|Type||Public (NASDAQ: MSFT)|
|Founded||Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA (April 4, 1975)|
|Headquarters||Redmond, Washington, USA|
|Key people||Bill Gates, Co-founder and Executive Chairman;|
Paul Allen, Co-founder;
Steve Ballmer, CEO;
Ray Ozzie, Chief Software Architect
Research and development
Games & Xbox
|Revenue||▲ US $51. A public company usually refers to a company that is permitted to offer its registered securities ( Stock, bonds, etc The NASDAQ (acronym of National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) is an American Stock exchange. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Redmond is a city in King County, Washington, According to the Washington State Office of Financial Management's April 1 2008 estimate the city has a population The United States of America —commonly referred to as the If you would like to experiment with Wikipedia please copy An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome Paul Gardner Allen (born January 21 1953 is an American computer programmer and entrepreneur who co-founded Microsoft with Bill Gates. An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome Steve Anthony Ballmer (born March 24 1956 is an American Businessman. A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator Ray Ozzie (born November 20, 1955) is Chief Software Architect at Microsoft. The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components the externally visible properties For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view The phrase research and development (also R and D or more often R&D) according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers Typical PC hardware A typical Personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a tower shape (desktop and the following parts Motherboard This article is about games played on consoles Video gaming is about this form of gaming in general In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need Microsoft Windows is a series of Software Operating systems and Graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Microsoft Office is a set of interrelated desktop applications servers and services collectively referred to as an Office suite, for the Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Servers (previously called Windows Server System) is a brand that encompasses a line of Microsoft server products Microsoft Visual Studio is the main Integrated Development Environment (IDE from Microsoft. Microsoft Dynamics is a line of Business software owned and developed by Microsoft, though the individual products were originally created by other companies and known Microsoft Game Studios ( MGS) branded with current logo and moniker in 2002 (formerly the Microsoft Game Division or Microsoft Games) is a Wholly The Xbox is a sixth-generation Video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. Windows Live services Live Search See also Live Search As of 2007-03-21, Microsoft has decided to separate its Live Search developments Windows Mobile is a compact Operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for Mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 Zune is a brand of digital media players and services sold by Microsoft. In business revenue or revenues is Income that a company receives from its normal business activities usually from the sale of goods and services The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 12 billion (2007)|
|Operating income||▲ US $18. In financial and business Accounting, earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT is a measure of a firm's profitability that excludes interest and income tax expenses 25 billion (2007)|
|Net income||▲ US $14. Net income is equal to the Income that a firm has after subtracting costs and Expenses from the total Revenue. 06 billion (2007)|
|Employees||79,000 in 105 countries (2007)|
Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT) (SEHK: 4338) is an American multinational computer technology corporation. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages The NASDAQ (acronym of National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations) is an American Stock exchange. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange ( also 港交所 abbreviated as HKEX;) is the Stock exchange of Hong Kong. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Multinational corporation ( MNC) or transnational corporation ( TNC) is a Corporation or enterprise that manages Production or delivers A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business It develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of software products for computing devices.  Microsoft's best-selling products are the Microsoft Windows operating system and the Microsoft Office suite of productivity software. Microsoft Windows is a series of Software Operating systems and Graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination Microsoft Office is a set of interrelated desktop applications servers and services collectively referred to as an Office suite, for the Microsoft Windows and These products have prominent positions in their respective markets, with market share estimates as high as 90% or more for Microsoft Windows as of 2006 and for Microsoft Office as of 2003. Market share, in Strategic management and Marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available Market or Market segment that is One of Bill Gates' key visions for the company is "to get a workstation running our software onto every desk and eventually in every home". If you would like to experiment with Wikipedia please copy 
Founded to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, Microsoft rose to dominate the home computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s. In Computer programming, BASIC (an Acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of High-level programming languages In Computer science, an interpreter normally means a Computer program that executes, i The MITS Altair 8800 was a Microcomputer design from 1975 based on the Intel 8080 CPU and sold as a mail-order kit through advertisements in A home computer was a class of Personal computer entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s MS-DOS (short for M icro' s' oft D isk O perating S ystem is an Operating system commercialized by Microsoft. The company released an initial public offering (IPO) in the stock market, which, due to the ensuing rise of the stock price, has made four billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees. Initial public offering (IPO, also referred to simply as a "public offering" is when a company issues Common stock or shares to the public for the first A stock market, or (equity market is a private or public market for the trading of company Stock and derivatives of company A billionaire is a person who has a Net worth of at least one billion units of currency such as United States dollars ( USD /US$ U  Throughout its history the company has been the target of criticism for various reasons, including monopoly status and anti-competitive business practices including refusal to deal and tying. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient Refusal to deal is one of several Anti-competitive practices forbidden in countries which have Free market economies Tying is the practice of making the sale of one good (the tying good to the De facto or De jure customer conditional on the purchase of a second distinctive The U.S. Justice Department and the European Commission, among others, have ruled against Microsoft for various antitrust violations. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. 
Microsoft has footholds in other markets besides operating systems and office suites, with assets such as the MSNBC cable television network, the MSN Internet portal, and the Microsoft Encarta multimedia encyclopedia. MSNBC is a 24-hour cable television news channel based in the United States and available in Canada. MSN (The M icro' s' oft N etwork is a collection of Internet services provided by Microsoft. A web portal is a site that provides a single function via a web page or site Encarta is a Digital Multimedia Encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. The company also markets both computer hardware products such as the Microsoft mouse and home entertainment products such as the Xbox, Xbox 360, Zune and MSN TV. Typical PC hardware A typical Personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a tower shape (desktop and the following parts Motherboard IntelliMouse is a brand name by Microsoft for its line of computer mice. Home cinema, also called home theater, are entertainment systems that seek to reproduce cinema quality video and audio in a private home The Xbox is a sixth-generation Video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. The Xbox 360 is the second Video game console produced by Microsoft, and was developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, and SiS. Zune is a brand of digital media players and services sold by Microsoft. MSN TV (formerly WebTV) is the name of both a Thin client which uses a Television for display (rather than a Computer monitor) and the  Known for what is generally described as a developer-centric business culture, Microsoft has historically given customer support over Usenet newsgroups and the World Wide Web, and awards Microsoft MVP status to volunteers who are deemed helpful in assisting the company's customers. Usenet, a Portmanteau of "user" and "network" is a world-wide distributed Internet discussion system The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. The Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP is an award presented by Microsoft.  The company's official website is one of the most visited on the Internet, receiving more than 2. 4 million unique page views per day according to Alexa. com, which ranked the site 18th amongst all websites for traffic rank on September 12, 2007. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
Following the launch of the Altair 8800, Bill Gates called the creators of the new microcomputer, Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), offering to demonstrate an implementation of the BASIC programming language for the system. Microsoft is a multinational computer technology corporation The History of Microsoft began on April 4 1975 when it was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen In 1983 Microsoft announced the development of Windows, a Graphical user interface (GUI for its own Operating system ( MS-DOS) that had shipped The MITS Altair 8800 was a Microcomputer design from 1975 based on the Intel 8080 CPU and sold as a mail-order kit through advertisements in If you would like to experiment with Wikipedia please copy microcomputer is a Computer with a Microprocessor as its Central processing unit. Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems ( MITS) was an Albuquerque, New Mexico company founded in 1969 by Forrest Mims and Ed Roberts In Computer programming, BASIC (an Acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of High-level programming languages After the demonstration, MITS agreed to distribute Altair BASIC. Altair BASIC was an interpreter for the BASIC programming language that ran on the MITS Altair 8800 and subsequent S-100 bus computers  Gates left Harvard University, moved to Albuquerque, New Mexico where MITS was located, and founded Microsoft there. If you would like to experiment with Wikipedia please copy The company's first international office was founded on November 1, 1978, in Japan, entitled "ASCII Microsoft" (now called "Microsoft Japan"). Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) American Standard Code for Information Interchange ( ASCII) Microsoft Japan, officially is a division of the United States -based Computer technology corporation Microsoft based in Japan.  On January 1, 1979, the company moved from Albuquerque to a new home in Bellevue, Washington. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Bellevue ( "BELL-view") is a rapidly growing city in King County, Washington, U  Steve Ballmer joined the company on June 11, 1980, and later succeeded Bill Gates as CEO. Steve Anthony Ballmer (born March 24 1956 is an American Businessman. Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator 
DOS (Disk Operating System) was the operating system that brought the company its first real success. DOS, short for "Disk Operating System" is a shorthand term for several closely related Operating systems that dominated the IBM PC compatible market Disk storage is a general category of a Computer storage mechanisms in which data is recorded on planar round and rotating surfaces ( disks, discs, or On August 12, 1981, after negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft to provide a version of the CP/M operating system, which was set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer (PC). Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Digital Research Inc (aka DR or DRI; originally Intergalactic Digital Research) was the company created by Dr International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers is an Operating system originally created for Intel 8080 / 85 based Microcomputers by Gary Kildall For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which IBM renamed to PC-DOS. CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers is an Operating system originally created for Intel 8080 / 85 based Microcomputers by Gary Kildall 86-DOS was an operating system developed and marketed by Seattle Computer Products for its Intel 8086 -based computer kit Seattle Computer Products (SCP was a Seattle Washington computer hardware company which was one of the first manufacturers of Computer systems based on the Intel IBM PC-DOS is a DOS operating system for the IBM Personal Computer, sold throughout the 1980s and 1990s Later, the market saw a flood of IBM PC clones after Columbia Data Products successfully cloned the IBM BIOS, and by aggressively marketing MS-DOS to manufacturers of IBM-PC clones, Microsoft rose from a small player to one of the major software vendors in the home computer industry. Columbia Data Products (CDP introduced the MPC 1600 "Multi Personal Computer" in June 1982 In Computing, the BIOS (ˈbaɪoʊs MS-DOS (short for M icro' s' oft D isk O perating S ystem is an Operating system commercialized by Microsoft.  The company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Microsoft Press is the Publishing arm of Microsoft, usually releasing books dealing with various current Microsoft technologies 
In August 1985, Microsoft and IBM partnered in the development of a different operating system called OS/2. International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology OS/2 is a computer Operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively  On November 20, 1985, Microsoft released its first retail version of Microsoft Windows, originally a graphical extension for its MS-DOS operating system. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Microsoft Windows is a series of Software Operating systems and Graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft.  On March 13, 1986 the company went public with an IPO, with a starting initial offering price of $21. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) 00 and ending at the first day of trading as at US $28. 00. In 1987, Microsoft eventually released their first version of OS/2 to OEMs. An original equipment manufacturer, or OEM is typically a company that uses a component made by a second company in its own product or sells the product of the second company 
In 1989, Microsoft introduced its flagship office suite, Microsoft Office. In Computing, an office suite, sometimes called an office software suite or productivity suite is a Software suite intended to be used by typical Microsoft Office is a set of interrelated desktop applications servers and services collectively referred to as an Office suite, for the Microsoft Windows and This was a bundle of separate office productivity applications, such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. Microsoft Word is Microsoft 's flagship word processing software. In Computing, Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) consists of a proprietary Spreadsheet -application written and distributed  On May 22, 1990 Microsoft launched Windows 3.0. Events 334 BC - The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Windows 30 is the third major release of Microsoft Windows, and came out on 22 May 1990  The new version of Microsoft's operating system boasted such new features as streamlined user interface graphics and improved protected mode capability for the Intel 386 processor; it sold over 100,000 copies in two weeks. The user interface (or Human Computer Interface) is the aggregate of means by which people&mdash the users '&mdash interact with the System In computing protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode, is an operational mode of X86 -compatible Central processing units (CPU  Windows at the time generated more revenue for Microsoft than OS/2, and the company decided to move more resources from OS/2 to Windows.  In the ensuing years, the popularity of OS/2 declined, and Windows quickly became the favored PC platform.
During the transition from MS-DOS to Windows, the success of Microsoft's product Microsoft Office allowed the company to gain ground on application-software competitors, such as WordPerfect and Lotus 1-2-3. Microsoft Office is a set of interrelated desktop applications servers and services collectively referred to as an Office suite, for the Microsoft Windows and WordPerfect is a proprietary Word processing application At the height of its popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s it was the De facto Lotus 1-2-3 is a Spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (now part of IBM)  According to The Register, Novell, an owner of WordPerfect for a time, alleged that Microsoft used its inside knowledge of the DOS and Windows kernels and of undocumented Application Programming Interface features to make Office perform better than its competitors. The Register (" El Reg " to its staff and readers is a British technology news and opinion website  Eventually, Microsoft Office became the dominant business suite, with a market share far exceeding that of its competitors. Market share, in Strategic management and Marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available Market or Market segment that is 
In 1993, Microsoft released Windows NT 3.1, a business operating system with the Windows 3. Windows NT 31 is the first release of Microsoft 's Windows NT line of server and business desktop Operating systems and was released to 1 user interface but an entirely different kernel.  In 1995, Microsoft released Windows 95, a new version of the company's flagship operating system which featured a completely new user interface, including a novel start button; more than a million copies of Microsoft Windows 95 were sold in the first four days after its release. Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented Graphical user interface -based Operating system. For the keyboard button that activates the start menu see Windows key.  The company also released its web browser, Internet Explorer, with the Windows 95 Plus! Pack in August 1995 and subsequent Windows versions. A web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text images videos music games and other information typically located on a Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer abbreviated MSIE) commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of graphical 
In the mid-90s, Microsoft began to expand its product line into computer networking and the World Wide Web. A computer network is a group of interconnected Computers. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. On August 24, 1995, it launched a major online service, MSN (Microsoft Network), as a direct competitor to AOL. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 An online service provider is inclusive to Internet service providers and Web sites such as Wikipedia 's or Usenet (commonly accessed through MSN (The M icro' s' oft N etwork is a collection of Internet services provided by Microsoft. MSN became an umbrella service for Microsoft's online services.  The company continued to branch out into new markets in 1996, starting with a joint venture with NBC to create a new 24/7 cable news station, MSNBC. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's MSNBC is a 24-hour cable television news channel based in the United States and available in Canada.  Microsoft entered the personal digital assistant (PDA) market in November with Windows CE 1.0, a new built-from-scratch version of their flagship operating system, specifically designed to run on low-memory, low-performance machines, such as handhelds and other small computers. Windows CE (also known officially as Windows Embedded Compact post version 6  Later in 1997, Internet Explorer 4.0 was released for both Mac OS and Windows, marking the beginning of the takeover of the browser market from rival Netscape. Microsoft Internet Explorer 4 (also IE4) is a graphical web browser released in September 1997 by Microsoft, primarily for Microsoft Windows, but also Mac OS is the trademarked name for a series of Graphical user interface -based Operating systems developed by Apple Inc Netscape Communications (formerly known as Netscape Communications Corporation and commonly known as Netscape) is an American computer services company In October, the Justice Department filed a motion in the Federal District Court in which they stated that Microsoft had violated an agreement signed in 1994, and asked the court to stop the bundling of Internet Explorer with Windows. District courts are a category of Courts which exists in several nations 
The year 1998 was significant in Microsoft's history, with Bill Gates appointing Steve Ballmer as president of Microsoft but remaining as Chair and CEO himself. Steve Anthony Ballmer (born March 24 1956 is an American Businessman.  The company released Windows 98, an update to Windows 95 that incorporated a number of Internet-focused features and support for new types of devices. Windows 98 ( codenamed Memphis) is a graphical Operating system released on 25 June 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95  On April 3, 2000, a judgment was handed down in the case of United States v. Microsoft, calling the company an "abusive monopoly" and forcing the company to split into two separate units. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. United States v Microsoft There were many civil actions taking place in May 18 1998 Part of this ruling was later overturned by a federal appeals court, and eventually settled with the U. In Law, an appeal is a process for requesting a formal change to an official decision S. Department of Justice in 2001.
In 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, the first version that encompassed the features of both its business and home product lines. Windows XP is a family of 32-bit and 64-bit Operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on Personal computers including home and Before XP was released, Microsoft had to maintain both the NT and the 9x codebase. Windows NT is a family of Operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993 Windows 9x is the family of Microsoft Windows Operating systems that comprises the hybrid 16/32-bit Windows versions Windows 95, Windows 98 XP introduced a new graphical user interface, the first such change since Windows 95.  Later, with the release of the Xbox Microsoft entered the multi-billion-dollar game console market dominated by Sony and Nintendo. The Xbox is a sixth-generation Video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Kyoto Japan founded on  Microsoft encountered more turmoil in March 2004 when antitrust legal action was brought against it by the European Union for abusing its current dominance with the Windows operating system (see European Union Microsoft antitrust case), eventually resulting in a judgment to produce new versions of its Windows XP platform—called Windows XP Home Edition N and Windows XP Professional N—that did not include its Windows Media Player, as well as a fine of €497 million ($613 million). The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The European Union Microsoft competition case is a case brought by the European Commission of the European Union (EU against Microsoft for abuse of its Windows Media Player ( WMP) is a digital media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing 
In 2006, Bill Gates announced a two year transition period from his role as Chief Software Architect, which would be taken by Ray Ozzie, and planned to remain the company's chairman, head of the Board of Directors and act as an adviser on key projects. Software architect is a general term that may refer to a broad range of roles Ray Ozzie (born November 20, 1955) is Chief Software Architect at Microsoft.  Windows Vista, released in January 2007, is Microsoft's latest operating system and has sold 140 million copies to date. Windows Vista (ˈvɪstə is a line of Operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on Personal computers including home and business desktops  Microsoft Office 2007, released at the same time, features a "Ribbon" user interface which is a significant departure from its predecessors. Microsoft Office 2007 (officially called 2007 Microsoft Office system) is the most recent Windows version of the Microsoft Office system, Microsoft's In Computing, ribbons are Graphical user interface widgets composed of a strip across the top of a window that exposes all functions that a Relatively strong sales of both titles helped to produce a record profit in 2007.
On February 1, 2008, Microsoft made an unsolicited bid to purchase internet services competitor Yahoo! for up to $44. 6 billion, though this offer was rejected on February 10. On May 3, 2008, Microsoft withdrew their offer. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
Microsoft announced on February 21, 2008 that it will share more information about its products and technology in order to make it easier for developers to create software that works with its products.  However, the European Union continued to demonstrate its dissatisfaction with the company for its lack of compliance with the March 2004 judgment and subsequently, on February 27, 2008 imposed an additional fine of €899 million ($1. 4 billion), the largest fine in the history of EU competition policy. 
To be more precise in tracking performance of each unit and delegating responsibility, Microsoft reorganized into seven core business groups—each an independent financial entity—in April 2002. Later, on September 20, 2005, Microsoft announced a rationalization of its original seven business groups into the three core divisions that exist today: the Windows Client, MSN and Server and Tool groups were merged into the Microsoft Platform Products and Services Division; the Information Worker and Microsoft Business Solutions groups were merged into the Microsoft Business Division; and the Mobile and Embedded Devices and Home and Entertainment groups were merged into the Microsoft Entertainment and Devices Division. Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mobile computing is a generic term describing one's ability to use technology while moving as opposed to Portable computers which are only practical for use while deployed in 
This division produces Microsoft's flagship product, the Windows operating system. flagship is the lead ship in a fleet of vessels a designation given on account of being either the largest fastest newest most heavily armed or for publicity purposes the most well It has been produced in many versions, including Windows 3.1, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP and Windows Vista. Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented Graphical user interface -based Operating system. Windows 98 ( codenamed Memphis) is a graphical Operating system released on 25 June 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95 Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible graphical and business-oriented Operating system designed to work with Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (IPA pronunciation, iː is a hybrid 16-bit / 32-bit graphical Operating system released on 14 September Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3 is a server Operating system produced by Microsoft. Windows XP is a family of 32-bit and 64-bit Operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on Personal computers including home and Windows Vista (ˈvɪstə is a line of Operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on Personal computers including home and business desktops Almost all IBM compatible personal computers come with Windows preinstalled. IBM PC compatible computers are those generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated The current desktop version of Windows is Windows Vista. The online service MSN, the cable television station MSNBC and the Microsoft online magazine Slate are all part of this division. An online service provider is inclusive to Internet service providers and Web sites such as Wikipedia 's or Usenet (commonly accessed through MSNBC is a 24-hour cable television news channel based in the United States and available in Canada. (Slate was acquired by The Washington Post on December 21, 2004. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " ) At the end of 1997, Microsoft acquired Hotmail, the most popular webmail service, which it rebranded as "MSN Hotmail". Windows Live Hotmail, formerly known as MSN Hotmail and commonly referred to simply as Hotmail, is a free Webmail service of the Windows Live In 1999, Microsoft introduced MSN Messenger, an instant messaging client, to compete with the popular AOL Instant Messenger. Along with Windows Vista, MSN Messenger became Windows Live Messenger. Windows Live Messenger (formerly MSN Messenger 
Microsoft Visual Studio is the company's set of programming tools and compilers. Microsoft Visual Studio is the main Integrated Development Environment (IDE from Microsoft. A compiler is a Computer program (or set of programs that translates text written in a computer language (the source language) into another The software product is GUI-oriented and links easily with the Windows APIs, but must be specially configured if used with non-Microsoft libraries. The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft's core set of Application programming interfaces (APIs available in the Microsoft Windows Operating The current version is Visual Studio 2008. Microsoft Visual Studio is the main Integrated Development Environment (IDE from Microsoft. The previous version, Visual Studio 2005 was a major improvement over its predecessor, Visual Studio. Microsoft Visual Studio is the main Integrated Development Environment (IDE from Microsoft. Net 2003, named after the . NET initiative, a Microsoft marketing initiative covering a number of technologies. Microsoft's definition of . NET continues to evolve. As of 2004, . NET aims to ease the development of Microsoft Windows-based applications that use the Internet, by deploying a new Microsoft communications system, Indigo (now renamed Windows Communication Foundation). Windows Communication Foundation, or just WCF, is a programming framework used to build applications that inter-communicate This is intended to address some issues previously introduced by Microsoft's DLL design, which made it difficult, even impossible in some situations, to manage, install multiple versions of complex software packages on the same system (see DLL-hell), and provide a more consistent development platform for all Windows applications (see Common Language Infrastructure). In Computing, DLL hell is a colloquial term for the complications that arise when working with dynamic link libraries, (DLLs used with Microsoft Windows The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI is an open Specification (published under ECMA-335 and ISO/IEC 23271 developed by Microsoft that describes the executable In addition, the Company established a set of certification programs to recognize individuals who have expertise in its software and solutions. Similar to offerings from Cisco, Sun Microsystems, Novell, IBM, and Oracle Corporation, these tests are designed to identify a minimal set of proficiencies in a specific role; this includes developers ("Microsoft Certified Solution Developer"), system/network analysts ("Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer"), trainers ("Microsoft Certified Trainers") and administrators ("Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator" and "Microsoft Certified Database Administrator"). Sun Microsystems Inc ( is a multinational vendor of Computers computer components Computer software, and Information technology services Novell Inc ( is a global Software Corporation based in the United States specializing in enterprise operating systems such as SUSE International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology Oracle Corporation ( specializes in developing and marketing Enterprise software products — particularly Database management systems In 2007 Oracle ranked Microsoft Certified Professional ( MCP) refers to the broad certification program for Microsoft, although it can also refer to an individual candidate who had Microsoft Certified Professional ( MCP) refers to the broad certification program for Microsoft, although it can also refer to an individual candidate who had Microsoft Certified Professional ( MCP) refers to the broad certification program for Microsoft, although it can also refer to an individual candidate who had Microsoft Certified Professional ( MCP) refers to the broad certification program for Microsoft, although it can also refer to an individual candidate who had Microsoft Certified Professional ( MCP) refers to the broad certification program for Microsoft, although it can also refer to an individual candidate who had 
