A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor (i Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage third level and' post-secondary education', is the educational level following the completion of a school providing Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the
In addition to a medical degree program, some medical schools offer programs leading to a Master's Degree, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), or other post-secondary education. Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. Medical schools can also employ medical researchers and operate hospitals. Medical schools teach subjects such as human anatomy, biochemistry, immunology, neurology, genetics, and pathology. Human anatomy, which with physiology and biochemistry is a complementary basic medical science is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult Human body Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical Science that covers the study of all aspects of the Immune system in all Organisms It deals with Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is Pathology (from Greek grc πάθος pathos, "fate harm" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study and
The entry criteria, structure, teaching methodology and nature of medical programs offered at medical schools vary considerably around the world. Medical schools are often highly competitive, using standardized entrance examinations to narrow the selection criteria for candidates (e. To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person g. MCAT, NMAT, BMAT, GAMSAT and many others). The Medical College Admission Test, commonly known as the MCAT, is a computer-based Standardized examination for prospective Medical students The BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT is an Aptitude test used as part of the admissions process for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine or Physiological The Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test (more commonly known as the GAMSAT) is a test used to select candidates applying to study medicine dentistry and veterinary
In many European countries, India, China and others, the study of medicine is completed as an undergraduate degree not requiring prerequisite undergraduate coursework (although postgraduate options are usually available). In other countries (e. g. the USA, Canada), medical degrees are second entry degrees, and require at least several years of previous study at the university level. A second entry degree is term used for an Academic degree that requires at minimum 1-3 years of pre-requisite university courses for admission Students wanting to enter medical school often complete a bachelors degree with a (pre-medical/medical science) curriculum including physics, chemistry, genetics, biochemistry, pathology, anatomy and physiology, and human biology. Pre-medical (often shortened to pre-med) is a term used to describe a track an undergraduate student in the United States pursues prior to becoming a medical student Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as Pathology (from Greek grc πάθος pathos, "fate harm" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study and Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration Human biology is an Interdisciplinary Academic field of Biology, Biological anthropology, Nutrition and Medicine which However, many medical schools will accept students of varying academic background so long as they complete the required prerequisite coursework.
Although medical schools confer upon graduates a medical degree (MBBS, MBChB, MD, DO, MDCM, BMed, etc), a doctor typically may not legally practice medicine until licensed by the local government authority. Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral Licensing may also require passing a test, undergoing a criminal background check, checking references, and paying a fee.
In Egypt, medical school is a faculty of a university. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Admission depends on the score of the applicant in his last year of Secondary School (الثانوية العامة). Alternatively, students who have taken either the IGCSE or SAT can also apply. The International General Certificate of Secondary Education, or IGCSE, is an international Qualification for School Students. The SAT Reasoning Test (formerly Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test) is a standardized test for College admissions in the However, the minimum threshold for applicants with such international degrees tends to be very inflated as there's a very strict quota on non-Thanawiya Amma students and there are no specific entrance examinations. Medical education lasts for 6 years, at the end of which, there is an additional 12 months dedicated to full-time training as a house officer at one of the University or Government Teaching hospitals. The first 3 years of medical school cover the basic medical sciences, while the last 3 years are focused on clinical sciences. After graduation, medical students are conferred the degree of Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery MBBCh (بكالريوس الطب و الجراحة). Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated MB BChir, BM BCh, Medical licensure as a General Practitioner (GP) is obtained after completion of the year of full time training and registering with both the Ministry of Health & Population ( MOHP) and the Egyptian Medical Syndicate (نقابة الأطباء).
There are two medical schools in Ghana: The University of Ghana Medical School and the KNUST School of Medicine.
In Kenya, there are two established medical schools: 1. University of Nairobi (oldest, established 1967)
2. Moi University in Eldoret (established in 1980s with major support from the Indiana University School of Medicine - USA, and with whom there remain significant ties)
Admissions are considered after completion of a high school education.
The first two years are basic science years and the three years remaining years clinical years. On completion, a bachelors degree in Medicine and Surgery is awarded, MBChB.
This followed by a one year period of internship.
Both Nairobi and Moi Universities run post graduate medical training programs that run over 3 years and lead to the award of master of medicine, MMed, in the respective specialty.
There has been progress made by the Aga Khan University (Karachi, Pakistan) and the Aga Khan University Hospital in Nairobi toward the establishment of a Health Sciences University in Kenya with an associated medical school. AKUH - Nairobi, already offers post graduate, MMed, medical training programmes. These are run over 4 years.
Completion of formal specialty training in Kenya is followed by two years of supervised clinical work before one can apply for recognition as a specialist, in their respective field, by the medical board.
There are eight medical schools in South Africa, each under the auspices of a public university. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa A public university is a University that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government as opposed to private universities. As the country is a former British colony, most of the institutions follow the British-based undergraduate method of instruction, admitting students directly from high school into a 6 or occasionally five year program. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Some universities such as the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg and the University of Cape Town have started offering post-graduate medical degrees which run concurrently with their undergraduate programs. The University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg is a leading South African University situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. Johannesburg ( Pronounced /jō-hān'ĭs-bûrg'/ is the largest city in South Africa. The University of Cape Town ( UCT) is a Public university located on the Rhodes Estate on the slopes of Devil's Peak, in Cape Town In this instance, a student who has completed an appropriate undergraduate degree with basic sciences, can enter into a four-year post graduate program.
Most South African medical schools award the MBChB degree (except the University of the Witwatersrand which styles its degree MBBCh). Following successful completion of study, all South African medical graduates need to complete a two-year internship as well as a further year of community service in order to register with the Health Professions Council, in order to practice as a doctor in South Africa.
Specialisation is usually a five- to seven-year training process (depending on the speciality) requiring registering as a medical registrar attached to an academic clinical department in a large teaching hospital with appropriate examinations. The specialist degree may be conferred as a Fellowship by the independent Colleges of Medicine of South Africa, following British tradition, or as a Magisterial degree by the University (usually the degree M Med (Master of Medicine)).
Medical students from all over the world come to South Africa to gain practical experience in the country's many teaching hospitals and rural clinics. All of South Africa's eight medical schools are of world class standard and have excellent facilities. The language of instruction is English but a few indigenous languages are studied briefly.
There are several medical schools in this populous nation. However, there are three tiers under which the schools are categorized, based on the quality of faculty, facilities, and performance. In the top tier, there 9 medical schools: University of Nigeria, University of Lagos, University of Ibadan, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Jos, University of Benin, University of Port-Harcourt, University of Calabar, and Ahmadu Bello University. Entrance into these schools is highly competitive. Candidates graduating from high school must attain high scores from the West African Examination Council's (WAEC) Senior School Certificate Exam (SSCE/GCE) and four advanced level subjects (Math, Use of English, Chemistry, and Biology) in the University Matriculation Examination (UME). Students undergo rigorous training for 6 grueling years and culminate with a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS). The undergraduate program is five years and one year of work experience in government hospitals. After medical school, graduates are mandated to spend one year of housemanship (internship) and one year of community service before they are eligible for residency.
In Brazil, a student must complete a full-time program consisting of six years in college and two years in residency. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld There is also an exam. In the last two years of college, a student must also complete an internship in order to graduate.
There are 97 medical schools in operation in Brazil, as listed in the FAIMER IMED database. The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER is an organization whose mission is to "support the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates The International Medical Education Directory (IMED is published as a joint collaboration by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG and the Foundation 
In Bolivia, all medical schools are faculties within a university and offer a five-year M. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. D. equivalent. To acquire a license to exercise medical science from the government, all students must also complete 1 year and 3 months of internship. This consists of 3 months each of surgery, internal medicine, gynecology, pediatrics and public health. Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental Internal medicine is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) refers to the surgical specialty dealing with health of the female reproductive system ( Uterus Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics) is the branch of Medicine that deals with the medical care of Infants Children and Adolescents Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations At least one of the internships must be done in a rural area of the country. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time After getting the degree and license, a doctor may take a post-graduate residency in order to acquire a speciality.
In Canada, a medical school is a faculty or school of a university that offers a three- or four-year Doctor of Medicine (M. In Canada, a medical school is a faculty or school of a university that offers a 3- or 4-year Doctor of Medicine (M This list of medical schools in Canada includes major academic institutions that award either the Doctor of Medicine (M Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral D. or M. D. C. M. ) degree. Generally, medical students begin their studies after receiving a bachelor's degree in another field, often one of the biological sciences. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and Minimum requirements for admission vary by region from two to four years of post-secondary study. The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada publishes a detailed guide to admission requirements of Canadian faculties of medicine on a yearly basis.
Admission offers are made by individual medical schools, generally on the basis of a personal statement, undergraduate record (GPA), scores on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and interviews. The Medical College Admission Test, commonly known as the MCAT, is a computer-based Standardized examination for prospective Medical students Volunteer work is often an important criterion considered by admission committees. A volunteer is someone who works for a community or for the benefit of environment primarily because they choose to do so Francophone medical schools in Quebec and three Ontario schools do not require the MCAT. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec
The first half of the medical curriculum is dedicated mostly to teaching the basic sciences relevant to medicine. Teaching methods can include traditional lectures, problem-based learning, laboratory sessions, simulated patient sessions, and limited clinical experiences. A lecture is an oral Presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject for example by a University or College Problem-based learning (PBL is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences A simulated patient or standardized patient ( SP) (also known as a patient instructor) in Health care, is an individual who is trained to act The remainder of medical school is spent in clerkship. Clinical clerks participate in the day-to-day management of patients. They are supervised and taught during this clinical experience by residents and fully-licensed staff physicians. An attending physician (also known as an attending, consultant or staff physician is a Physician who has completed residency and practices Medicine
Students enter into the Canadian Resident Matching Service, commonly abbreviated as CaRMS in the fall of their final year. The Canadian Resident Matching Service, commonly referred to by its Abbreviation CaRMS, is a non-profit organization that provides a uniform appointment to positions Students rank their preferences of hospitals and specialties. A computerized matching system determines placement for residency positions. Residency is a stage of graduate medical training. A resident physician or resident is a person who has received a Medical degree ( MD 'Match Day' usually occurs in March, a few months before graduation.  The length of post-graduate training varies with choice of specialty.
