Military refers to the people of an organisation authorised by its nation to use force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its independence by repulsing actual or perceived threats. The Praetorian Guard ( Latin: PRÆTORIANI was a special force of Guards used by Roman Emperors Before being appropriated An English Noun The English noun people has two distinct fields of application as a countable noun, a group of Humans An organisation (or organization &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons Threat of force in Public international law is a situation between states described by British lawyer Ian Brownlie as an express or implied As an adjective the term military is used to specifically associate any concept or aspect that is used in reference to the military as an organisation. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the The term "concept" is traced back to 1554–60 ( l conceptum - something conceived but what is today termed "the classical theory of concepts" is the theory of Aristotle A military organization is a way of structuring the armed forces of a State as a need to offer Military capability required by the National defence policy In this sense militaries often function as societies within societies, by having their own military communities, military economies, military education, military medicine and other aspects of a functioning civilian society. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions A military-industrial complex (MIC is a concept commonly used to refer to Policy relationships between Governments national Armed forces, and industrial Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles The term military medicine has a number of potential connotations Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning Society as opposed to the force-backed
The profession of soldiering as part of a military group is older than recorded history itself. A soldier is a general English term that refers to a member of a land component of National Armed forces. Some of the most enduring images of the classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading The Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramesses II's reign and is celebrated in bas-relief on his monuments. } The Battle of Kadesh (also Qadesh) took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under  A thousand years later the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he was buried with an army of terracotta soldiers. Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces The Terracotta Army ( are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China.  The Romans were dedicated to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and [[Victory column|columns]. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC A treatise is a formal lengthy systematic Discourse on some subject A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental Archway, in theory built to celebrate a victory in war actually used to celebrate a ruler
In the modern era, world wars and countless other major conflicts have changed the employment of the militaries beyond recognition to their ancient participants. The term modern period or modern era (sometimes also modern times) is the period of history that followed the Middle Ages between c Empires have come and gone; states have grown and declined. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (known popularly as The History) was written by English Historian Enormous social changes have been wrought, and military power continues to dominate international relations. The role of the military today is as central to global societies as it ever was.
The first recorded use of military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1585.  It comes from the Latin militaris (from Latin miles meaning "soldier") but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- - going in a body or mass The word is now identified as denoting someone that is skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service or in warfare. 
As an adjective military originally applied only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general and anything to do with their profession.  The names of both the Royal Military Academy (1741) and United States Military Academy (1802) reflect this. "USMA" redirects here For other uses see USMA (disambiguation The United States Military Academy (also known as USMA, However, at about the time of Napoleonic wars "military" begun to be applied to armed forces as a whole and in the 21st century expressions like "military service", "military intelligence" and "military history" reflect this broader meaning. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions Military service in its simplest sense is service by an individual or group in an Army or other military organization whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary Military intelligence (abbreviated MI int Commonwealth, or intel Military history is a Humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity
Military science is the study of warfare in all its aspects. Military Science is the process of translating National defence policy to produce Military capability by employing Military scientists including By focusing on aspects of warfare—for instance its technical, psychological and practical components—it aims to improve the prospect of success in combat.
Armed forces may be organized as standing forces—the regular army)—which describes a professional army that is engaged in no other profession than preparing for and engaging in warfare. A military organization is a way of structuring the armed forces of a State as a need to offer Military capability required by the National defence policy A military reserve, tactical reserve, or strategic reserve (and normally called only as the/his/their " Reserve /( s)" or sometimes as The Regular Army is a name given to the permanent force of a country's army that is maintained during peacetime In contrast there is the citizen army. A citizen army (also known as a militia or reserve army) is only mobilized as needed. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service A military reserve force is a military organization Its advantage lies in the fact that it is dramatically less expensive (in terms of wealth, manpower and opportunity cost) for the organizing society to support. A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions The disadvantage is that such a "citizen army" is less well trained and organized.
A compromise between the two has a small cadre of professional NCOs and officers who act as a skeleton for a much larger force. A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer) also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an Armed force When war comes this skeleton is filled out with conscripts or reservists (former full-time soldiers who volunteer for a small stipend to occasionally train with the cadre to keep their military skills intact) who form the wartime unit. This balances the pros and cons of each basic organization and allows the formation of huge armies (in terms of millions of combatants) necessary in modern large scale warfare.
A military doctrine is how military forces were, and are used in conflicts - the method of combining command assets, forces skills and technology towards achievement of tangible goals and objectives of the war, campaign, battle, engagement, action or a duel. Military strategy is a National defence policy implemented by Military organisations to pursue desired strategic goals Derived from the Greek Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating Military doctrine is the concise expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns major operations Battles and engagements It is a guide War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units In the Military sciences a military campaign is a term applied to large scale, long duration significant Military strategy plan incorporating As practiced from the 11th to 20th centuries in Western societies a duel is an engagement in combat between two individuals with matched weapons in accordance with their combat  The line between strategy and tactics is not easily blurred, although deciding which is being discussed had sometimes been a matter of personal judgement by some commentators, and military historians. The management of forces at the level of organisation between strategic and tactical is called operational warfare.
One of the oldest military publications is The Art of War by the Chinese philosopher Sun Tzu. The Art of War ( is a Chinese military Treatise that was written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. This article is a list of Chinese philosophers. Taoist philosophers Laozi (Lao Tzŭ illusive founder of Taoism Sun Tzu ( ("Master Sun" also called Sun Wu ( is traditionally considered to be the author of The Art of War (also simply called the  Written in the 6th century BC, the 13-chapter book has had a huge influence on Eastern and Western military planning, business tactics and beyond. The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC.
Both the Classical Greeks and the Romans wrote prolifically on military campaigning. Among the best-known works are Julius Caesar's commentaries on the Gallic Wars and the Roman Civil war—written about 50 BC. The Gallic Wars were a series of Military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes, lasting from The Roman civil war of 49 BC sometimes called Caesar's Civil War, is one of the last conflicts within the Roman Republic. Year 50 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Two major works on tactics come from the late Roman period: Taktike Theoria by Aelianus Tacticus and De Re Militari ("On military matters") by Vegetius. Aelianus Tacticus ( Gr) was a Greek Military writer of the 2nd century resident at Rome. De Re Militari ( Latin "Concerning Military Matters" is a treatise of Roman warfare and military principles written in the late Roman Empire, Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus was a writer of the Later Roman Empire. Taktike Theoria examined Greek battle methods and was most influential in the Byzantine world and during the Golden Age of Islam. De Re Militari formed the basis of European military tactics until the late 17th century. Perhaps its most enduring maxim is "let he who desires peace prepare for war. "
In his seminal book On War the Prussian general and leading expert on modern military strategy Carl von Clausewitz defined military strategy as "the employment of battles to gain the end of war. Vom Kriege (fɔm ˈkʁiːgə is a book on War and Military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz, written mostly Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (ˈklaʊzəvɪts ( July 1, 1780 – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier military historian " According to Clausewitz "strategy forms the plan of the War, and to this end it links together the series of acts which are to lead to the final decision, that is to say, it makes the plans for the separate campaigns and regulates the combats to be fought in each. " Hence, he placed political aims above military goals, ensuring civilian control of the military. Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and Political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's Military strategy was one of a triumvirate of "arts" or "sciences" that governed the conduct of warfare: the others being military tactics, the execution of plans and manœuvering of forces in battle; and military logistics, the maintenance of an army. Military tactics ( Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army are the techniques for using weapons or military units in combination for engaging and defeating Military Logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces
Military tactics can take the form of ambushes, encirclements, bomb and bombardment attacks, frontal assaults, air assaults, hit-and-run (used mainly by guerilla forces) and, in some cases, suicide attacks. Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most An ambush is a long-established military tactic, in which the aggressors (the ambushing force use Concealment to attack a passing enemy Encirclement is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and surrounded by enemy forces The Military tactic of frontal assault is a direct hostile movement of forces towards enemy forces in a large number in an attempt to overwhelm the enemy An Air Assault is a Tactical or Operational manoeuvre of an Infantry unit Airlifted by Helicopters usually to fulfil an Aerial Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical Doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory but to inflict damage on a target and immediately Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons Often, deception, in the form of military camouflage or misdirection using decoys, is used to confuse the enemy. Camouflage became an essential part of modern Military tactics after the increase in accuracy and rate of fire of weapons during the 19th century A decoy is usually a person device or event meant as a distraction to conceal what an individual or a group might be looking for A major military tactic that came to prominence in the 19th and early 20th century is trench warfare. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static This was mainly employed in World War I in the Gallipoli campaign and the Western Front. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914 the German army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining Trench warfare often turned to a stalemate, because in order to attack an enemy entrenchment soldiers had to run through an exposed "no man's land" under heavy fire from an entrenched enemy. No man's land is a term for land that is not occupied or more specifically land that is under dispute between countries or areas that will not occupy it because of fear or uncertainty
Military logistics is the management and planning of the supply chain. Military Logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services The broad
Military transport is part of logistics. It could pertain to equipment trans-shipped via a sister service, an individual detached for a technical school operated by a sister service, or the travel orders and authorization of such an individual to proceed via a sister services vehicles, as well as the loan of vehicles (staff cars, AFVs, military trucks) operating from the primary base command. A staff car is a vehicle used by a senior Military officer, and is part of their country's White fleet. An armoured fighting vehicle ( AFV) is a military Vehicle, protected by armour and armed with Weapons Most AFVs are equipped for driving in rugged
Engineering services are also part of logistics. The maintenance of weapons in the field, the recovery of defective and derelict machinery, the repair and modification of such equipment and the life-extension programs undertaken to allow continued use of equipment subject to deterioration are all part of the provision of supplies and materials for warfare.
Munition services are part of logistics. Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term derived from the French language la munition which These deal with the safe storage and transport of weapons and explosives to the theatre, the provision of fuses, detonators and warheads at the point where operational troops will assemble the charge, projectile, bomb or shell. In Warfare a theater or theatre is defined as a specific geographical area of conduct of armed conflict bordered by areas where no combat is taking place They may also be required to disarm and demolish weapons that are unreliable or that have been returned from the field unexpended and return them to storage temporarily.
When Stone Age man first took a sliver of flint to tip his spear, he was applying technology to improve his weaponry. This article lists military technology items devices and methods The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons Since then, the advance of mankind and the advance in weaponry has been irretrievably linked. Stone weapons gave way to bronze, and then bronze to iron. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. With each technological change has come an advantage: sharper weapons, harder weapons, more durable weapons.
The Greeks and Romans brought technology to the front with the invention and development of siege engines. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial A siege engine is a device that is designed to Break or circumvent City walls and other Fortifications in Siege warfare. Then came the age of chivalry, with knights—mounted on destriers and encased in ever-more sophisticated armour—dominating the field. Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. The destrier is the most well-known war horse of the medieval era. Armour (or armor) is protective covering most commonly manufactured from metals to prevent damage from being inflicted to an individual or a vehicle through use of direct contact In the meantime, in China, gunpowder had been invented and was increasingly being used in military applications. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes It was the arrival of cannon in Europe and advanced versions of the long bow and cross bow—which all had armour-piercing capability—that put an end to the dominance of the armoured knight. | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural To see other senses of this word see Longbow (disambiguation. A crossbow is a Weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles often called bolts After the long bow (which required great skill and strength to use), came the musket, which could be used effectively by anyone after short training. A musket is a muzzle -loaded Smoothbore Long gun, which is intended to be fired from the shoulder In time the successors to muskets and cannon, in the form of rifles and artillery, would become core battlefield technology. A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine
As the speed of technological advance accelerated in the civilian world so warfare became more industralised. Industrial warfare is a period in the History of warfare ranging roughly from the start of the Industrial Revolution to the beginning of the Information Age The newly-invented machine gun and repeating rifle brought new fire-power to the battlefield and, in part, explains the high casualty rates of the American Civil War. For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. A repeating rifle is a single barreled Rifle containing multiple rounds of Ammunition. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The next breakthrough was the highly-mobile, recoilless, field-gun—the French Soixante-Quinze—in the late 1800s. The French 75mm field gun was a quick-firing field Artillery piece developed in 1894 and which saw widespread service in World War I and served into During World War I the need to break the deadlock of the trenches saw the rapid development of many new technologies, particularly in military aviation and tanks. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Military aviation is the use of Aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of conducting or enabling warfare including national airlift ( Cargo) capacity A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical
World War II, perhaps, marked the most frantic period of weapons development in the history of humanity. The AIM-7 Sparrow is a medium-range Semi-active radar homing Air-to-air missile operated by the United States Air Force, United States Navy An air-to-air missile ( AAM) is a guided Missile fired from an Aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Massive numbers of new designs and concepts were fielded and all existing technologies were improved between 1939 and 1945. It was during this time that the atomic bomb was created. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.
After World War II, with the onset of the Cold War, the constant technological development of new weapons was institutionalized as participants engaged in a constant race to develop weapons and counter-weapons. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the This constant state of weapons development continues into the modern era and remains a constant draw on the resources of many nations.
Ultimately, the MIRV ICBM and the Tsar Bomb are considered the most destructive weapons invented. A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle ( MIRV) is a collection of Nuclear weapons carried on a single Intercontinental ballistic missile Tsar Bomba (ru Царь-бомба literally " King Bomb" is the Western name for the RDS-220 hydrogen bomb (codenamed "Иван" (Ivan by its
Military history is often considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of proper militaries. Military history is a Humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity Conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of Needs values and interests It differs somewhat from the history of war with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology, governments, and geography. Military history is a Humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena
Military history has a number of purposes. One main purpose is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes so as to more effectively wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of tradition which is used to create cohesive military forces. Still another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively.
The relationship between the military and the society it serves is a complicated and ever-evolving one. Much depends on the nature of the society itself and whether it sees the military as important (as for example in time of threat or war) or a burdensome expense (as typified by defence cuts in time of peace).
Militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or Doctrine (Latin doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or "a body of teachings quot or "instructions" taught principles or positions as the A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government.
Under the justification of potential application of force, militarism asserts that a civilian population is dependent upon — and thereby subservient to —the needs and goals of its military. In Physics, a force is whatever can cause an object with Mass to Accelerate. A civilian under International humanitarian law is a person who is not a member of his or her Country 's Armed forces. Militarism is sometimes contrasted with the concepts of comprehensive national power and soft power and hard power. Comprehensive National Power ( CNP) ( Chinese: 综合国力 Pinyin: zōnghé guólì is a putative measure important in the contemporary political thought Soft power is a term used in International relations theory to describe the ability of a Political body such as a State, to indirectly influence the behavior Hard power is a term describing power obtained from the utilisation of military and/or economic power to influence the behaviour or interests of other political bodies
Most nations have a separate code of law which regulates certain activities allowed only in war, and provides a code of law applicable only to a soldier in war (or 'in uniform' during peacetime). A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of Private law. A soldier is a general English term that refers to a member of a land component of National Armed forces. A uniform is a set of standard Clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity An early exponent was Hugo Grotius, whose Rights of War and Peace (1625) had a major impact of the humanitarian development of warfare. Hugo Grotius or Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; ( Delft, 10 April 1583 Rostock, 28 August 1645 His theme was echoed by Gustavus Adolphus, the Swedish king-general (1594–1632). For the other Swedish kings known as Gustavus Adolphus see Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden or Gustav VI Adolf of Sweden
Modern-day ethical constraints are much more developed. For instance, the Geneva Conventions concern themselves with the treatment of civilians and prisoners of war. The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian International protocols restrict or ban the use of certain weapons, notably nuclear and biological warfare. International conventions define what constitutes a war crime and provides for prosecution of war crimes. Individual countries also have elaborate codes of military practice, an example being the United States' Uniform Code of Military Justice. The Uniform Code of Military Justice ( UCMJ,,) is the foundation of Military law in the United States.
Military actions are sometimes justified by furthering a humanitarian cause. The term military humanism is used to refer to such actions. Military humanism is the term used to describe a situation whereby force and violence are used to further a Humanitarian cause
Antimilitarism is a doctrine opposed to war between states in particular and, of course, militarism. Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the Anarchist and more globally in the Socialist movement which may be both characterized as Internationalist Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or Following Hegel's exploration of the relationship between history and violence, antimilistarists argue that there are different types of violence, some of which can be said to be legitimate others non-legitimate. Anarcho-syndicalist Georges Sorel advocated the use of violence as a form of direct action, calling it "revolutionary violence", which he opposed in Reflections on Violence (1908) to the violence inherent in class struggle. Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Georges Eugène Sorel ( 2 November, 1847 &ndash 29 August, 1922) was a French Philosopher and theorist of Revolutionary Direct action is political action which happens outside normal political channels via indirect actions such as electing representatives. Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective Sorel thus followed the International Workers' Association (IWA, aka the First International) theorization of propaganda of the deed. Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a Concept that promotes physical violence against
War, as violence, can be distinguished into inter-states' war and civil war, in which case class struggle is, according to antimilitarists theorists, a primordial component. A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state Hence, Marx's influence on antimilitarist doctrine will come upon as no surprise, even though it would be doubtful to make Marx accountable for the whole antimilitarist tradition. However, it would also be unwise to believe in the myth of an eternal antimilitarist spirit, present in all places and time, since modern military institution is a historic achievement, related to the formation, in the 18th and 19th centuries, of nation-states. Napoleon's invention of conscription is a fundamental progress in the organization of state armies. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority Later, Prussian militarism would be exposed by 19th century social theorists. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification
Soldiers and armies have been at the heart of popular culture since the beginnings of recorded history. In addition to the countless images of military leaders in heroic poses from antiquity, they have been an enduring source of inspiration in literature. Not all of this has been entirely complementary and the military have been lampooned or ridiculed as often as they have been idolised. The classical Greek writer, Aristophanes, devoted an entire comedy, the Lysistrata, to a strike organised by military wives where they withhold sex from their husbands to keep them from going to war. Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης ˌærɪˈstɒfəniːz in English ca Lysistrata ( Attic Greek: Λυσιστράτη Lysistratê, Doric Greek: Λυσιστράτα Lysistrata) loosely translated to "she
In Medieval Europe, tales of knighthood and chivalry - the officer class of the period - captured the popular imagination. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. Writers and poets like Taliesin, Chrétien de Troyes and Thomas Mallory wrote tales of derring-do featuring Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot and Galahad. Taliesin (c 534 – c 599 (spelled as Taliessin in Alfred Lord Tennyson 's Idylls of the King and in some subsequent works was a Brythonic Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and Trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. Sir Thomas Malory (c 1405 – 14 March 1471 was an English writer the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur. Arthur is a common male name meaning " Bear -like" believed to possibly be descended from the Roman surname Artorius (" Plowman Guinevere was the legendary Queen consort of King Arthur. She was most famous for her love affair with Arthur's chief knight Sir Lancelot, which first In the Arthurian legend, Sir Lancelot ( Lancelot du Lac, also Launcelot) is one of the Knights of the Round Table. Sir Galahad is a knight of King Arthur 's Round Table and one of the three achievers of the Holy Grail in Arthurian legend. (Even today, books and films about the Arthurian legend and the Holy Grail continuing to appear. According to Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish plate or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper, said to possess miraculous powers } A century or so later, in the hands of writers such as Jean Froissart, Miguel Cervantes and William Shakespeare, the fictional knight Tirant lo Blanch and the real-life condottieri John Hawkwood would be juxtaposed against the fantastist Don Quixote and the carousing Sir John Falstaff. Jean Froissart (c 1337 &ndash c 1405 was one of the most important of the Chroniclers of Medieval France. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist William Shakespeare ( baptised Tirant lo Blanc is an epic romance written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, supposedly finished by Martí Condottieri (singular condottiero, rarely condottiero) were Mercenary leaders employed by the Italian City-states from the Late Middle Sir John Hawkwood (1320 &ndash 1394 was an English Mercenary or condottiero in 14th century Italy. es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Sir John Falstaff is a Fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare as a companion to Prince Hal the future King Henry V. In just one play, Henry V, Shakespeare provides a whole range of military characters, from cool-headed and clear-sighted generals, to captains, and common soldiery.
Emperor Augustus Caesar in a martial pose (1st century)
The Flight of Pompey after Pharsalus, by Jean Fouquet
Medieval view: Richard II of England meets rebels
"The Cruel Practices of Prince Rupert" (1643)
The rapid growth of movable type in the late 16th and early 17th centuries saw an upsurge in private publication. Augustus of Prima Porta is a 204m high marble statue of Augustus Caesar which was discovered on April 20, 1863 in the Villa of Livia at Jean Fouquet or Jehan Fouquet (1420 - 1481 was the most important French painter of the 15th century a master of both panel painting and manuscript Sir John Hawkwood (1320 &ndash 1394 was an English Mercenary or condottiero in 14th century Italy. The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the Cathedral church ( Duomo) of Florence, Italy. Sir John Falstaff is a Fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare as a companion to Prince Hal the future King Henry V. Eduard Theodor Ritter von Grützner ( May 26, 1846 &ndash April 2, 1925) was a German painter and professor of art especially noted Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine Duke of Bavaria (German Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog von Bayern) commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17 Movable type is the system of Printing and Typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation Political pamphlets became popular, often lampooning military leaders for political purposes. A pamphlet is an unbound Booklet (that is without a hard cover or binding) A pamphlet directed against Prince Rupert of the Rhine is a typical example. Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine Duke of Bavaria (German Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog von Bayern) commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17 During the 19th century, irreverence was at its height and for every elegant military gentleman painted by the master-portraitists of the European courts (for example, Gainsborough, Goya and Reynolds), there are the sometimes affectionate and sometimes savage caricatures of Rowland and Hogarth. Thomas Gainsborough (christened 14 May 1727 &ndash died 2 August 1788 was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA (16 July 1723 &ndash 23 February 1792 was the most important and influential of 18th century English painters Thomas Rowlandson ( July 14, 1756 – April 22, 1827) was an English artist and Caricaturist. William Hogarth (10 November 1697 &ndash 26 October 1764 was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic
This continues in the following century, with publications like Punch in the British Empire and Le Père Duchesne in France, poking fun at the military establishment. Le Père Duchêne ("Old Man Duchesne" is the title of a Newspaper which appeared during revolutionary periods of the nineteenth century This extended to media other print too. An enduring example is the Major-General's Song from the Gilbert and Sullivan light opera, Pirates of Penzance, where a senior army officer is satirised for his enormous fund of irrelevant knowledge. The Major-General's Song is a Patter song from Gilbert and Sullivan 's 1879 Comic opera The Pirates of Penzance. Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of Librettist W The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W
Colonel John Hayes St. Leger (detail) by Sir Joshua Reynolds
Rowlandson often satirised the military
"A modern major general" (Pirates of Penzance)
Red Army recruitment poster. Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA (16 July 1723 &ndash 23 February 1792 was the most important and influential of 18th century English painters Thomas Rowlandson ( July 14, 1756 – April 22, 1827) was an English artist and Caricaturist. The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W A war correspondent is a Journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone. William Howard Russell ( 28 March, 1821 - 11 February, 1907) was an Irish reporter with The Times, and is considered The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought png
Red Army recruiting poster (1920)
Hell's Angels movie poster (1929)
The increasing importance of cinema in the early 20th century provided a new platform for depictions of military subjects. The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya Hell's Angels is a 1930 American epic War film, directed by Howard Hughes and starring Jean Harlow, Ben The history of film spans over a hundred years from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st century. During the First World War, although heavily censored, newsreels enabled those at home to see for themselves a heavily-sanitized version of life in the front line. A newsreel is a Documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed News stories A front line is a line of confrontation in an Armed conflict, most commonly a War. About the same time, both pro-war and anti-war films came to the silver screen. War film is a Film genre concerned with Warfare usually about naval, air or land battles sometimes focusing instead on An anti-war film is a Film that emphasizes the pain horror and human costs of armed conflict A silver screen, also known as a silver lenticular screen, is a type of projection screen that was popular in the early years of the Motion picture industry and is One of the first films on military aviation, Hell's Angels broke all box office records on its release in 1929. Military aviation is the use of Aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of conducting or enabling warfare including national airlift ( Cargo) capacity Hell's Angels is a 1930 American epic War film, directed by Howard Hughes and starring Jean Harlow, Ben Soon, war films of all types were showing throughout the world. This list of War films are films depicting aspects of historical wars
The First World War was also responsible for a new kind of military depiction, through poetry. Hitherto, poetry had been used mostly to glorify or sanctify war. The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, with its galloping hoofbeat rhythm, is a prime late Victorian example of this, though Rudyard Kipling had written a scathing reply, The Last of the Light Brigade, criticising the poverty in which many Light Brigade veterans found themselves in old age. The Charge of the Light Brigade is an 1854 Narrative poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson about the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle Alfred Tennyson 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892 was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and remains one of the most popular English poets Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936 was an English Author and poet The Last of the Light Brigade is a poem written in 1891 by Rudyard Kipling echoing - forty years after the event - Alfred Tennyson 's famous poem Instead, the new wave of poetry, from the war poets, was written from the point of view of the disenchanted trench soldier. The term war poet came into currency during and after World War I. Leading war poets include: Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, John McCrae, Rupert Brooke, Isaac Rosenberg and David Jones. Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE MC ( 8 September 1886 &ndash 1 September 1967) was an English poet and Author Wilfred Edward Salter Owen MC (18 March 1893 &ndash 4 November 1918 was an English Poet and Soldier, regarded by many as one of the leading Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae ( November 30, 1872 &ndash January 28, 1918) was a Canadian Poet Rupert Chawner Brooke (middle name sometimes given as Chaucer) was an English Poet known for his idealistic war sonnets written during the First World Isaac Rosenberg ( November 25, 1890 - April 1, 1918) was an English poet of the First World War who was considered David Jones is a common name particularly in Wales and there have been several well-known individuals with this name A similar movement occurred in literature, producing a slew of novels on both sides of the Atlantic including notably All Quiet on the Western Front and Johnny Got His Gun. All Quiet on the Western Front (Im Westen nichts Neues is an Anti-war Novel written by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran Johnny Got His Gun is an English language Antiwar novel written in 1938 (published 1939 by American novelist and Screenwriter A much-later satirical take on World War I is provided by the film, Oh! What a Lovely War. Oh! What a Lovely War is Stage musical and 1969 Musical film.
The propaganda war that accompanied World War II invariably depicted the enemy in unflattering terms. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Both the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany excelled in producing heroic images, placing their soldiers in a semi-mythical context. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Examples of this exist not only in posters but also in the films of Leni Riefenstahl and Sergei Eisenstein. Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl ( August 22 1902 – September 8 2003) was a German Film director Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн January 23, 1898 &ndash February 11, 1948) was Alongside this, World War II also inspired films as varied as Bridge on the River Kwai, The Longest Day, Catch-22, Saving Private Ryan, and The Sea Shall Not Have Them. The Bridge on the River Kwai is a 1957 World War II film based on the novel The Bridge over the River Kwai by French writer The Longest Day is a 3-hour-long War film with a very large cast based on the 1959 history The Longest Day by Cornelius Ryan Catch-22 is a satirical, historical Novel by the American author Joseph Heller, first published in 1961 Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 War film set during the invasion of Normandy during World War II. The Sea Shall Not Have Them is a 1954 World War II Film starring Michael Redgrave, Dirk Bogarde and Anthony Steel The next major event, the Korean War inspired a long-running television series M*A*S*H. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the With the Vietnam War, the tide of balance turned and its films - notably Apocalypse Now, Good Morning Vietnam, Go Tell the Spartans and Born on the Fourth of July - have tended contain critical messages. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Good Morning Vietnam is a 1987 Comedy-drama film set in Saigon during the Vietnam War, based on the career of Adrian Cronauer Go Tell the Spartans is a low-budget critically-acclaimed 1978 American War film based on Daniel Ford 's 1967 novel Incident at Muc Wa Born on the Fourth of July is a 1989 Film adaptation of the Autobiography of the same name by Vietnam War veteran
There's even a nursery rhyme about war, the Grand Old Duke of York, ridiculing a general for his inability to command any further than marching his men up and down a hill. The Grand Old Duke of York is a children's Nursery rhyme, which in its most common version is The grand old Duke of YorkHe had ten thousand men The huge number of songs focusing on war include And The Band Played Waltzing Matilda and Universal Soldier. "And The Band Played Waltzing Matilda" is a song written by Eric Bogle in 1972 describing the futility gruesome reality and the destruction of war while criticising
An idealised image invites Dutchmen to join the SS
Caricature Japanese soldier in a US propaganda poster
Nazi Poster depicting American "liberators" as monster
North Korean soldier from the 1950s
Joseph Heller's anti-war novel, Catch-22
1960s poster for the film Oh! What a Lovely War
Militaria are another way of depicting the military. Catch-22 is a satirical, historical Novel by the American author Joseph Heller, first published in 1961 Oh! What a Lovely War is Stage musical and 1969 Musical film. Militaria are artifacts or Replicas of Military, Police, etc collected for their Historical significance Militaria are antique artifacts or replicas of military history people, firearms, swords, badges, etc collected for their historical significance. An antique ( Latin: antiquus; old is an old Collectible item It is collected or desirable because of its age rarity condition utility or other unique In Archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological A replica is a copy that is relatively indistinguishable from the original Today, the collecting of militaria items such as toy soldiers, tin soldiers, military models is an established hobby among many groups of people. A toy soldier is a miniature Figurine that represents a Soldier. Tin soldiers are Miniature figures of Soldiers extremely popular in the world of Collecting.