Melakarta is the collection of Ragas in Carnatic music. Rāga ( Sanskrit, lit "colour" or "mood" or rāgam in Carnatic music) refers to melodic modes used Carnatic music (also spelled Karnatak music or Karnatik music, and originally called Karṇāṭaka sangīta or Karṇāṭaka sangītam in India Melakarta ragas are fundamental ragas from which other ragas may be generated. For this reason the melakarta ragas are also known as janaka (parent) ragas. Melakarta ragas are also known as sampoorna ragas as they contain all seven swaras (notes) of the octave in both the ascending and the descending mode. for the town in Nepal see Swara Nepal The notes or swaras, of Indian music are shadja rishabh gandhar madhyam pancham dhaivat and nishad There are 72 melakarta ragas.
|Indian classical music|
|List of Carnatic composers|
|List of Carnatic singers|
|Raga ·Thaat ·Melakarta · Katapayadi sankhya|
|Śruti · Swara · Saptak|
|Tala · Mudra ·Gharana|
The mela system of ragas was first propounded by Raamamaatya in his work Svaramelakalanidhi c. The music of India' includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, and classical music. The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of Scriptures part of the Hindu tradition the Vedas. Hindustani Classical Music ( Hindi: हिन्दुस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत Urdu: ہندوستانی شاستریے سنگیت Carnatic music (also spelled Karnatak music or Karnatik music, and originally called Karṇāṭaka sangīta or Karṇāṭaka sangītam in India The Carnatic classical music tradition gained impetus in the 15th century through the works of Purandara Dasa, one of the foremost Haridasa Saints of the Vijayanagara Carnatic music is the classical music of South India Some of the more popular carnatic singers are Alathur Brothers Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar Rāga ( Sanskrit, lit "colour" or "mood" or rāgam in Carnatic music) refers to melodic modes used A thaat (ঠাট also transliterated as that) is a mode in Hindustani music. The Katapayadi sankhya is a way of determining the number of a Melakarta Ragam from the first two syllables of the name of the Raga. The śruti ( Sanskrit "thing heard" "sound" written also sruti or shruti is the smallest interval of the tuning system in for the town in Nepal see Swara Nepal The notes or swaras, of Indian music are shadja rishabh gandhar madhyam pancham dhaivat and nishad Saptak means "gamut" or "the series of seven notes" In Indian classical music, Tala ( Sanskrit tāla literally a "clap" is a rhythmical pattern that determines the rhythmical structure of a composition Mudra is the unique signature of a Carnatic music composer which is woven into some or all of their respective compositions In Hindustani music, a gharānā is a system of social organization linking musicians or dancers by lineage and/or apprenticeship and by adherence to a particular 1550. He is considered the father of mela system of ragas. Later Venkatamakhi expounded in the 17th century in his work Caturdandi Prakaasikaa a new mela system known today as melakarta. He had made some bold and controversial claims and defined somewhat artificially 6 swaras from the known 12 semitones at that time to arrive 72 melakarta ragas. The controversial parts relate to his double counting of R2 etc. and his exclusive selection of madyamas for which there is no basis. However, today the 72 melakarta ragas have gained significant following, though to this day this system is being criticized. Venkatamakhi was known to be extremely critical of Raamamaatya.
A hundred years later than Venkatamakhi's time the Katapayadi sankhya rule came to be applied to the nomenclature of the melakarta ragas. The Katapayadi sankhya is a way of determining the number of a Melakarta Ragam from the first two syllables of the name of the Raga. The sankhya associates Sanskrit consonants with digits. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The digits corresponding to the first two letters (syllables) of the name of a raga, when reversed, give the index of the raga. Thus the scale of a melakarta raga can be easily derived from its name.
Each melakarta raga has a different scale. In Music, a scale is a group of musical notes collected in ascending and descending order that provides material for or is used to conveniently represent part or all The scales are constructed as follows: out of the twelve semitones of the octave S, R1, R2=G1, R3=G2, G3, M1, M2, P, D1, D2=N1, D3=N2, N3, a melakarta raga must necessarily have S and P, one of the M's, two of the R's and G's, and two of the D's and N's. A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest Musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music and it is considered the In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems Also, R must necessarily precede G and D must precede N. This gives 2 × 6 × 6 = 72 melakarta ragas. Finding melakartha ragas is a mathematical problem and following a simple set of rules, we can find the corresponding raga and the scale associated with it.
This scheme envisages the lower Sa (Keezh Shadjamam), upper Sa (Mael Shadjamam) and Pa (Panchamam) as fixed swaras, with the Ma (Madhyamam) having two variants and the remaining swaras Ri (Rishabam), Ga (Gandhaaram), Dha (Dhaivatham) and Ni (Nishaadham) as having three variants each. for the town in Nepal see Swara Nepal The notes or swaras, of Indian music are shadja rishabh gandhar madhyam pancham dhaivat and nishad This leads to 72 seven-note combinations referred to as the Melakartha ragas.
A raga which has the same scale as a Melakartha raga (or a subset thereof) is said to be a janya of it (janya means born or derived from). Every raga is the janya of a melakarta raga. In Carnatic music (South Indian classical music Janya ("derived from" and Janya Ragas are the Ragas ' (melodic Ragas whose notes are found in more than one melakarta raga are assigned janyas based on subjective notions of similarity.
It can be said that the entire set of 72 melakarta ragas can be divided into two parts. viz. ,. suddha Madhyamam and prati Madhyamam ragas. When a given suddha madhyamam raga's M1 is replaced by M2, we get the corresponding Prati Madhyamam raga. See Katapayadi sankhya for more information on how to derive the various swaras of a raga from its Melakarta number. The Katapayadi sankhya is a way of determining the number of a Melakarta Ragam from the first two syllables of the name of the Raga.
|Suddha Madhyamam||Prati Madhyamam|
|No.||Raga||Scale||No. Rāga ( Sanskrit, lit "colour" or "mood" or rāgam in Carnatic music) refers to melodic modes used||Raga||Scale|
|1. Rāga ( Sanskrit, lit "colour" or "mood" or rāgam in Carnatic music) refers to melodic modes used Indu Chakra||7. Rishi Chakra|
|1||Kanakangi||S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N1||37||Salagam||S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N1|
|2||Ratnangi||S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N2||38||Jalarnavam||S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N2|
|3||Ganamoorti||S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N3||39||Jhalavarali||S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N3|
|4||Vanaspati||S R1 G1 M1 P D2 N2||40||Navaneetam||S R1 G1 M2 P D2 N2|
|5||Manavati||S R1 G1 M1 P D2 N3||41||Pavani||S R1 G1 M2 P D2 N3|
|6||Tanarupi||S R1 G1 M1 P D3 N3||42||Raghupriya||S R1 G1 M2 P D3 N3|
|2. A rishi (ṛṣi denotes a Vedic poet by whom Vedic hymns were composed or according to post-Vedic tradition a "sage" to whom they were "originally revealed" (Ṛṣis Vanaspati is a Sampoorna raga in Carnatic music. It is the fourth Melakarta Raga following the katapayAdi sankhya system Pavan may refer to Pavan (dance, a slow processional dance Pavan (Hindu god, a god of wind in Hindu mythology Pavan Netra Chakra||8. Vasu Chakra|
|7||Senavati||S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N1||43||Gavambodhi||S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N1|
|8||Hanumatodi||S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N2||44||Bhavapriya||S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N2|
|9||Dhenuka||S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N3||45||Subhapantuvarali||S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N3|
|10||Natakapriya||S R1 G2 M1 P D2 N2||46||Shadvidhamargini||S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N2|
|11||Kokilapriya||S R1 G2 M1 P D2 N3||47||Suvarnangi||S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N3|
|12||Roopavati||S R1 G2 M1 P D3 N3||48||Divyamani||S R1 G2 M2 P D3 N3|
|3. In Hinduism, the Vasus are attendant deities of Indra, and later Vishnu. Hanumatodi, more popularly known as Todi, (sanskrit, tamil ஹனுமத்தோடி is a Rāgam (musical scale in Carnatic music (South Indian Agni Chakra||9. Brahma Chakra|
|13||Gayakapriya||S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N1||49||Dhavalambari||S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N1|
|14||Vakulabharanam||S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N2||50||Namanarayani||S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N2|
|15||Mayamalavagowla||S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3||51||Kamavardhini||S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N3|
|16||Chakravakam||S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N2||52||Ramapriya||S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N2|
|17||Sooryakantam||S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N3||53||Gamanasrama||S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N3|
|18||Hatakambari||S R1 G3 M1 P D3 N3||54||Viswambhari||S R1 G3 M2 P D3 N3|
|4. Brahma is the Hindu god ( deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. Mayamalavagowla (known as māyāmāḻavagouḻa, मायामाळवगोळ in Sanskrit) is a raga of Carnatic Music that is classified as Chakravakam is a highly popular Telugu serial created by Manjula Naidu and playing on Gemini TV. Veda Chakra||10. "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. Disi Chakra|
|19||Jhankaradhwani||S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N1||55||Syamalangi||S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N1|
|20||Natabhairavi||S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N2||56||Shanmukhapriya||S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N2|
|21||Keeravani||S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N3||57||Simhendramadhyamam||S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N3|
|22||Kharaharapriya||S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2||58||Hemavati||S R2 G2 M2 P D2 N2|
|23||Gourimanohari||S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N3||59||Dharmavati||S R2 G2 M2 P D2 N3|
|24||Varunapriya||S R2 G2 M1 P D3 N3||60||Neetimati||S R2 G2 M2 P D3 N3|
|5. The Hemavati River ( Kannada ಹೇಮಾವತಿ) is a very important Tributary of the Kaveri River. Bana Chakra||11. Rudra Chakra|
|25||Mararanjani||S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N1||61||Kantamani||S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N1|
|26||Charukesi||S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N2||62||Rishabhapriya||S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N2|
|27||Sarasangi||S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N3||63||Latangi||S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N3|
|28||Harikambhoji||S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N2||64||Vachaspati||S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N2|
|29||Dheerasankarabharanam||S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N3||65||Mechakalyani||S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3|
|30||Naganandini||S R2 G3 M1 P D3 N3||66||Chitrambhari||S R2 G3 M2 P D3 N3|
|6. Rudra ( Sanskrit: रुद्रः is a Rigvedic god of the storm the wind and the hunt Vachaspati ( vacaspati "lord of Vac (speech" is a Rigvedic deity presiding over human life Dheerasankarabharanam (sanskrit धीरशँकराभरनम् tamil தீரசங்கராபரணம் commonly known as Sankarabharanam is a Rāga (musical Ritu Chakra||12. Aditya Chakra|
|31||Yagapriya||S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N1||67||Sucharitra||S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N1|
|32||Ragavardhini||S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N2||68||Jyotiswarupini||S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N2|
|33||Gangeyabhusani||S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N3||69||Dhatuvardhini||S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N3|
|34||Vagadheeswari||S R3 G3 M1 P D2 N2||70||Nasikabhusani||S R3 G3 M2 P D2 N2|
|35||Sulini||S R3 G3 M1 P D2 N3||71||Kosalam||S R3 G3 M2 P D2 N3|
|36||Chalanata||S R3 G3 M1 P D3 N3||72||Rasikapriya||S R3 G3 M2 P D3 N3|
These Melakartha Ragas are further divided into two types. In Hinduism, the Ādityas are a group of Devas or celestial gods the sons of Āditi and Kashyapa. Ragavardhini has two separate meanings in Indian classical music: Ragavardhini is a technical term from Indian classical music They are:
The General Melakartha Raagas start from numbers 1 to 36. The Pratimadhyama Raagas start from 37 to 72. From these Melarkatha Raagas, the Janya Raagas are derived. The Janya Raagas which are derived from these raagas are about 252 raagas. Thus, these are the Melarkatha Raagas.