During the final year of medical school, students complete part 1 of the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE). Upon completion of the final year of medical school, students are awarded the degree of M. D. Students then begin training in the residency program designated to them by CaRMS. Part 2 of the MCCQE, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination, is taken following completion of twelve months of residency training. An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is a modern type of examination often used in Medicine to test skills such as Communication, Clinical After both parts of the MCCQE are successfully completed, the resident becomes a licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada. However, in order to practice independently, the resident must complete the residency program and take a board examination pertinent to his or her intended scope of practice. In the final year of residency training, residents take an exam administered by either the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada or the College of Family Physicians of Canada, depending on whether they are training for specialty or family practice. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, (RCPSC is a national private nonprofit organization established in 1929 by a special Act of Parliament The College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC is the voice of family medicine in Canada
|Physician education and training in the United States|
Admission to medical school in the United States is based mainly on GPA, MCAT score, admissions essay, interview, and volunteering activities, along with research and leadership roles in an applicant's history. Medical education in the United States includes educational activities involved in the education and training of Medical doctors (D Medical school in the United States is a four year graduate institution with the purpose of educating physicians in the field of medicine In order to gain admittance to medical school, students usually pursue a four-year undergraduate degree at a college or a university, majoring in any subject they wish to (majoring in biology is not a requirement so long as prerequisites for medical school are completed). A few medical schools offer pre-admittance to students directly from high-school by linking a joint 3-year accelerated undergraduate degree and a standard 4-year medical degree with certain undergraduate universities, sometimes referred to as a "7-year program", where the student receives a bachelor's degree after their first year in medical school. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and While obtaining an undergraduate degree is not an explicit requirement for a few medical schools, virtually all admitted students have earned at least a bachelor's degree. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and As undergraduates, students must complete a series of prerequisites, consisting of biology, physics, and chemistry (organic chemistry and inorganic). Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Organic chemistry is a discipline within Chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure properties composition reactions, and preparation Many medical schools have additional requirements including calculus, genetics, statistics, biochemistry, English, and/or humanities classes. Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of Literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative In addition to meeting the pre-medical requirements, medical school applicants must take and report their scores on the MCAT, a standardized test that measures a student's knowledge of the sciences and the English language. Pre-medical (often shortened to pre-med) is a term used to describe a track an undergraduate student in the United States pursues prior to becoming a medical student The Medical College Admission Test, commonly known as the MCAT, is a computer-based Standardized examination for prospective Medical students A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a consistent manner Some students apply for medical school following their third year of undergraduate education while others pursue advanced degrees or other careers prior to applying for medical school.
The standard U. S. medical school curriculum is four years long. The first two years are composed mainly of classroom education, while the last two years primarily include rotations in clinical settings where students learn patient care firsthand. Upon successful completion of medical school, students are granted the title of Doctor of Medicine (M. Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral D. ) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D. O. , if they attend an osteopathic medical school). Upon graduation, physicians who plan to independently care for patients must complete a residency which is a supervised training period of three to seven years. Residency is a stage of graduate medical training. A resident physician or resident is a person who has received a Medical degree ( MD Physicians who sub-specialize or who desire more supervised experience may complete a fellowship, which is an additional two to three years of supervised training in their area of expertise. A fellowship is the period of medical training that a Physician may undertake after completing a specialty training program.
Licensing of medical doctors in the United States is co-ordinated at the state level. Most states require that prospective licensees complete the following requirements:
In Australia, students wishing to study medicine have two options: they can either attempt to gain entry through the UMAT exam and interview to a five-year or six-year undergraduate MBBS or Bachelor of Medicine equivalent BMed program, or complete an undergraduate degree in any area and then attempt to gain entry through the GAMSAT exam and interview to a four year graduate BMBS (or MBBS), first introduced at Flinders University in South Australia and now present at multiple institutions. Medical education in Australia is concerned with both the basic training of Medical practitioners and with the post-graduate training of Medical specialists Medical education in Australia is provided by the medical schools and faculties of various universities Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated MB BChir, BM BCh, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated MB BChir, BM BCh, Flinders University, or The Flinders University of South Australia, is a Public university in Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
In India, admission to medical colleges is organized both by the central government CBSE as well as the state governments entrance tests, after the students complete their 10+2 education (high school). Medical education in Hong Kong is concerned with both the basic training of Medical practitioners and further post-graduate training India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country These exams are super-competitive and the total number of applicants across the country is usually around 15 times the number of students finally accepted. Admission is based solely on the entrance examination and academic records have minor consequences on an application. The undergraduate program consists of 9 semesters, followed by one-year internship (rotating housemanship). The degree granted is Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.). Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated MB BChir, BM BCh, Further postgraduate qualifications may be obtained as Diploma or Degree (MS or MD) under the aegis of the Medical Council of India.  PG diploma may also be obtained through the National Board of Examinations. 
