodless coup, following another power struggle between Kasavubu and his prime minister Moise Tshombe. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Moïse Kapenda Tshombe ( November 10, 1919 – June 29, 1969) was a Congolese Politician. According to Mobutu, it had taken "the politicians" five years to "ruin" the country; therefore, said Mobutu, "For five years, there will be no more political party activity in the country. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person " Under the auspice of a regime d'exception (the equivalent of a state of emergency), Mobutu assumed sweeping (almost absolute) powers. A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies Parliament was reduced to a rubber-stamp, before being abolished altogether though it was later revived. The number of provinces was reduced, and their autonomy curtailed, resulting in a highly centralized state.
Initially, Mobutu's government was decidedly apolitical, even anti-political. The word "politician" carried negative connotations, and became almost synonymous with someone who was wicked or corrupt. Even so, 1966 saw the debut of the Corps of Volunteers of the Republic, a vanguard movement designed to mobilize popular support behind Mobutu, who was proclaimed the nation's "Second National Hero" after Lumumba. Ironic given the role he played in Lumumba's ousting, Mobutu strove to present himself as a successor to Lumumba's legacy and one of the key tenets early in his rule was "authentic Congolese nationalism. "
1967 marked the debut of the Popular Movement of the Revolution (MPR) which until 1990 was the nation's only legal political party. The Popular Movement of the Revolution ( French: Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution or MPR was a Zairian Political party established in Membership became obligatory for all citizens. Among the themes advanced by the MPR in its doctrine, the Manifesto of N'Sele, was nationalism, revolution, and authenticity. Revolution was described as a "truly national revolution, essentially pragmatic," which called for "the repudiation of both capitalism and communism. " One of the MPR's slogans was "Neither left nor right," to which would be added "nor even center" in later years.
That same year, all trade unions were consolidated into a single union, the National Union of Zairian Workers, and brought under government control. By Mobutu's own admission, the union would serve as an instrument of support for government policy, rather than as a force for confrontation. Independent trade unions were illegal until 1991.
Mobutu faced many challenges early in his rule, but most opposition he was able to coopt into submission through patronage; those he could not, he dealt with forcefully. In 1966 four cabinet members were arrested on charges of complicity in an attempted coup, tried by a military tribunal, and publicly executed in an open-air spectacle witnessed by over 50,000 people. Uprisings by former Katangan gendarmeries were crushed, as was an abortive revolt led by white mercenaries in 1967. By 1970, nearly all potential threats to his authority had been smashed, and for the most part, law and order was brought to nearly all parts of the country. That year marked the pinnacle of Mobutu's legitimacy and power. The Belgian monarch, King Baudouin I, made a highly successful state visit to Kinshasa. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Monarchy in Belgium is Constitutional and popular in nature The hereditary Monarch Baudouin I (Baudouin Albert Charles Léopold Axel Marie Gustave or Dutch: Boudewijn Albert Karel Leopold Axel Marie Gustaaf ( 7 September 1930 – Kinshasa (formerly French: Léopoldville, formerly Dutch: Leopoldstad, German: Leopoldstadt) is the Capital That same year legislative and presidential elections were held, and Mobutu won 99% of the popular vote in an election where voting was compulsory and he was the sole candidate.
As he consolidated power Mobutu set up several military forces whose sole purpose was to protect him. These included the Special Presidential Division, Civil Guard and Service for Action and Military Intelligence (SNIP). The Special Presidential Division ( DSP, after the original French Division Spéciale Présidentielle) was an elite military force created by Zairian
Embarking on a campaign of pro-Africa cultural awareness, Mobutu renamed the country the Republic of Zaire in October 1971. In Zaire during the Mobutu period Authenticity (authenticité was defined as consciousness of one's personality and values and being at home in one's culture The Republic of Zaire (pronunciation; République du Zaïre was the name of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo between October 27, 1971 Africans were ordered to drop their Christian names for African ones, and priests were warned that they would face 5 years' imprisonment if they were caught baptizing a Zairean child with a Christian name. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted Western attire and ties were banned, and men were forced to wear a Mao-style tunic known as an abacost. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led A tunic is any of several types of Clothing for the body with or without Sleeves and of various lengths reaching from the hips to the ankles The abacost, abbreviation for the French "à bas le costume" (literally "down with the suit" was the distinctive wear for men that was promoted by
In 1972, Mobutu renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga ("The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, goes from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake. "), Mobutu Sese Seko for short.
Early in his rule, Mobutu consolidated power by publicly executing political rivals, secessionists, coup plotters, and other threats to his rule. A toque (toʊk is a type of Hat with a narrow brim or no brim at all To set an example, many were hanged before large audiences, including former Prime Minister Evariste Kimba, who, with three cabinet members - Jérôme Anany (Defense Minister), Emmanuel Bamba (Finance Minister), and Alexandre Mahamba (Minister of Mines and Energy) - was tried in May 1966, and sent to the gallows on May 30, before an audience of 50,000 spectators. Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death Evariste Kimba ( July 16, 1926 - Kinshasa, May 30, 1966) served briefly as the Republic of the Congo 's Prime Minister from Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following The men were executed on charges of being in contact with Colonel Alphonse Bangala and Major Pierre Efomi, for the purpose of planning a coup. Mobutu explained the executions as follows: "One had to strike through a spectacular example, and create the conditions of regime discipline. When a chief takes a decision, he decides - period. "
In 1968 Pierre Mulele, Lumumba's Minister of Education and later a rebel leader during the 1964 Simba rebellion, was lured out of exile in Brazzaville on the assumption that he would be amnestied, but was tortured and killed by Mobutu's forces. Pierre Mulele ( August 11, 1929 - October 3 [[October 9] depending on the source] 1968 was a Congolese Revolutionary who was briefly ||-||} Brazzaville is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is located on the Congo River. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally While Mulele was still alive, his eyes were gouged out, his genitals were ripped off, and his limbs were amputated one by one.  Mobutu later moved away from murder, and switched to a new tactic, buying off political rivals. He used the slogan "Keep your friends close, but your enemies closer still" to describe his tactic of co-opting political opponents through bribery. Bribery, a form of pecuniary corruption is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person A favorite Mobutu tactic was to play "musical chairs," rotating members of his government, switching the cabinet roster constantly to ensure that no one would pose a threat to his rule. Another tactic was to arrest and sometimes torture dissident members of the government, only to later pardon them and reward them with high office. The most famous example of this treatment is Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond, who was fired as foreign minister in 1977, sentenced to death, and tortured. Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond ( August 4, 1938 - July 27, 2003) was a prominent Zairian politician. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Mobutu then commuted his sentence to life imprisonment, released him after a year, and later appointed him prime minister before fleeing the country in 1981 (although he returned to the fold in 1985, first as Zaire's ambassador to the U. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) S. , and later as foreign minister). 
In 1972 Mobutu tried unsuccessfully to have himself named president for life. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. President for Life is a Title assumed by some Dictators to remove their Term limit, in the hope that their Authority, legitimacy, and 
He initially nationalized foreign-owned firms and forced European investors out of the country. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government In many cases he handed the management of these firms to relatives and close associates who stole the companies' assets. This precipitated such an economic slump that Mobutu was forced by 1977 to try to woo foreign investors back.  Katangan rebels based in Angola invaded Zaire in 1977 in retaliation for Mobutu's support for anti-MPLA rebels. Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola - Partido do Trabalho is an Angolan political party France airlifted 1,500 Moroccan paratroopers into the country and repulsed the rebels, ending Shaba I. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Shaba I was a conflict between the neighbouring states of Zaire and Angola in 1977 and was a consequence of Zaire's support for the FLNA and UNITA The rebels attacked Zaire again, in greater numbers, in the Shaba II invasion of 1978. Shaba II was an invasion of the Shaba separatist movement FNLC (6500 Katangese gendarmes into the Zairian province of Shaba on 17 May 1978 The governments of Belgium and France deployed troops with logistical support from the United States and defeated the rebels again. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
He was re-elected in single-candidate elections in 1977 and 1984. He worked hard on little but to increase his personal fortune, which in 1984 was estimated to amount to US$5 billion, most of it in Swiss banks (however, many now suspect he was never a billionaire at all). Banking in Switzerland is characterized by stability privacy and protection of clients' assets and information This was almost equivalent to the country's foreign debt at the time, and, by 1989, the government was forced to default on international loans from Belgium. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those He owned a fleet of Mercedes-Benz vehicles that he used to travel between his numerous palaces, while the nation's roads rotted and many of his people starved. Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of luxury Automobiles Buses coaches and Trucks It is currently a division of the Infrastructure virtually collapsed, and many public service workers went months without being paid. Most money was siphoned off to Mobutu, his family, and top political and military leaders. Only the Special Presidential Division - on whom his physical safety depended - was paid adequately or regularly. A popular saying that the civil servants pretended to work while the state pretended to pay them expressed this grim reality.
Another feature of Mobutu's economic mismanagement, directly linked to the way he and his friends siphoned off so much of the country's wealth, was rampant inflation. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time The rapid decline in the real value of salaries strongly encouraged a culture of corruption and dishonesty among public servants of all kinds. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain
Mobutu's rule earned a reputation as one of the world's foremost examples of kleptocracy and nepotism. A kleptocracy (sometimes cleptocracy, occasionally kleptarchy) ( root klepto+kratein = rule by thieves) is a term applied to a Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability Close relatives and fellow members of the Ngbandi tribe were awarded with high positions in the military and government, and he groomed his eldest son, Nyiwa, to one day succeed him as President; however, this was thwarted by Nyiwa's death (caused by AIDS) in 1994. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) 
He was also the subject of a massive personality cult. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise The evening news on television was preceded by an image of him descending through clouds from the heavens, portraits of him adorned many public places, government officials wore lapels bearing his portrait, and he held such titles as "Father of the Nation," "Savior of the People," and "Supreme Combattant. A portrait is a painting, photograph, Sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person in which the face and its expression is predominant " At one point, in early 1975, the media was even forbidden from mentioning by name anyone but Mobutu; others were referred to only by the positions they held. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
In 1983, Mobutu promoted himself to the rank of Field Marshal. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) For other meanings see Field Marshal (disambiguation Field marshal is a military officer rank 
However, Mobutu was able to successfully capitalize on Cold War tensions and gain significant support from Western countries like the United States and international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic 
For the most part, Zaire enjoyed warm relations with the United States. The United States was the third largest donor of aid to Zaire (after Belgium and France), and Mobutu befriended several U. S. presidents, including Nixon, Reagan, and George H.W. Bush. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 Relations did cool significantly in 1974-1975 over Mobutu's increasingly radical rhetoric (which included his scathing denunciations of American foreign policy), and plummeted to an all-time low in the summer of 1975, when Mobutu accused the CIA of plotting his overthrow and arrested eleven senior Zairian generals and several civilians, and condemned (in absentia) a former head of the Central Bank. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all  However, many people viewed these charges with skepticism; in fact, one of Mobutu's staunchest critics, Nzongola-Ntalaja, speculated that Mobutu invented the plot as an excuse to purge the military of talented officers who might otherwise pose a threat to his rule.  In spite of these hindrances, the chilly relationship quickly thawed when both countries found each other supporting the same side during the Angolan Civil War. The Angolan Civil War began in Angola after the end of the war for independence from Portugal in 1975
Because of Mobutu's poor human rights record, the Carter Administration worked to put some distance between itself and the Kinshasa government; even so, Zaire was the recipient of nearly half the foreign aid Carter allocated sub-Saharan Africa. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 Kinshasa (formerly French: Léopoldville, formerly Dutch: Leopoldstad, German: Leopoldstadt) is the Capital Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries  During the first Shaba invasion, the United States played a relatively inconsequential role; its belated intervention consisted of little more than the delivery of non-lethal supplies. But during the second Shaba invasion, the U. S. played a much more active and decisive role by providing transportation and logistical support to the French and Belgian paratroopers that were deployed to aid Mobutu against the rebels. Carter echoed Mobutu's (unsubstantiated) charges of Soviet and Cuban aid to the rebels, until it was apparent that no hard evidence existed to verify his claims.  In 1980, the House of Representatives voted to terminate military aid to Zaire, but the Senate reinstated the funds, in response to pressure from Carter and American business interests in Zaire. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives 
Mobutu enjoyed a very warm relationship with the Reagan Administration (through financial donation); during Reagan's presidency, Mobutu visited the White House three times, and criticism of Zaire's human rights record by the U. The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, was a Republican administration headed by See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence S. was effectively muted. During a state visit by Mobutu in 1983, Reagan praised the Zairian strongman as "a voice of good sense and goodwill. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) "
Mobutu also had a cordial relationship with Reagan's successor, George H. W. Bush; he was the first African head of state to visit Bush at the White House. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence Even so, Mobutu's relationship with the U. S. radically changed shortly afterwards with the end of the Cold War; with the Soviet Union gone, there was no longer any reason to support Mobutu as a bulwark against communism. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Accordingly, the U. S. and other Western powers began pressuring Mobutu to democratize the regime. Regarding the change in U. S. attitude to his regime, Mobutu bitterly remarked: "I am the latest victim of the cold war, no longer needed by the U. S. The lesson is that my support for American policy counts for nothing. " In 1993, Mobutu was denied a visa by the U.S. State Department after he sought to visit Washington, D.C. Shortly after this, Mobutu was befriended by televangelist Pat Robertson, who promised to try to get the State Department to lift its ban on the African leader. A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, lit "a document that has been seen" is a document issued by a Country giving an individual Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Televangelism is the use of Television to communicate the Christian faith Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson (born March 22 1930 is a controversial Televangelist from the United States. 
Relations between Zaire and Belgium wavered between close intimacy and open hostility during the Mobutu years. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Relations soured early in Mobutu's rule over disputes involving the substantial Belgian commercial and industrial holdings in the country, but relations warmed soon afterwards. Mobutu and his family were received as personal guests of the Belgian monarch in 1968, and a convention for scientific and technical cooperation was signed that same year. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. During King Baudouin's highly successful visit to Kinshasa in 1970, a treaty of friendship and cooperation between the two countries was signed. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. However, Mobutu tore up the treaty in 1974 in protest of Belgium's refusal to ban an anti-Mobutu book written by left-wing lawyer Jules Chomé.  Mobutu's "Zairianization" policy, which expropriated foreign-held businesses and transferred their ownership to Zairians, added to the strain.
As the largest francophone country in sub-Saharan Africa - and the second-largest French-speaking country in the world, Zaire was of great strategic interest to France. The adjective francophone (alternately Francophone) means French -speaking typically as primary language whether referring to individuals groups or places Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  During the First Republic era, France tended to side with the conservative and federalist forces, as opposed to unitarists such as Lumumba. The Congo Crisis (1960-1965 was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence  Shortly after the Katangan secession was successfully crushed, Zaire (then called the Republic of the Congo), signed a treaty of technical and cultural cooperation with France. Katanga is a southern province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. During the presidency of de Gaulle, relations with the two countries gradually grew stronger and closer. The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France 's elected Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French In 1971, then-Finance Minister Valéry Giscard d'Estaing paid a visit to Zaire; later, after becoming President, he would develop a close personal relationship with President Mobutu, and became one of the regime's closest foreign allies. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The Minister for the Economy Industry and Employment ( ministre de l'Économie de l'Industrie et de l'Emploi) or Minister of Finance for short is one of the Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926 is a French centre - right politician who was President of the French During the Shaba invasions, France sided firmly with Mobutu: during the first Shaba invasion, France airlifted 1,500 Moroccan paratroopers to Zaire, and the rebels were repulsed; a year later, during the second Shaba invasion, France itself would send troops to aid Mobutu (along with Belgium). Shaba I was a conflict between the neighbouring states of Zaire and Angola in 1977 and was a consequence of Zaire's support for the FLNA and UNITA Shaba II was an invasion of the Shaba separatist movement FNLC (6500 Katangese gendarmes into the Zairian province of Shaba on 17 May 1978 
Mobutu's relationship with the Soviet Union was frosty and tense. Mobutu, a staunch anticommunist, was not anxious to recognize the Soviets; he remembered well their support, albeit mostly vocal, of Lumumba and the Simba rebels. However, to project a non-aligned image, he did renew ties in 1967; the first Soviet ambassador arrived and presented his credentials in 1968 (Mobutu did, however, join the U. S. in condemning the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia that year). Mobutu viewed the Soviet presence as advantageous for two reasons: it allowed him to maintain an image of non-alignment, and it provided a convenient scapegoat for problems at home. For example, in 1970, he expelled four Soviet diplomats for carrying out "subversive activities," and in 1971, twenty Soviet officials were declared persona non grata for allegedly instigating student demonstrations at Lovanium University. Persona non grata ( Latin, Plural: personae non gratae, also abbreviated PNG literally meaning "an unwelcome person" is a term used
Moscow was the only major world capital Mobutu never visited, although he did accept an invitation to do so in 1974; however, for reasons unknown, he cancelled the visit at the last minute, and toured the People's Republic of China and North Korea, instead.
Relations cooled further in 1975, when the two countries found themselves opposing different sides in the Angolan Civil War. This had a dramatic effect on Zairian foreign policy for the next decade; bereft of his claim to African leadership (Mobutu was one of the few leaders who denied the Marxist government of Angola recognition), Mobutu turned increasingly to the U. S. and its allies, adopting pro-American stances on such issues as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Israel's position in international organizations, etc.
Initially, Zaire's relationship with the People's Republic of China was no better than its relationship with the Soviet Union. Memories of Chinese aid to Mulele and other Maoist rebels in Kwilu province during the ill-fated Simba rebellion remained fresh in Mobutu's mind. He also opposed seating China at the United Nations. However, by 1972, he began to see the Chinese in a different light, as a counterbalance to both the Soviet Union as well as his intimate ties with the United States, Israel, and South Africa.  In November of 1972, Mobutu extended the Chinese (as well as East Germany and North Korea) diplomatic recognition. The following year, Mobutu paid a visit to Beijing, where he met personally with Chairman Mao and received promises of $100 million in technical aid. In 1974, Mobutu made a surprise visit to both China and North Korea, during the time he was originally scheduled to visit the Soviet Union. Upon returning home, both his politics and rhetoric became markedly more radical; it was around this time that Mobutu began criticizing Belgium and the United States (the latter for not doing enough, in Mobutu's opinion, to combat white minority rule in southern Africa), introduced the "obligatory civic work" program called salongo, and initiated "radicalization" (an extension of 1973's "Zairianization" policy). Mobutu even borrowed a title - the Helmsman - from Mao. Incidentally, late 1974-early 1975 was when his personality cult reached its peak.
China and Zaire shared a common goal in Central Africa, namely doing everything in their power to halt Soviet gains in the area. Accordingly, both Zaire and China covertly funneled aid to the FNLA (and later, UNITA) in order to prevent the MPLA, who were supported and augmented by Cuban forces, from coming to power. The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola - Partido do Trabalho is an Angolan political party Military of Cuba Military manpower The Cubans, who exercised considerable influence in Africa in support of leftist and anti-imperialist forces, were heavily sponsored by the Soviet Union during the period. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 In addition to inviting Holden Roberto and his guerrillas to Beijing for training, China provided weapons and money to the rebels. Zaire itself launched an ill-fated, pre-emptive invasion of Angola in a bid to install a pro-Kinshasa government, but was repulsed by Cuban troops. The expedition was a fiasco with far-reaching repercussions, most notably the Shaba I and Shaba II invasions, both of which China opposed. China sent military aid to Zaire during both invasions, and accused the Soviet Union and Cuba (who were alleged to have supported the Shaban rebels, although this was and remains speculation) of working to de-stabilize Central Africa.
In May 1990, due to the ending of the Cold War and a change in the international political climate, as well as economic problems and domestic unrest, Mobutu agreed to end the ban on other political parties and appointed a transitional government that would lead to promised elections, but he retained substantial powers. However, following riots in Kinshasa by unpaid soldiers, Mobutu brought opposition figures into a coalition government, but he still connived to retain control of the security services and important ministries. Kinshasa (formerly French: Léopoldville, formerly Dutch: Leopoldstad, German: Leopoldstadt) is the Capital Factional divisions led to the creation of two governments in 1993, one pro and one anti-Mobutu. The anti-Mobutu government was headed by Laurent Monsengwo and Étienne Tshisekedi of the UDPS. Étienne Tshisekedi wa Mulumba is the leader of the Union for Democracy and Social Progress ( UDPS) a political party in the Democratic Republic of the Congo The economic situation was still dreadful, and, in 1994, the two groups joined as the High Council of Republic - Parliament of Transition (HCR-PT). Mobutu appointed Kengo Wa Dondo, an advocate of austerity and free-market reforms, as prime minister. Léon Kengo Wa Dondo (born May 22 1935) served as the "first state commissioner" (a title equivalent to Prime minister) several times under In Economics, austerity is when a national government reduces its spending in order to pay back Creditors Austerity is usually required when a government's fiscal A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Mobutu was becoming increasingly physically frail and during one of his absences for medical treatment in Europe, Tutsis captured much of eastern Zaire. The Tutsi are one of three native Peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa
Mobutu was overthrown in the First Congo War by Laurent-Désiré Kabila, who was supported by the governments of Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda. The First Congo War (November 1996 to May 1997 ended when Zairean President Mobutu Sésé Seko was overthrown by rebel forces backed by foreign powers such as Laurent-Désiré Kabila ( November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Tutsis had long opposed Mobutu, due to his open support for Rwandan Hutu extremists responsible for the Rwandan genocide in 1994. The Tutsi are one of three native Peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa The Republic of Rwanda (ruːˈændə or /rəˈwɑːndə/ in English ɾwanda or in Kinyarwanda is a small Landlocked country in the The The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda 's minority Tutsis and the moderates of its Hutu majority When his government issued an order in November 1996 forcing Tutsis to leave Zaire on penalty of death, they erupted in rebellion. From eastern Zaire, with the support of President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda and Rwandan Minister of Defense Paul Kagame, they launched an offensive to overthrow Mobutu, joining forces with locals opposed to him as they marched west toward Kinshasa. Yoweri Kaguta Museveni ( (born c 1944 Ntungamo, Uganda) has been the President of Uganda since 29 January 1986 The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Paul Kagame (born October 23, 1957) came to prominence as the leader of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF whose invasion of Rwanda is often cited as the Ailing with cancer, Mobutu was unable to coordinate the resistance, which crumbled in front of the march, the army being more used to suppressing civilians than defending the large country. On May 16, 1997, following failed peace talks, the Tutsi rebels and other anti-Mobutu groups as the Alliance des Forces Democratiques pour la Liberation du Congo-Zaire (AFDL) captured Kinshasa. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Kinshasa (formerly French: Léopoldville, formerly Dutch: Leopoldstad, German: Leopoldstadt) is the Capital Zaire was renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Mobutu went into temporary exile in Togo but lived mostly in Morocco. TOGO was a Japanese roller coaster design company famous for inventing the Stand-up roller coaster. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Laurent-Désiré Kabila became the new president in the same day. Laurent-Désiré Kabila ( November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mobutu died on September 7, 1997 in exile in Rabat, Morocco, from prostate cancer. Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Rabat ( Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ) population 2 million ( 2007 estimate) is the Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa He is buried in Rabat, in the Christian cemetery known as "Pax. "
In December 2007, the National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of the Congo recommended returning his remains to the Congo and interring them in a mausoleum. The National Assembly is the lower house and main legislative political body of the Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 
According to Transparency International, Mobutu embezzled over $5 billion USD from his country, ranking him as the third-most corrupt leader in world history and the most corrupt African leader ever. Transparency International ( TI) is a leading international Non-governmental organization addressing corruption 
He is a constantly recurring theme in Advance fee fraud (419) scams in emails sent to anybody worldwide. An advance-fee fraud is a Confidence trick in which the target is persuaded to advance sums of money in the hope of realizing a very much larger gain  A 419er may claim to be Mobutu's wife, son, or daughter and promise a percentage of his wealth to the email recipient if the recipient does a few things first, including pay advance fees. Another cause of his unscrupulous legacy abroad is his record on human rights as well as mismanagement of the economy and the institutionalization of corruption.
Mobutu also was one of the men who was instrumental to bringing the famous Rumble in the Jungle fight between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman to Zaire on October 30th, 1974. The Rumble in The Jungle was a Boxing match pitting then world Heavyweight champion George Foreman against former world champion and challenger Biography Early life Cassius Clay Jr was born on January 17 1942 George Edward Foreman (born January 10, 1949) is an American two-time World Heavyweight Boxing Champion According to the documentary When We Were Kings. When We Were Kings is a 1996 documentary film directed by Leon Gast about the famous Rumble in the Jungle Heavyweight championship Promoter Don King promised both fighters $5,000,000 USD for the fight, and no other group would put up that kind of money for the fight. Don King may refer to Don King (boxing promoter Don King (photographer Don King (musician Mobutu, wanting to expand the image of the nation of Zaire, put up the nations money to do so. According to a quote in the film, Ali supposedly said: "Some countries go to war to get their names out there, and wars cost a lot more than $10,000,000. "
Mobutu was married twice. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** His first wife, Marie-Antoinette Mobutu, died of heart failure on October 22, 1977 in Genolier, Switzerland at age 36. Heart failure is a Cardiac condition that occurs when a problem with the structure or function of the Heart impairs its ability to supply Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Genolier is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation On May 1, 1980, he married his mistress, Bobi Ladawa, on the eve of a visit by Pope John Paul II, thus legitimizing his relationship in the eyes of the Church. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Pope Four of his sons from his first marriage died: Nyiwa (d. September 16, 1994), Konga (d. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) 1995), Kongulu (d. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Kongulu Mobutu (c 1970 - September 24, 1998) was a son of Mobutu Sese Seko, President of Zaire (now the Democratic September 24, 1998), and Manda (d. Events 622 - Prophet Muhammad completes his hegira from Mecca to Medina. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) November 27, 2004). Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "  A son from his second marriage, François Joseph Nzanga Mobutu Ngbangawe, was a candidate in the 2006 presidential elections and currently serves in the government as Minister of State for Agriculture. François Joseph Nzanga Mobutu Ngbangawe (born 1970 is a politician in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. General elections were held in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on July 30, 2006, the first multiparty elections in the country in 46 years A daughter, Yakpwa (nicknamed Yaki), was briefly married to a Belgian man named Pierre Janssen, who later wrote a book which described Mobutu's lifestyle in vivid detail. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those
Mobutu had seventeen children.
Mobutu was the subject of the three-part documentary Mobutu, King of Zaire by Thierry Michel. Mobutu King of Zaire (orig French title Mobutu roi du Zaïre) is a 1999 documentary film about Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, the former President Thierry Michel was born on October 13 1952 in Charleroi Belgium, an area known as "The Black Country" Mobutu was also featured in the feature film Lumumba, directed by Raoul Peck, which detailed the pre-coup and coup years from the perspective of Lumumba. Lumumba is a 2000 film directed by Raoul Peck centred around Patrice Lumumba in the months before and after the Democratic Republic of the Raoul Peck (b 1953 Port-au-Prince, Haiti) is an award-winning Haitian filmmaker of both documentary and feature films and a political activist.
Mobutu also might be considered as the inspiration behind some of the characters in the works of the poetry of Wole Soyinka, the novel A Bend in the River by V.S. Naipaul, and Anthills of the Savannah by Chinua Achebe. A Bend in the River (ISBN 0-8446-6631-9 is a 1979 novel by Nobel laureate V Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul Kt, TC (born August 17, 1932 in Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago) better known Anthills of the Savannah is a 1987 Novel by Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe.
Joseph Kasa Vubu
as President of the Republic of the Congo
|President of Zaire|
Before 1971 President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
as President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo