A minibus or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. A motor Vehicle is a Machine which incorporates a motor (sometimes known as an Engine) and which is used for Transportation A minivan, multi-purpose vehicle (abbreviated MPV) people-carrier, people-mover or multi-utility vehicle (shortened Minibuses have a seating capacity of between 8 and 30 seats. Seating capacity refers to the number Larger minibuses may be called midibuses or light buses. OptareSolojpg|thumb|right|An Optare Solo midibus]]A midibus is a classification of single decker buses which are identified as neither being Minibuses or full Minibuses are typically front-engined step entrance vehicles, although low floor minibuses do exist.
Minibuses are used for a variety of reasons. The Toyota Coaster is a Minibus produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. In a public transport role, they can be used as fixed route transit buses, airport buses, fexible demand responsive transport vehicles, share taxis or large taxicabs. A transit bus (US (also known as a commuter bus, city bus, or public bus) is a Bus used for Public transport purposes An Airport bus, or airport shuttle bus or airport shuttle is a Bus used to transport people to/from or within Airports These vehicles will usually Demand responsive transport or demand responsive transit (DRT is "an advanced user-oriented form of Public transport characterised by flexible routing and scheduling Types of vehicle Share taxis come in various Vehicle types including Minibuses Midibuses covered Pickup trucks Station wagons A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of Public transport for a single passenger or small group of passengers typically for a non-shared ride Accessible minibuses can also be used for paratransit type services, by local authorities, transit operators, hospitals or charities. Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules Private uses of minibuses can include corporate transport, charter buses, tour buses. A Very Important Person, or VIP is a person who is accorded special privileges due to his or her status or importance For other uses see Tour bus. Tour Bus (תור בוס is an Israeli transportation company and a major Shareholder in several Schools, sports clubs, community groups and charities may also use minibuses for private transport. Individual owners may use reduced seating minibuses as cheap recreational vehicles. In North American English the term recreational vehicle, and its acronym RV, are generally used to refer to an enclosed piece of equipment dually used as both
There are many different types and configurations of minibuses, due to historical and local differences, and usage. Minibus designs can be classified in three main groups, with a general increase in seating capacity with each type:
Van conversion minibuses, sometimes called 'factory models', are minibuses created simply by modifying an existing van design. The Ford Transit is a range of Panel vans minibuses and pickup trucks produced by the Ford Motor Company in Europe. A van is a kind of vehicle used for Transporting goods or groups of people As such, van conversions are often performed by the van manufacturer. Van conversions involve adding windows to the bodywork, and seating to the cargo area. Van conversion minibuses outwardly look the same shape as the parent van, and the driver and front passenger cabin remains unchanged, retaining the driver and passenger doors. Access to the former cargo area for passengers is through the standard van side sliding door, or the rear doors. These may be fitted with step equipment to make boarding easier. Optional extras to van converted minibuses can include the addition of a rollsign for transit work, and/or a full height walk-in door, for passenger access to the former cargo area. A rollsign, roll sign, bus blind, destination blind or destination film is a mechanical display used For public transport use, this door may be an automatic concertina type. A concertina is a free-reed Musical instrument, like the various Accordions and the Harmonica. For other uses, this may be a simple plug style coach door.
Examples of van conversion minibuses are:
Another method of building a minibus is for a second stage manufacturer to build a specific body for fitting to a semi-completed van product. The Ford Transit is a range of Panel vans minibuses and pickup trucks produced by the Ford Motor Company in Europe. Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of luxury Automobiles Buses coaches and Trucks It is currently a division of the The Mercedes-Benz Sprinter is a delivery Van, Chassis cab and Minibus built by Daimler AG in Düsseldorf, Germany and The Toyota Hiace is a motor vehicle produced by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota. The Volkswagen Crafter, introduced in 2006 is the largest 3 to 5 tonne van sold by Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles. The Ford Transit is a range of Panel vans minibuses and pickup trucks produced by the Ford Motor Company in Europe. EZ7136jpg|thumb|200px|A Carlyle-bodied Dart owned by New World First Bus in Hong Kong A second stage manufacturer, known in the industry as "body-builder" builds such products as Bus and Truck A van is a kind of vehicle used for Transporting goods or groups of people These can produce a higher seating capacity than simple van conversions. Often the second stage manufacturer is a bus manufacturer. Bus manufacturing describes the Manufacturing of Buses and coaches.
In a cutaway type minibus, a large passenger cabin body with a full height access door is fitted to a cutaway van chassis. Cutaway van chassis are used by Second stage manufacturers for a wide range of completed Motor vehicles primarily In these designs, as with van conversions, the driver and front passenger cabin remains unchanged.
In a van-derived minibus, a cabin body is applied to a van chassis encompassing the drivers area. These designs can either still retain some outward signs of the original van, such as the bonnet and grille. Other designs are visually a complete bus design, and it is merely the chassis underneath that is from the van design. A chassis (plural "chassis" (ˈʃæːsiː ˈtʃæːsiː consists of a framework that supports an inanimate object analogous to an Animal 's
The van derived approach can give the advantage of higher seating capacity or more room for passenger comfort, through a larger cabin area. There is also the advantage of being able to have the drivers seat positioned in a small cubicle, next to the main passenger entrance, allowing the driver to collect fares in a transit bus role. Some next generation minibus designs with their origins in the cutaway chassis body build method, or the van conversion method, have been extended whereby parts of the driver cabin and exterior panels are custom built for the minibus model, further altering the visual appearance of the original van bodywork.
Examples of body built minibuses are:
A next generation approach to the van-derived or cutaway chassis approach, is for manufacturers to produce an integral design, where the whole vehicle is purposely designed and built for use as a minibus. Busette was the first very small School bus to be built on a Cutaway van chassis. The Plaxton Beaver, originally known as the Reeve Burgess Beaver, is a minibus body built by Plaxton. The Ford Transit is a range of Panel vans minibuses and pickup trucks produced by the Ford Motor Company in Europe. Freight Rover was a British commercial vehicle manufacturer based in Birmingham, England. The Optare CityPacer was a minibus body typically seating 25 produced by Optare from 1985 to 1992 The is a line of light-duty Commercial vehicle produced by Isuzu. The Nissan Civilian ( Kana:日産・シビリアン is a Minibus built by Nissan & UD. This is usually done by an integral bus manufacturer, although large automotive groups also produce their own models. Bus manufacturing describes the Manufacturing of Buses and coaches. These designs are often available in long high capacity versions, and may attract different designations, such as midibus, or light bus. OptareSolojpg|thumb|right|An Optare Solo midibus]]A midibus is a classification of single decker buses which are identified as neither being Minibuses or full
Examples of purpose built minibuses are:
Following the invention of low-floor technology, some low-floor purpose built minibuses have been created. The Hino Liesse (kana日野・リエッセ is a light-duty bus built by Hino. The Isuzu Erga Journey (kanaいすゞ・ジャーニ is a minibus built by Isuzu. The MCW Metrorider, launched by MCW at the 1986 Motor Show was a Midibus designed and built by Metro Cammell Weymann between 1986 and 1989 OptareSolojpg|thumb|right|An Optare Solo midibus]]A midibus is a classification of single decker buses which are identified as neither being Minibuses or full The Nissan Diesel RN (kana日産ディーゼル・RN is a one-step light-duty bus built by Nissan Diesel. The Nissan Civilian ( Kana:日産・シビリアン is a Minibus built by Nissan & UD. The Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa ( Kana:三菱ふそう・ローザ is a Minibus built by Mitsubishi Fuso. The Toyota Coaster is a Minibus produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. The Hino Poncho (kana日野・ポンチョ is a non-step low-floor light-duty bus built by Hino. Some offer a low floor access through a centre door. Some short versions of low floor midibuses are sometimes also called minibuses.
Some countries may require an additional class of driving license over a normal private car license, and some may require a full commercial driver's license. The Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Midi ( Kana:三菱ふそう・エアロミディ is a medium-duty bus built by Mitsubishi Fuso. The Optare Solo is a low floor Midibus manufactured by Optare in Leeds, UK since 1997 The Optare Alero is a Low-floor integral minibus built by Optare since 2001 The Hino Poncho (kana日野・ポンチョ is a non-step low-floor light-duty bus built by Hino. The Nissan Diesel RN (kana日産ディーゼル・RN is a one-step light-duty bus built by Nissan Diesel. A driver's license, driver license, driver licence, or driving licence is an official document which states that a person may operate a A commercial driver's license ( CDL) is required in the United States to operate any type of vehicle with a gross weight of 26001 lb (11793 kg or over including The need for such a license may depend on:
Van converted minibuses with sliding access doors
A next generation cutaway chassis design, with more integrated bodywork
Step equipped van converted minibus
Van converted minibuses as light transit buses
Optare Alero integral low floor minibus
Van conversion minibus with full height entrance door
Hino Poncho front engined low floor minibus
Optare Solo low floor midibuses
Optare MetroRider integral minibus
Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Midi ME low floor minibus
Isuzu body built minibus
Nissan Diesel RN partially low floor light bus