A mitogen is a chemical substance, usually some form of a protein, that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis. MAP kinase kinase kinase (or MAP3K or MEKK) is a Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase which acts upon MAP kinase kinase. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase ( Sic) is a Kinase Enzyme which phosphorylates Mitogen-activated protein kinase. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases ( are Serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that respond to extracellular stimuli ( Mitogens and regulate various cellular A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Cell division is a process by which a cell, called the parent cell divides into two or more cells called daughter cells. Mitosis is the process in which a Eukaryotic cell separates the Chromosomes in its Cell nucleus, into two identical sets in two daughter nuclei
Mitogens trigger signal transduction pathways in which mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved, leading to mitosis. In Biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another Mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases ( are Serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that respond to extracellular stimuli ( Mitogens and regulate various cellular
Plasma B cells can enter mitosis when they encounter an antigen matching their immunoglobulin. Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the Immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies. An antigen (from antibody-generating) or immunogen is a substance that prompts the generation of Antibodies and can cause an immune response Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily
Mitogens are often used to stimulate lymphocytes and therefore assess immune function. A lymphocyte is a type of White blood cell in the Vertebrate Immune system.
The most commonly used mitogens in clinical laboratory medicine are:
|Name||Acts upon T cells?||Acts upon B cells?|
|concanavalin A (conA)||yes||no|
|pokeweed mitogen (PWM)||yes||yes|
Lipopolysaccharide toxin from gram-negative bacteria is thymus independent. T cells belong to a group of White blood cells known as Lymphocytes, and play a central role in Cell-mediated immunity. B cells are Lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response, which is governed by Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA or phytohemagglutinin) is a Lectin found in plants especially Beans PHA actually consists of two closely related proteins called Concanavalin A is a Lectin Protein originally extracted from the Jack-bean Canavalia ensiformis. Lipopolysaccharides ( LPS) are large Molecules consisting of a Lipid and a Polysaccharide joined by a Covalent bond; they are found Pokeweed mitogen is a Mitogen derived from Phytolacca americana. Lipopolysaccharides ( LPS) are large Molecules consisting of a Lipid and a Polysaccharide joined by a Covalent bond; they are found A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low Gram-negative bacteria are those Bacteria that do not retain Crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol In Human anatomy, the thymus is an organ located in the upper Anterior portion of the chest cavity just behind the Sternum. They may directly activate B cells, regardless of their antigenic specificity. An antigen (from antibody-generating) or immunogen is a substance that prompts the generation of Antibodies and can cause an immune response
Plasma cells are terminally differentiated and therefore cannot undergo mitosis. Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the Immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies. In Developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized Cell type. Memory B cells can proliferate to produce more memory cells or plasma B cells. Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed following primary infection This is how the mitogen works, by inducing mitosis in B cells to cause them to divide, with some becoming plasma cells.
Mitogens also induce the activity of the PTGS2 enzyme. cyclooxygenase Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase, also known as PTGS2, is a human Gene. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins