|Regions with significant populations|
|Miskito, Spanish, Miskito Creole English|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Garifuna, Maroons, Afro-Caribbeans|
The Miskitos are indigenous people in Central America. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. Miskito is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua, especially in the North Atlantic Autonomous Region Mískito Coast Creole or Nicaragua Creole English is a language spoken in Nicaragua based on English. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals The Garinagu (singular Garifuna) are an ethnic group of mixed ancestry who live primarily in Central America. Maroons redirects here and may refer to Queensland state rugby league team. The African diaspora was the movement of Africans and their descendants to places throughout the world - predominantly to the Americas, then later to Europe, the For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Their territory extends from Cape Camarón, Honduras, to Rio Grande, Nicaragua along the Mosquito Coast. Cape Camarón (literally "Cape Shrimp" is a feature in Honduras. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America The Caribbean Mosquito Coast (or Miskito Coast) historically consisted of an area along the Atlantic coast of present-day Nicaragua, named after its native There is a native Miskito language, but large groups speak Miskito creole English, Spanish, and other languages. Miskito is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua, especially in the North Atlantic Autonomous Region Mískito Coast Creole or Nicaragua Creole English is a language spoken in Nicaragua based on English. The creole English came about through frequent contact with the British. Many are Christians. 
There are few (if any) pure-blooded Miskitos alive today, as over the centuries, escaped slaves have sought refuge, and intermarried with the Miskitos. Maroons redirects here and may refer to Queensland state rugby league team. Traditional Miskito society was highly structured, with a defined political structure. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions There was a king but he did not have total power. Instead, the power was split between him, a governor, a general, and by the 1750s, an admiral. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks of the highest Naval officers Historical information on kings is often obscured by the fact that many of the kings were semi-mythical. The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore"
Spanish settlers first began to arrive in Miskito land in 1787, but the Miskitos continued to dominate the area because of their numbers and the experienced military. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Also, the Miskito territory is very inaccessible, and was therefore little affected by the Spanish conquest of the area. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Their political structure allowed the Miskito people to retain their independence all through Spanish rule and through the Federation of Central American States. The Federal Republic of Central America, also known as the United Central Provinces of America, was a short-lived American State in Central America However, they were absorbed into Nicaragua in 1894. 
Due to British economic interest in Central America (particularly British Honduras, now called Belize), the Miskitos were able to acquire guns and other modern weapons. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. British Honduras was the former name of what is now the independent nation of Belize and was a British colony on the east coast of Central Belize (bəˈliːz formerly British Honduras, is a country in Central America. After Nicaragua was declared in 1821, combined Miskito-Zambo raiders began to attack Spanish settlements in Honduras, often to rescue enslaved Miskitos before they were shipped to Europe, but often also to enslave other Amerindians to sell to the British to work in Jamaica. Zambo is a Spanish term (the Portuguese language term is Cafuso) that was used in the Spanish Empire and continues to be used today Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. They also enslaved women from other tribes. Due to the allowance of polygamy and the added number of women from these slave raids, the Miskito population boomed. The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and These raids continued for many years after any animosity between Britain and Spain ended. The Miskitos, for a long time, considered themselves superior to other tribes of the area, whom they referred to as "wild". European dress and English names were popular among the Miskitos.
The Miskito Nation came into being as a state sometime before 1625. Its first recorded king was Oldman, son of an unnamed king of the Miskitos. Oldman (? - 1687 King of the Miskito Nation from 1625 until his death in 1687 was the son of a Miskito leader whose name is not recorded First contact with the English was made during the reign of King Oldman's father, who sent him to Britain where he received an audience with King Charles I. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution.
The Miskito king and the British concluded a formal Treaty of Friendship and Alliance in 1740 followed by the appointment of a resident Superintendent in 1749. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance was signed on March 16, 1740 between King Edward I of the Miskito Nation and the British. A protectorate was established over the Miskito Nation, often called the Mosquito Coast. In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect The Caribbean Mosquito Coast (or Miskito Coast) historically consisted of an area along the Atlantic coast of present-day Nicaragua, named after its native
The Miskito kingdom aided Britain during the American Revolutionary War by attacking Spanish colonies and gained several victories alongside the British. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" However, at the conclusion of the peace in 1783, Britain had to relinquish control over the coast. The British withdrawal was completed at the end of June 1787. Despite the withdrawal, Britain maintained an unofficial protectorate over the kingdom, often intervening to protect Miskito interests against Spanish encroachments.
From the middle of the nineteenth century onwards, British interest in the region began to wane. The state ceased to exist in 1894 when it was occupied by Nicaragua. It was restored by the British in July that same year but reoccupied by Nicaragua in August.
The Miskitos who lived in the Jinotega department, west of the Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte, were much different from the Miskitos who lived along the Caribbean coast. Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte ( Spanish for "Autonomous Region of the Northern Atlantic" sometimes shortened to RAAN is one of two Autonomous regions The Miskitos in Jinotega were Catholic and were not influenced by the British, they often traded with the Spanish-speaking mestizos from the Pacific coast. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin During the conflict in 1927-1933 between Augusto Sandino and the United States over the U.S. occupation of Nicaragua, the Miskitos were asked by both sides to provide food and transport. Augusto Nicolás Calderón Sandino ( May 18, 1895 &ndash February 21, 1934) was a Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States occupied Nicaragua from 1912-1933 and intervened in the country several times before that Many Miskitos in the Jinotega region joined Augusto Sandino and his troops in 1926. As opposed to the Miskitos of the Caribbean coast, the Miskitos of Jinotega had closer ties with Sandino as well as the FSLN, which organized agricultural cooperatives and built schools and health centers in the area. The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party.  The presence of the state in the regions where Miskitos lived was reinforced during the 1960s and the 1970s, leading to expropriation of native-held land. Expropriation refers to Confiscation of Private property with the stated purpose of establishing social equality. During these decades, the Miskitos' only encounter with national politics was to be firmly asked to vote for the National Liberal Party.
In the 1980s, the Communist Sandinista regime extended totalitarian influence over the region via its Comités de Defensa Sandinista. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private  In response, several Miskito groups eventually formed guerrillas in the 1980s, which carried on armed struggle against the central government. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc On 25 February 1982, Steadman Fagoth, one of the guerrilla leaders, took refuge in Honduras along with 3,000 Miskitos, while the Sandinistas began to denounce the activities of Contras in the Rio Coco zone. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. The Contras is a label given to the various rebel groups opposing Nicaragua 's FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional Sandinista Junta of National The Río Coco, formerly known as the Río Segovia is a river in southern Honduras and northern Nicaragua. The Miskitos occupied the village of San Carlos during the "Red December" (20-21 December 1982) during which several Sandinista soldiers were killed. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian In retaliation, the state massacred 30 Miskitos in the following days, prompting many of them to escape to Honduras to live in a difficult state of exile. Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return The state of emergency in the Rio Coco zone was proclaimed in 1983, and lasted until 1988. A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies  In 1983 the Misurasata movement, led by Brooklyn Rivera, split, with the breakaway Misura group of Stedman Fagoth allying itself more closely with the FDN, one of the first Contra commanded by Enrique Bermúdez. The Nicaraguan Democratic Force ( es Fuerza Democrática Nicaragüense, or FDN) was one of the earliest Contra groups formed on August 11 1981 Enrique Bermúdez Varela ( December 11, 1932 - February 16, 1991) was a Nicaraguan who founded and commanded the Nicaraguan A subsequent autonomy statute in September 1987 largely defused Miskito resistance.
In 1992, after the Sandinistas' defeat during the elections, the Miskitos signed an agreement with the Minister of the Interior, Carlos Hurtado, creating "security zones," preparing the return of the police forces to the region and the integration of 50 Miskitos to the police force. Brooklyn Rivera, one of the Miskito guerrilla leaders, became the director of the INDERA (Nicaraguan Institute of Development of Autonomous Regions), an illegal structure regarding the 1987 law on autonomy still in force in Nicaragua.  The INDERA was suppressed a few years later, allegedly because of opposition between Miskitos and other native groups
In 1998, Hurricane Mitch heavily affected regions where Miskitos live. Hurricane Mitch was one of the deadliest and most powerful Hurricanes on record in the Atlantic basin with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph (285 km/h
On 4 September 2007, Category 5 Hurricane Felix with peak sustained winds of 160 mph struck the coast near Punta Gorda, Nicaragua. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Hurricane Felix was a destructive Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale, that struck Central America in 2007 Damage and death toll estimates are unknown at this time but are likely considerable. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
Miskito Indians living on the coast of Nicaragua once hunted green turtles in the context of a traditional subsistence economy. "Chelonia" redirects here It is also the name of the Superorder uniting turtles tortoises and terrapins ( Testudines) with the "proto-turtle" Turtle fishing was combined with agriculture, hunting, fishing and gathering. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Subsistence activities were timed to harmonize with seasonal fluctuations and resource availability. A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather.
Turtles were traditionally harpooned. A harpoon is a long Spear -like instrument used in Fishing to catch fish or other large aquatic animals such as Whales It accomplishes this task by impaling The harpoon was eight to ten feet in length and attached to a strong line. Turtlemen traveled in a small, seagoing canoe, often in hazardous weather conditions, using complex mental maps and systems of navigation to locate the turtles. A canoe is a small narrow Boat, typically human-powered though it may also be powered by sails or small electric or gas motors A hunting party consisted of two men: a "strikerman" in the bow, and the "captain" in the stern. Turtles were intercepted in the area between their sleeping shoals and feeding banks as they surfaced for air. A shoal or sandbar (also called sandbank) is a somewhat Linear Landform within or extending into a body of Water, When the turtle had been harpooned, it would pull the canoe along at high speeds in an effort to escape, until it tired and could be pulled alongside the canoe.
Exposure to international markets led to a change in hunting methods. Hunting activities became market focused instead of subsistence focused. Commercial enterprises were established by foreign companies, and the skills of Miskito turtlemen were utilized to facilitate intensive harvesting of green turtle populations. A series of economic booms and busts led to serious depletion of green turtle populations, and villagers were confronted with rising social tensions and an increased dependence on a scarce resource