Microsoft offers a suite of server software, entitled Windows Server System. A server is a Computer dedicated to providing one or more services over a computer network typically through a request-response routine Microsoft Servers (previously called Windows Server System) is a brand that encompasses a line of Microsoft server products Windows Server 2003, an operating system for network servers, is the core of the Windows Server System line. Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3 is a server Operating system produced by Microsoft. Another server product, Systems Management Server, is a collection of tools providing remote-control abilities, patch management, software distribution and a hardware/software inventory. System Center Configuration Manager, formerly Systems Management Server (SMS is a Systems management software product by Microsoft for managing large Other server products include:
The Microsoft Business Division produces Microsoft Office, which is the company's line of office software. Microsoft Office is a set of interrelated desktop applications servers and services collectively referred to as an Office suite, for the Microsoft Windows and The software product includes Word (a word processor), Access (a personal relational database application), Excel (a spreadsheet program), Outlook (Windows-only groupware, frequently used with Exchange Server), PowerPoint (presentation software), and Publisher (desktop publishing software). Microsoft Word is Microsoft 's flagship word processing software. Microsoft Office Access, previously known as Microsoft Access, is a Relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational In Computing, Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) consists of a proprietary Spreadsheet -application written and distributed A spreadsheet is a Computer application that simulates a paper worksheet Microsoft Outlook or Outlook (full name Microsoft Office Outlook since Outlook 2003 is a Personal information manager from Microsoft, and is Collaborative software (also referred to as groupware or workgroup support systems) is software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve their Microsoft Exchange Server is a Messaging and Collaborative software product developed by Microsoft. Microsoft PowerPoint is a proprietary Presentation program developed by Microsoft. Microsoft Office Publisher (previously and commonly Desktop publishing (also known as DTP) combines a Personal computer and WYSIWYG page layout Software to create Publication Documents A number of other products were added later with the release of Office 2003 including Visio, Project, MapPoint, InfoPath and OneNote. Microsoft Visio is Diagramming software for Microsoft Windows. Microsoft Project (or MSP is a Project management software program developed and sold by Microsoft which is designed to assist Project managers in developing Microsoft MapPoint is both a technology ("MapPoint Web Service" previously known as MapPoint. Microsoft InfoPath (full name Microsoft Office InfoPath) is an application used to develop XML -based data entry forms first released as part of the Microsoft Microsoft Office OneNote, usually referred to as Microsoft OneNote, is a commercial software product developed by Microsoft for Notetaking, information 
The division focuses on developing financial and business management software for companies. These products include products formerly produced by the Business Solutions Group, which was created in April 2001 with the acquisition of Great Plains. Microsoft Dynamics GP is a mid-market business Accounting software package that runs on top of a Microsoft SQL Server database Subsequently, Navision was acquired to provide a similar entry into the European market, resulting in the planned release of Microsoft Dynamics NAV in 2006. Microsoft Dynamics NAV is an Enterprise resource planning (ERP Software product from Microsoft. Microsoft Dynamics NAV is an Enterprise resource planning (ERP Software product from Microsoft. The group markets Axapta and Solomon, catering to similar markets, which is scheduled to be combined with the Navision and Great Plains lines into a common platform called Microsoft Dynamics. Microsoft Dynamics AX is one of Microsoft ’s Enterprise resource planning Software products Microsoft Dynamics is a line of Business software owned and developed by Microsoft, though the individual products were originally created by other companies and known 
Microsoft has attempted to expand the Windows brand into many other markets, with products such as Windows CE for PDAs and its "Windows-powered" Smartphone products. Windows CE (also known officially as Windows Embedded Compact post version 6 Microsoft initially entered the mobile market through Windows CE for handheld devices, which today has developed into Windows Mobile 6. A mobile device (also known as cellphone device, handheld device, handheld computer, "Palmtop" or simply handheld) is a pocket-sized Windows Mobile is a compact Operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for Mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 The focus of the operating system is on devices where the OS may not directly be visible to the end user, in particular, appliances and cars. The company produces MSN TV, formerly WebTV, a television-based Internet appliance. MSN TV (formerly WebTV) is the name of both a Thin client which uses a Television for display (rather than a Computer monitor) and the MSN TV (formerly WebTV) is the name of both a Thin client which uses a Television for display (rather than a Computer monitor) and the An Internet appliance is a consumer device whose main function is easy access to Internet services such as WWW or E-mail. Microsoft used to sell a set-top Digital Video Recorder (DVR) called the UltimateTV, which allowed users to record up to 35 hours of television programming from a direct-to-home satellite television provider DirecTV. A digital video recorder ( DVR) or personal video recorder ( PVR) is a device that records video in a digital format to a Disk drive or other Microsoft TV is a division within Microsoft Corporation that develops software platforms for use in Set top boxes to access programming over a Cable TV network Direct broadcast satellite (DBS is a term used to refer to Satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception also referred to more broadly as direct-to-home Satellite television is Television delivered by the means of Communications satellites as compared to conventional Terrestrial television and Cable DirecTV (trademarked as "DIREC' TV' " is a Direct broadcast satellite (DBS service based in El Segundo California, USA, that was founded This was the main competition in the UK for British Sky Broadcasting's (BSkyB) SKY + service, owned by Rupert Murdoch. British Sky Broadcasting ( BSkyB — Sky Television and BSB) is a company that operates Sky Digital, a subscription television service in the is gay Bold text' Keith Rupert Murdoch', AC, KCSG (born Melbourne, March 11 1931 usually known as Rupert Murdoch, is an Australian-American UltimateTV has since been discontinued, with DirecTV instead opting to market DVRs from TiVo Inc. TiVo (pronounced ˈtiːvoʊ is a brand of Digital video recorder (DVR in the United States, Canada, and Australia created by TiVo before later switching to their own DVR brand. A digital video recorder ( DVR) or personal video recorder ( PVR) is a device that records video in a digital format to a Disk drive or other 
Microsoft sells computer games that run on Windows PCs, including titles such as Age of Empires, Halo and the Microsoft Flight Simulator series. A personal computer Game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a Video game played on a Personal computer, rather Age of Empires is a series of computer Video games developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft Game Studios. Halo is a Science fiction Video game franchise created by Bungie and owned and published by Microsoft Game Studios. Microsoft Flight Simulator (sometimes abbreviated to MSFS or FS) is a Flight simulator program for Microsoft It produces a line of reference works that include encyclopedias and atlases, under the name Encarta. This article is about a kind of publication Reference work may also refer to the work that librarians perform at a Library reference desk. An encyclopedia (or '''encyclopædia''') is a comprehensive written Compendium that contains Information on either all branches of Knowledge An atlas is a collection of Maps typically of Earth or a region of Earth but there are atlases of the other planets (and their satellites in the solar system Microsoft Zone hosts free premium and retail games where players can compete against each other and in tournaments. MSN Games (also known as Zonecom - formerly known as The Village, Internet Gaming Zone, MSN Gaming Zone, and MSN Games by Zone Microsoft entered the multi-billion-dollar game console market dominated by Sony and Nintendo in late 2001, with the release of the Xbox. is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Kyoto Japan founded on The Xbox is a sixth-generation Video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. The company develops and publishes its own video games for this console, with the help of its Microsoft Game Studios subsidiary, in addition to third-party Xbox video game publishers such as Electronic Arts and Activision, who pay a license fee to publish games for the system. Microsoft Game Studios ( MGS) branded with current logo and moniker in 2002 (formerly the Microsoft Game Division or Microsoft Games) is a Wholly A third-party developer is a developer not directly tied to the primary product that a consumer is using A video game publisher is a company that publishes Video games that they have either developed internally or have had developed by a Video game developer Activision Inc is an American Video game developer and publisher. The Xbox also has a successor in the Xbox 360, released on 2005-11-22 in North America and other countries. The Xbox 360 is the second Video game console produced by Microsoft, and was developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, and SiS. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran  With the Xbox 360, Microsoft hopes to compensate for the losses incurred with the original Xbox. The Xbox 360 is the second Video game console produced by Microsoft, and was developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, and SiS. The Xbox is a sixth-generation Video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. However, Microsoft made some decisions considered controversial in the video gaming community, such as releasing the console with high failure rates, selling two different versions of the system, one without the HDD and providing limited backward compatibility with only particular Xbox titles. In computer and video gaming, a clan or guild is a group of players who regularly play together in a particular (or various different Multiplayer games The Xbox 360 Video game console is subject to a number of technical problems that can render it unusable In Technology, especially Computing (irrespective of platform a product is said to be backward compatible when it is able to take the place of an older product  . In addition to the Xbox line of products, Microsoft also markets a number of other computing-related hardware products as well, including mice, keyboards, joysticks, and gamepads, along with other game controllers, the production of which is outsourced in most cases. In Computing, a mouse (plural mice, mouse devices, or mouses) In Computing, a keyboard is an Input device partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling A gamepad, also called joypad or control pad, is a type of Game controller held in the hand where the digits (especially thumbs are used to provide input A game controller is an Input device used to control a Video game. As of 15 November 2007, Microsoft announced the purchase of Musiwave, Openwave's mobile phone music sales business. Openwave (formerly softwarecom, phonecom, Unwired Planet, and Libris Inc) is a messaging software and services company based in Redwood 
Microsoft has often been described as having a developer-centric business culture. A great deal of time and money is spent each year on recruiting young university-trained software developers and on keeping them in the company. A software developer is a person or organization concerned with facets of the software development process wider than design and coding a somewhat broader scope of For example, while many software companies often place an entry-level software developer in a cubicle desk within a large office space filled with other cubicles, Microsoft assigns a private or semiprivate closed office to every developer or pair of developers. In addition, key decision makers at every level are either developers or former developers. Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes ( cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives In a sense, the software developers at Microsoft are considered the "stars" of the company in the same way that the sales staff at IBM are considered the "stars" of their company. 
Within Microsoft the expression "eating our own dog food" is used to describe the policy of using the latest Microsoft products inside the company in an effort to test them in "real-world" situations. To say that a company "eats its own dog food" means that it uses the products that it makes Only prerelease and beta versions of products are considered dog food.  This is usually shortened to just "dogfood" and is used as noun, verb, and adjective. The company is also known for their hiring process, dubbed the "Microsoft interview", which is notorious for off-the-wall questions such as "Why is a manhole cover round?" and is a process often mimicked in other organizations, although these types of questions are rarer now than they were in the past. The Microsoft interview is the Job interview used by Microsoft to assess possible future Microsoft employees A manhole cover is a removable plate forming the lid over the opening of a Manhole, to prevent anyone from falling in and to keep unauthorized persons out  For fun, Microsoft also hosts the Microsoft Puzzle Hunt, an annual puzzle hunt (a live puzzle game where teams compete to solve a series of puzzles) held at the Redmond campus. The Microsoft Puzzlehunt is a quasi-annual Microsoft tradition started in 1999. A puzzlehunt is a Puzzle Game where teams compete to solve a series of puzzles at a particular site in multiple sites and/or via the internet
As of 2006, Microsoft employees, not including Bill Gates, have given over $2. 5 billion dollars to non-profit organizations worldwide, making Microsoft the worldwide top company in per-employee donations. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage  In January 2007, the Harris Interactive/The Wall Street Journal Reputation Quotient survey concluded that Microsoft had the world's best corporate reputation, citing strong financial performance, vision & leadership, workplace environment rankings, and the charitable deeds of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (B&MGF is the largest transparently operated Private foundation in the world founded by Bill and Melinda 
Technical reference for developers and articles for various Microsoft magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal (or MSJ) are available through the Microsoft Developer Network, often called MSDN. The Microsoft Developer Network ( MSDN) is the portion of Microsoft responsible for managing the firm's relationship with developers hardware developers interested MSDN also offers subscriptions for companies and individuals, and the more expensive subscriptions usually offer access to pre-release beta versions of Microsoft software.  In recent years, Microsoft launched a community site for developers and users, entitled Channel9, which provides many modern features such as a wiki and an Internet forum. Channel 9 is a Microsoft community site used to promote conversations among Microsoft's customers targeted at Microsoft Windows users and developers A wiki is a page or collection of Web pages designed to enable anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify content using a simplified Markup language. An, or message board, is a Bulletin board system in the form of a discussion site  Another community site that provides daily videocasts and other services, On10. Video podcast (sometimes shortened to vidcast or vodcast) is a term used for the online delivery of Video on demand Video clip content via net, launched on March 3, 2006. 
Most free technical support available through Microsoft is provided through online Usenet newsgroups (in the early days it was also provided on CompuServe). Usenet, a Portmanteau of "user" and "network" is a world-wide distributed Internet discussion system A newsgroup is a Repository usually within the Usenet system for messages posted from many users in different locations CompuServe, ( CompuServe Information Service, also known by its acronym CIS) was the first major commercial Online service in the United States There are several of these newsgroups for nearly every product Microsoft provides, and often they are monitored by Microsoft employees. People who are helpful on the newsgroups can be elected by other peers or Microsoft employees for Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) status, which entitles people to a sort of special social status, in addition to possibilities for awards and other benefits. The Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP is an award presented by Microsoft. 
The company is run by a Board of Directors consisting of ten people, made up of mostly company outsiders (as is customary for publicly traded companies). A public company usually refers to a company that is permitted to offer its registered securities ( Stock, bonds, etc Current members of the board of directors are: Steve Ballmer, James Cash, Jr., Dina Dublon, Bill Gates, Raymond Gilmartin, Reed Hastings, David Marquardt, Charles Noski, Helmut Panke, and Jon Shirley. Steve Anthony Ballmer (born March 24 1956 is an American Businessman. James Ireland Cash Jr (born 1947 is an African American businessman who currently is a member of the board of directors of several corporations, including Dina Dublon is a current member of the boards of directors at Microsoft, Accenture, and PepsiCo. If you would like to experiment with Wikipedia please copy Raymond Gilmartin is a professor at Harvard Business School and a member of the board of directors at Microsoft and at General Mills. Wilmot Reed Hastings Jr (b 8 October 1960 in Boston Massachusetts Hastings studied mathematics at Bowdoin College in Brunswick David Marquardt is a co-founder of venture capital firm August Capital. Charles Noski is a current member of the board of directors at Microsoft and Morgan Stanley Helmut GW Panke is a current member of the board of directors at Microsoft. Jon A Shirley (born 1938 is the former President of Microsoft and currently one of its directors.  The ten board members are elected every year at the annual shareholders' meeting, and those who do not get a majority of votes must submit a resignation to the board, which will subsequently choose whether or not to accept the resignation. A mutual shareholder or stockholder is an Individual or company (including a Corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of A resignation is the formal act of giving up or quitting one's office or position There are five committees within the board which oversee more specific matters. These committees include the Audit Committee, which handles accounting issues with the company including auditing and reporting; the Compensation Committee, which approves compensation for the CEO and other employees of the company; the Finance Committee, which handles financial matters such as proposing mergers and acquisitions; the Governance and Nominating Committee, which handles various corporate matters including nomination of the board; and the Antitrust Compliance Committee, which attempts to prevent company practices from violating antitrust laws. The field of finance refers to the concepts of Time, Money and Risk and how they are interrelated 
There are several other aspects to the corporate structure of Microsoft. For worldwide matters there is the Executive Team, made up of sixteen company officers across the globe, which is charged with various duties including making sure employees understand Microsoft's culture of business. The sixteen officers of the Executive Team include the Chairman and Chief Software Architect, the CEO, the General Counsel and Secretary, the CFO, senior and group vice presidents from the business units, the CEO of the Europe, the Middle East and Africa regions; and the heads of Worldwide Sales, Marketing and Services; Human Resources; and Corporate Marketing. The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components the externally visible properties A general counsel is the chief Lawyer of a legal department usually in a corporation or government department In addition to the Executive Team there is also the Corporate Staff Council, which handles all major staff functions of the company, including approving corporate policies. The Corporate Staff Council is made up of employees from the Law and Corporate Affairs, Finance, Human Resources, Corporate Marketing, and Advanced Strategy and Policy groups at Microsoft. Other Executive Officers include the Presidents and Vice Presidents of the various product divisions, leaders of the marketing section, and the CTO, among others. While executive officer literally refers to a person responsible for the performance of duties involved in running an Organization, the exact meaning of the role is variable A chief technical officer or chief technology officer (abbreviated as CTO) is an executive position whose holder is focused on scientific and technical issues within 
When the company debuted its IPO in March 13, 1986, the stock price was US $21. Initial public offering (IPO, also referred to simply as a "public offering" is when a company issues Common stock or shares to the public for the first Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Software for Fixed assets management and Stock control developed in 2004.  By the close of the first trading day, the stock had closed at $28, equivalent to 9. In Business, the trading day is the time span that a particular Stock exchange is open 7 cents when adjusted for the company's first nine splits. A stock split or stock divide increases the number of shares in a Public company.  The initial close and ensuing rise in subsequent years made several Microsoft employees millions.  The stock price peaked in 1999 at around US $119 (US $60. 928 adjusting for splits).  While the company has had nine stock splits, the first of which was in September 18, 1987, the company did not start offering a dividend until January 16, 2003. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Dividends are payments made by a Corporation to its Shareholder members Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.  The dividend for the 2003 fiscal year was eight cents per share, followed by a dividend of sixteen cents per share the subsequent year. A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual ("yearly" Financial statements in Businesses In financial markets, a share is a Unit of account for various financial instruments including Stocks Mutual funds Limited partnerships  The company switched from yearly to quarterly dividends in 2005, for eight cents a share per quarter with a special one-time payout of three dollars per share for the second quarter of the fiscal year. A special dividend is a payment made by a company to its Shareholders that is separate from the typical recurring Dividend cycle if any for the company 
Around 2003 the stock price began a slow descent. Despite the company's ninth split on February 2, 2003 and subsequent increases in dividend payouts, the price of Microsoft's stock continued to fall for the next several years. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. 
In 2005, Microsoft received a 100% rating in the Corporate Equality Index from the Human Rights Campaign, a ranking of companies by how progressive the organization deems their policies concerning LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual) employees. LGBT (also GLBT) is an initialism referring collectively to Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, and Transgender / transsexual A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Transsexualism is a condition in which a person identifies with a physical Sex different from the one with which they were born Partly through the work of the Gay and Lesbian Employees at Microsoft (GLEAM) group, Microsoft added gender expression to its anti-discrimination policies in April 2005, and the Human Rights Campaign upgraded Microsoft's Corporate Equality Index from its 86% rating in 2004 to its current 100% rating. Gay and Lesbian Employees at Microsoft ( GLEAM) is a group of gay Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered employees at Microsoft. Gender comprises a range of differences between men and women extending from the biological to the social 
In April 2005, Microsoft received wide criticism for withdrawing support from Washington state's H. B. 1515 bill that would have extended the state's current anti-discrimination laws to people with alternate sexual orientations. Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes  Microsoft was accused of bowing to pressure from local evangelical pastor Ken Hutcherson who met with a senior Microsoft executive and threatened a national boycott of Microsoft's products. Kenneth Lee Hutcherson (born July 14 1952 in Anniston Alabama) is a former American football Linebacker in the NFL who  Microsoft also revealed they were paying evangelical conservative Ralph Reed's company Century Strategies a $20,000 monthly fee. Ralph Reed may refer to Ralph E Reed Jr, American political strategist Ralph Edwin Reed American baseball player better known as Ted Reed  Over 2,000 employees signed a petition asking Microsoft to reinstate support for the bill.  Under harsh criticism from both outside and inside the company's walls, Microsoft decided to support the bill again in May 2005. 
Microsoft hires many foreign workers as well as domestic ones, and is an outspoken opponent of the cap on H1B visas, which allow companies in the United States to employ certain foreign workers. The H-1B is a non-immigrant visa in the United States under the Immigration & Nationality Act section 101(a(15(H Bill Gates claims the cap on H1B visas make it difficult to hire employees for the company, stating "I'd certainly get rid of the H1B cap. "
In 1987, Microsoft adopted its current logo, the so-called "Pacman Logo" designed by Scott Baker. is an Arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution According to the March 1987 Computer Reseller News Magazine, "The new logo, in Helvetica italic typeface, has a slash between the o and s to emphasize the "soft" part of the name and convey motion and speed. " Dave Norris, a Microsoft employee, ran an internal joke campaign to save the old logo, which was green, in all uppercase, and featured a fanciful letter O, nicknamed the blibbet, but it was discarded. 
Microsoft's logo with the "Your potential. Our passion. " tagline below the main corporate name, is based on the slogan Microsoft had as of 2008. In 2002, the company started using the logo in the United States and eventually started a TV campaign with the slogan, changed from the previous tagline of "Where do you want to go today?. "
Microsoft "blibbet" logo, used until 1987.
Microsoft logo as of 2008, with the current slogan "Your potential. is an Arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution Our passion. "
Fully 30 to 40 percent of global energy consumption is a result from the business sector.  Microsoft is certainly no exception with its large data centers and many campuses, but the company has also taken actions to become more environmentally friendly.  Some examples include:
Since the 1980s, Microsoft has been the focus of much controversy in the computer industry. Criticism of Microsoft has followed various aspects of its products and business practices The majority of criticism has been for its business tactics, often described with the motto "embrace, extend and extinguish". " Embrace extend and extinguish," also known as " Embrace extend and exterminate," is a phrase that the U Microsoft initially embraces a competing standard or product, then extends it to produce their own incompatible version of the software or standard, which in time extinguishes competition that does not or cannot use Microsoft's new version.  These and other tactics have resulted in lawsuits brought by companies and governments, and billions of dollars in rulings against Microsoft. 
Microsoft has been called a "velvet sweatshop" in reference to perks the employees enjoy, but also to allegations of the company working its employees many overtime hours. The first instance of "velvet sweatshop" in reference to Microsoft originated from a Seattle Times article in 1989. The Seattle Times, one of two daily Newspapers serving Seattle Washington, United States, is the largest daily newspaper in the state of  As a Seattle career consultant described it, "they. . . stretch people to unbelievable limits. It's always push, push, push, and the stakes are constantly being raised. " The term later came to be used by some of Microsoft's own employees. 
Free software proponents point to the company's joining of the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance (TCPA) as a cause of concern. Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified The Trusted Computing Group ( TCG) successor to the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance ( TCPA) is an initiative started by AMD, Hewlett-Packard A group of companies that seek to implement an initiative called Trusted Computing (which is claimed to set out to increase security and privacy in a user's computer), the TCPA is decried by critics as a means to allow software developers to enforce any sort of restriction they wish over their software. Trusted Computing (TC is a technology developed and promoted by the Trusted Computing Group.
Advocates of free software also take issue with Microsoft's promotion of Digital Rights Management (DRM) and total cost of ownership (TCO) comparisons with its "Get the facts" campaign. Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16 1953 often abbreviated " rms " is an American software freedom activist The Free Software Foundation ( FSF) is a Non-profit corporation founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the Free software movement Digital rights management ( DRM) is a generic term that refers to Access control technologies used by hardware manufacturers publishers and Copyright holders Total cost of ownership (TCO is a financial estimate designed to help consumers and enterprise managers assess direct and indirect costs Digital Rights Management is a technology that allows content providers to impose restrictions on the methods by which their products are used on consumer hardware; and subsequently, detractors contend that such technology may infringe on fair use and other rights, especially given that it restricts legal activities such as re-mixing or reproduction of material for use in slide shows. Fair use is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders such as use for  The "Get the facts" campaign argues that Windows Server has a lower TCO than Linux and lists a variety of studies in order to prove its case.  Proponents of Linux unveiled their own study arguing that, contrary to one of Microsoft's claims, Linux has lower management costs than Windows Server.  Another study by the Yankee Group claims that upgrading from one version of Windows Server to another costs less than switching from Windows Server to Linux. Yankee Group is an Information technology and Market research advisory firm.