In Indonesia, medical studies entrance test was dependent to university itself. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. for national college, it was coordinated by an organization called 'perhimpunan SPMB' and the test name called SPMB. but, lately, there is a conflict in internal organization and for 2008, some universities resign from this organization and make another entrance test called 'UMPTN'. these universities leader was Prof. Fasich, president of Airlangga University. University of Airlangga is one of the oldest state universities in Indonesia.
The medical programs was vary among one and other university. the shortest was five years, in University of Indonesia for example. University of Indonesia (in Indonesian: Universitas Indonesia) abbreviated as UI has its roots in the oldest tertiary-level education facilities in Indonesia (then and five years in Airlangga University. University of Airlangga is one of the oldest state universities in Indonesia. If they pass this undergraduate program they will have S. ked in their title and if they finished the professional program and pass the national examination arranged by IDI ( Indonesian Doctor Association) they will become general physician and get dr. title.
There are four university medical schools in Israel, including the Technion in Haifa, Ben Gurion University in Beer Shiva, Tel Aviv University and the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The Technion &ndash Israel Institute of Technology (הטכניון &ndash מכון טכנולוגי לישראל is an internationally-acclaimed Institute of technology in Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (אוניברסיטת בן גוריון בנגב was founded in 1969, in Beersheba, Israel. Tel Aviv University (TAU אוניברסיטת תל־אביב את"א is Israel 's largest on-site University, located in Tel Aviv. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים الجامعة العبرية في القدس abbreviated HUJI) is The entrance requirements of the various schools of medicine are very strict. Israeli students require a high school Baccalaureate average above 100 and psychometric examination grade over 740. The demand for medical education is strong and growing and there is a lack of doctors in Israel. The Technion Medical School, Ben Gurion University, and Tel Aviv University offer MD/PhD Foreign Medical School in Israel for foreign students in Israel.
In Japan, a medical school is a faculty of a university thus undergraduate program. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Programs are generally 6 years. Entrance is based on an exam taken at the end of high school and considered to be the most competitive for university entrance exam.
Medical students study Liberal Arts for the first 1-2 years, which include Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Foreign Languages[English and 2nd beingmostly German], together with 2 years long Basic Medicine (Anatomy, Physiology, Pharmacology, Immunology), and Clinical Medicine, Public health and Forensics for the next two years. Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations
Medical students train in the University Hospital for the last two years. Clinical training is a part of the curriculum. Upon completion of the graduation examination, students are awarded a M. S. However, medical graduates are titled as Doctor. (Ph. D. holders are not titled as such. )
At the end, Medical students take the National Medical License examination, and if they pass it, become a Physician and registared in the record in the Ministry of Welfare and Labor. The scope of this exam encompasses every aspect of medicine.
There are four public universities in Jordan that include a medical school: Jordan University of Science and Technology in Ramtha, University of Jordan in Amman, Hashemite University in Zarqa and Mutah University in Al Karak. The Jordan University of Science and Technology ( Arabic: جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجيا الأردنية أو جامعة التكنو) often abbreviated The University of Jordan ( Arabic الجامعة الأردنية) founded in 1962, is the first university established The Hashemite University is a University in Zarqa, Jordan. It is named after the Jordanian Royal family — the Hashemites — and Zarqa ( BGN: Az Zarqāʼ; local pronunciation ez-Zergā or ez-Zer'a) is a city in Jordan located to the northeast of Amman Mu’tah University is based in the Al Karak region of Jordan, it was founded on March 22nd 1981 by Royal Decree, to be a national institution for Karak (also Kerak) (Al-Kerak الكرك is a city in Jordan that contains a famous Crusader castle
Myanmar medical schools are government-funded and require Myanmar citizenship for eligibility. No private medical school exists at this moment. In Myanmar, admission to medical colleges is organized under the Department of Health Science which is the branch of Ministry of Health of Myanmar. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. A student can join one of the four medical universities of Myanmar if he gets the highest scores in the science combination of the matriculation examination. This exam is highly competitive. Entrance is solely based on this examination and academic records have very minor consequences on an application. The undergraduate program is five years plus one year for work experience in government hospitals. After medical school, Myanmar medical graduates are under contract to spend one year of internship and three years of tenure in rural areas before they are eligible for most residency positions. The degree granted is Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.). Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated MB BChir, BM BCh, Further postgraduate qualifications may be obtained as a Degree (M. Med. Sc).
In Nepal, medical studies start at undergraduate level. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. The program is of five and half years duration. There are three main medical bodies in Nepal:
The first two years of studies are called "Basic Sciences" followed by two and half years of "clinical sciences" and one year of internship. After the successful completion of this course, a student is awarded Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.) degree. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated MB BChir, BM BCh,
New Zealand medical programs are undergraduate-entry programs of six years duration. Students are considered for acceptance only after a year of undergraduate basic sciences or, in a small number cases, following the completion of a bachelor's degree. There are two main medical schools in New Zealand: the University of Auckland and the University of Otago. The University of Auckland 's Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences (formerly known as The University of Auckland School of Medicine) was established in The Dunedin School of Medicine is one of three medical schools that make up the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Otago. Each of these has subsidiary medical schools such as Otago's Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences and Auckland's Waikato Clinical School. The Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences is one of three medical schools that make up the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Otago. The University of Auckland 's Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences (formerly known as The University of Auckland School of Medicine) was established in
The first year of the medical degree is the basic sciences year which comprises study in chemistry, biology, physics, biochemistry as well as population health and behavioural sciences. The following two years are spent studying human organ systems and pathological processes in more detail as well as professional and communication development. Towards the end of the third year students begin direct contact with patients in hospital settings.
The clinical years begin fully at the beginning of year 4 where students rotate through various areas of general clinical medicine with rotation times varying from between two and six weeks. Year 5 continues this pattern focusing more on specialized areas of medicine and surgery. Final medical school exams (exit exams) are actually held at the end of year 5 which is different from most other countries where final exams are held near the very end of the medical degree. Final exams must be passed before the student is allowed to enter year 6.
The final year (Year 6) of medical school is known as the "Trainee Intern" year where a student is known as a "Trainee Intern" (commonly referred to in the hospitals as a "T. I. "). Trainee interns repeat most rotations undertaken in years 4 and 5 but at a higher level of involvement and responsibility for patient care. Trainee interns receive a stipend grant from the New Zealand government (not applicable for international students). Currently this is $NZ 26,756/year (about $US 18,500). Trainee interns have responsibility under supervision for the care of about one third the patient workload of a junior doctor, however, all prescriptions and most other orders (e. g. radiology requests and charting of IV fluids) made by trainee interns must be countersigned by a registered doctor.
New Zealand medical schools currently award the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB). Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated MB BChir, BM BCh,
In Pakistan a medical school is usually called a medical college. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and A medical college is affiliated with a university as a department. There are however several medical universities and medical institutes with their own medical colleges. All medical colleges and universities are regulated by the respective provincial department of health. They however have to be recognized after meeting a strict criteria by a central regulatory authority called Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) in Islamabad. Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC is based in Islamabad, Pakistan. |name = Islamabad|native_name = |nickname = |settlement_type = Capital City |total_type There are almost equal number of government and private medical colleges and universities, with their number exceeding 50. Entrance in to the medical colleges is purely on merit under the strict guidelines of PMDC. Both the academic performance at the college (highschool, grades 11-12) level and an entrance test like MCAT are taken into consideration for the eligibility to enter a medical college. After successfully completing five years of academic and clinical training in the medical college and affiliated teaching hospital the graduates are awarded a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated MB BChir, BM BCh, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated MB BChir, BM BCh, The graduates are then eligible to apply for a medical license from the PMDC. A house job of one year duration is mandatory in a teaching hospital after completing five years of academic and clinical training in the medical college.
Medical education is normally a five-year Bachelor degree, plus one year internship, and work experience before the final degree is awarded. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and Clinical specialization usually involves a two or three-year Master degree. Acceptance is based on the national entrance examination used for all universities. There are a few colleges that teach in English and accept foreign medical students.
The Dominicans, under the Spanish Government, established the oldest Medical School in the Philippines in 1871, known as the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas in Intramuros, Manila. This prestigious Medical School produces the largest number of medical graduates in the Philippines and is famous for its outstanding and world class medical graduates. Medical education in the Philippines became widespread under the American administration. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Americans, led by the insular government's Secretary of the Interior, Dean Worcester, built the University of the Philippines's College of Medicine and Surgery in 1905, with Johns Hopkins University as a blueprint. Dean Conant Worcester, DSc FRGS ( October 1, 1866 - 1924 was an American zoologist public official and authority on the Philippines, The University of the Philippines (or Unibersidad ng Pilipinas in Filipino and commonly abbreviated as U By 1909, nursing instruction was also begun at the Philippine Normal School. At present there are a number of medical schools in the Philippines, notable examples include the University of the Philippines, Manila, the University of Santo Tomas, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (University of the City of Manila) College of Medicine, De La Salle-Health Sciences Campus, Fatima University College of Medicine, Far Eastern University-Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation Institute of Medicine, and the University of the East. The University of the Philippines Manila ( UP Manila) founded in 1908 is birthplace of UP Not to be confused with University of St Thomas. The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas The Catholic University of the Philippines The Institutional Colleges Vision and Mission Vision The De La Salle Health Sciences Institute is envisioned as a world class God-centered health The University of the East (or Pamantasan ng Silangan in Filipino and commonly abbreviated as ( UE) is a private nonsectarian University
Any college graduate may apply for medical school as long as he or she as accumulated a set number of units in biology, chemistry, physics, and math. There is also a test known as the National Medical Admissions Test or NMAT. Scores are given on a percentile basis and a high ranking is a must to enter the top medical schools in the country.
In most institutions, medical education lasts for four years. Basic subjects are taken up in the first and second years, while clinical sciences are studied in the second and third years. In their fourth year, students rotate in the various hospital departments, spending up to two months each in the fields of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and pediatrics, and several weeks in the other specialties. After this, students graduate with a Doctorate in Medicine and apply for internship in an accredited hospital of their choice. After internship, medical interns are eligible to take the medical licensure examinations. Passing the examinations confers the right to practice medicine as well as to apply in a residency training program.
The medical education in the Republic of China (Taiwan) is usually 7 years in duration, starting right after high school. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The reason for such a long period of study is because Taiwanese medical schools include undergraduate education. Currently, only Kaohsiung Medical University offers a 4-year medical program, similar to the US medical school system, for university degree holders. The Kaohsiung Medical University ( Traditional Chinese:高雄醫學大學 originally known as "Kaohsiung Medical College" is a Private university The first 2 years in the 7-year system is composed of basic sciences and liberal art courses. Especially, all the medical schools there compete with each other on how ethusiastic their graduates become. Massive doctor-patient classes are enphasized, and most schools require compulsory amount of volunteer hours. Clinical sciences are compressed into a two year program in the 3rd and 4th grade. Many medical students in Taiwan call this 2-year hell. Duration of clerkship and internship varies from each school, but all of them ends at the 7th grade.
In Saudi Arabia medical education is free for all Saudi citizens and a bachelor degree isn't the most important for registration. A medical student must pass an entrance examination and complete a 1-year pre-medical course containing some basic medical subjects including: Biology, Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physics, Medical Biostatistics, and English for medical uses. Saudi Arabia has approximately 8 medical schools but King Saud University in Riyadh is the oldest one and the most experienced. It offers an MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) degree after one pre-medical course, five medical years and one training year.
Medical schools in South Korea are divided into two different types. One type of medical school such as Kyung Hee University teaches Korean traditional medicine, involving practices such as acupuncture and herbal medicine. History 1949 05 Registered Shinheung Junior College Establishment in Seoul 1952 History Antiquity In China, the practice of acupuncture can perhaps be traced as far back as Another type medical school such as Gachon Medical School teaches western medicine. Gachon Medical School is a Medical school on Ganghwa Island in Incheon, South Korea. Medical program used to be a direct entry program like the UK system and used to take 6 years to complete. However, the universities are currently going through a transition from the direct-entry medicine into 4+4 years system found in the US. This school year was the last year for many medical schools such as Yonsei University to offer the direct medicine program. ; and as such, competition for admission was very fierce. However, most universities are concurrently operating both direct-entry and graduate-entry medicine and for few universities (e. g. Seoul National University) have no plans to switch entirely to graduate-entry medical program until 2010. Seoul National University ( SNU) is a national Research university in Seoul, South Korea.
There are seven medical schools in Sri Lanka that teach evidence based (sometimes called "western") medicine. The oldest medical school is the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo (Started as Ceylon Medical School in 1870) and is 137 years old. Established in 1870 as the Colombo Medical School, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, is the second oldest medical school There are medical faculties in Jaffna, Sri Jayawardanepura, Galle, Peradeniya, Kelaniya and Rajarata as well. Kelaniya Medical Faculty initially started as a the North Colombo Medical College (NCMC), a private medical institution. It was one of the earliest private higher educational institutions (1980). Heavy resistance by the Maxist JVP political movement to private sector growth led to its nationalization and to its renaming as the Kelaniya Medical Faculty. The output of all medical schools is around 1200 and they receive the degree MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery. However, since the intake into these faculties are very limited, a large number of students graduate from foreign countries. As the country is a former colony of Britain, lot prefer England, Australia, New Zealand. Former Socialist countries are also attractive due to their low tuition fees as well as Bangladesh and Pakistan. The training period is around five years plus a residency period of one year for full registration. [Post Graduate institute of Medicine] (PGIM)is the only postgraduate degree awarding institution. Course period may vary according to the discipline. It is mandatory for graduates to undergo a training period of one to two years in a center of excellence outside Sri Lanka. The Institute of Ayurvedhic Medicine of the University of Colombo, the Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurvedhic Medicine Institute of the University of Kelaniya and the Faculty of Siddha Medicine, University of Jaffna teach Ayurvedha/ Unani / Siddha Medicine. Medicina Alternativa or the Open University of Complimentary Medicine teaches acupuncture and homeopathy.
Most of the Thai medical schools are government-funded and require Thai citizenship for eligibility. Only one private medical school exists at the moment. Some Thais choose to attend the private medical school or attend a medical school in a foreign country due to relatively few positions and high college entrance examination scores required for enrollment in public medical schools. Generally those who did not graduate from a public medical college are not well received.
The Thai medical education is six years consisting of 3 pre-clinical and 3 clinical years. Upon graduation all medical students must pass the national examination and a university-based comprehensive test. After medical school, Thai medical graduates are under contract to spend one year of internship and two years of tenure in rural areas before they are eligible for most residency positions. Other than general clinical practice and basic emergency procedures, all Thai doctors are required by the Thai Medical Council to be able to perform six surgical operations, namely: appendectomy, caesarian section, circumcision, herniorrhaphy, tubal-ligation and vasectomy.
The students will receive Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral
There are five Medical Schools (Medicinski Fakultet) in Bosnia and Herzegovina:
These medical schools are usually affiliated with regional hospitals. The University of Banja Luka ( Local: Универзитет у Бањој Луци or Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci) is a university located in Banja Luka The University of Sarajevo ( Bosnian: Sarajevski Univerzitet) is the first university in Bosnia-Herzegovina, originally established University of Tuzla ( Bosnian: Univerzitet u Tuzli) is a public university located in the city of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The University of Mostar (Sveučilište u Mostaru Latin: Universitas Studiorum Mostariensis) is the only Croatian language University
The course of study lasts 6 years or 12 semesters. Students are conferred degree Doctor of Medicine (MD) upon graduation.
Entry to BH Medical Schools are very competitive due to limited places imposed by the government quota. Students are required to complete Secondary School Leaving Diploma (Gimnazija-Gymnasium (school) or Medicinska skola matura/svedocanstvo/svjedodzba). A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar Matura (Matur Maturita Maturità Maturität матура is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria
Entrance examination is usually held in June/July. Combined score of Secondary School Diploma assessment (on scale 1-5, with 2 minimum passing grade and 5 maximum grade) and entrance examination is taken into consideration. Usually, 5 in Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, and Physics are required for entry to medicine.
Course structure is more traditional and divided in pre-clinical (year 1-3) /clinical part (year 3-6) and subject-based.
Practical examinations are held throughout the degree (Anatomy, Biochemistry,Pathology, Physiology practicals etc. ). Dissection is part of all medical curricula in Bosnian and Herz. Medical Schools.
Course content in BH Medical Schools:
In Bulgaria, a medical school is a type of college or a faculty of a university. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian The medium of instruction is officially in Bulgarian. A six to one year course in Bulgarian language is required prior to admittance to the medical program. For European candidates an exam in Biology and Chemistry in Bulgarian, is also required.
Students join medical school after completing high-school. Admission offers are made by individual medical schools. Bulgarian applicants have to pass entrance examinations in the subjects of Biology and Chemistry. The competitive result of every candidate is the based on their marks these exams plus their secondary-school certificate marks in the same subjects. Those applicants with the highest results achieved are classified for admission.
The course of study is offered as a six year program. The first 2 years are pre-clinical, the next 3 years are clinical training and the 6th year is the internship year during which students work under supervision at the hospitals. During the 6th year students have to appear for 'state exams' in the 5 major subjects of Internal Medicine, Surgery, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Social Medicine and Pediatrics. Upon successful completion of the six years of study and the state exams the degree of 'Physician' is conferred.
For specialization, graduates have to appear for written tests and interviews to obtain a place in a specialization program. For specialization in general medicine, general practice lasts three years, cardiology lasts four years, internal medicine lasts five years, and general surgery lasts four years.
In Croatia there are four out of seve universities which offer a medical degree, the University of Zagreb (offers also medical studies in English), University of Rijeka, University of Split and the University of Osijek. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The University of Zagreb (Sveučilište u Zagrebu Universitas Studiorum Zagrabiensis is the oldest Croatian University in continuous operation and also the oldest The University of Rijeka ( Croatian Sveučilište u Rijeci) is situated in the city of Rijeka with faculties also located in cities throughout the regions The University of Split ( Croatian Sveučilište u Splitu) is a university located in Split, Croatia. The Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek ( Croatian Sveučilište J A Medical school is a faculty of those four universities. Medical students enroll to Faculties of medicine after finishing secondary education, typically after the Gymnasium, but also after the four-year nursing school or other secondary schools with a duration of 4 years. A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar During the application process, the grades of the last four years of secondary school, the scores at the final secondary school examination (Matura) and the score at the obligatory entrance examination are taken into account, and the best students are enrolled. Matura (Matur Maturita Maturità Maturität матура is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria
The course of study lasts 6 years or 12 semesters. During the first 3 years students are engaged in pre-clinical courses (Anatomy, histology, chemistry, physics, cell biology, genetics, physiology, biochemistry, immunology, pathological physiology and anatomy, pharmacology, microbiology, etc. ). The contact with patients begins, however, already at the 3rd year. The remaining 3 years are comprised of rotations at different departments, such as internal medicine, neurology, radiology, dermatology, psychiatry, surgery, pediatrics, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Anesthesiology and others. During every academic years students also enroll in two or three elective courses. After each rotation the students take exams, a total of circa 60 exams. At the end the students must pass a final examination, which is a multiple-choice exam comprising questions about clinical courses, and finally they gain the title Doctor of medicine (dr. med. ) which is written after one's name. Now doctors must complete a one-year, supervised, paid internship in a hospital of their choice, after which they take the state (license) examination, which is an eight-part oral examination containing eight most important clinical branches. Now doctors are eligible to practice medicine as general practitioners. Residencies are offered at various different hospitals throughout Croatia, and at numerous medical specialities.
In Finland, basic medical education is given in five universities: Helsinki, Kuopio, Oulu, Tampere and Turku. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto Helsingfors universitet is a University located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829 but founded The University of Kuopio ( Finnish Kuopion yliopisto) is situated in the town of Kuopio in Eastern Finland. Oulu ( (literally "Flood" ( (literally "Ule River Castle" is a city and municipality of about 130000 inhabitants in the province of Tampere ( ˈtɑmpɛrɛ Swedish: Tammerfors or) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi The University of Turku ( Finnish Turun yliopisto, Swedish Åbo universitet) located in Turku in southwestern Finland Admission is regulated by an entrance examination. Studies involve an initial two-year preclinical period of mainly theoretical courses in anatomy, biochemistry, pharmacology etc. However, students have contact with patients from the beginning of their studies. The preclinical period is followed by a four-year clinical period, when students participate in the work of various hospitals and health care centres, learning necessary medical skills. Some Finnish universities have integrated clinical and preclinical subjects along the six-year course, diverging from the traditional program. A problem-based learning method is widely used, and inclusion of clinical cases in various courses and preclinical subjects is becoming common. All medical schools have research programs for students who wish to undertake scientific work. The duration of basic medical education is six years and the course leads to the degree of Licentiate of Medicine.
In Germany, admission to medical schools is currently administered by the Zentralstelle für die Vergabe von Studienplätzen (ZVS), a centralized federal organization. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The most important criteria for admission is the so called Numerus clausus, a person's final GPA on the Abitur (highest secondary school diploma). In Education, a grade (or mark is a teacher's standardized Evaluation of a Student 's work Abitur (from Latin abire = go away go off is a designation used in Germany and Finland for final exams that young adults take at the end of After 2 years of preclinical classes 3 years of clinical classes and a year internship in a hospital, the students graduate as Arzt. The final graduating exam is called Medizinisches Staatsexamen (federal medical exam). A person who passes the Staatsexamen is awarded an "Approbation als Arzt" (a license to practice Medicine), but does not receive an academic degree, in the sense of an academic title. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing However, graduates are authorized to use the German professional title Arzt (Physician), and are informally addressed with the honorific "Dr. " ("Doktor"). As in other countries it is optional (but usual) to write a dissertation to obtain a Dr. med. (which is an academic degree in contrast to the Staatsexamen licensing degree).
Hungary has four medical schools, in Budapest, Debrecen, Pécs and Szeged. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Debrecen, (approximate pronunciation Deb-ret-sen known by alternative names) is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. Szeged ( (approximate pronunciation Seg-ed (known also by alternative names) is the fourth largest City of Hungary, the Regional centre Medical school takes six years to complete, of which the last year is a practical year. Students receive the degree dr. med. univ. or dr. for short, equivalent to the MD degree upon graduation.
In Iceland, admission to medical school requires passing an organized test, controlled by the University of Iceland, which anyone who has a gymnasium degree can take. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( The University of Iceland (Háskóli Íslands is an Icelandic State university, founded in 1911 Only the top 48 scores on the exam are granted admission each year. Medical school in Iceland takes 6 years to complete. Graduates must also complete 1 year of residency. Residency is a stage of graduate medical training. A resident physician or resident is a person who has received a Medical degree ( MD Students receive an MD degree upon graduation.
There are six medical schools in the Republic of Ireland. They are at Trinity College Dublin, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, University College Dublin, University College Cork, University College Galway and University of Limerick (the National University of Ireland is the degree-awarding institution for all except Trinity College). Trinity College Dublin ( TCD; Irish Coláiste na Tríonóide Baile Átha Cliath; Latin: Collegium Sacrosanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland ( RCSI) (Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn is a Dublin -based private medical institution situated on St University College Dublin (UCD (An Coláiste Ollscoile Baile Átha Cliath - formally known as University College Dublin - National University of Ireland Dublin (An University College Cork ( UCC) is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland, the university is located in Cork. The National University of Ireland Galway ( NUI Galway) ( Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann Gaillimh or OÉ Gaillimh) is a tertiary-level The University of Limerick ( UL) (Ollscoil Luimnigh was established in 1972 as the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick and The National University of Ireland ( NUI) (Ollscoil na hÉireann is a federal University system of constituent universities, previously called Training lasts four, five or six years, with the last two years in the affiliated teaching hospitals (UCD - St. Vincents University Hospital, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Holles St. , The Coombe, Crumlin Children's Hospital) (Trinity - St. James's Hospital, Adelaide and Meath Hospitals incorporating the National Children's Hospital) (RCSI - Beaumont Hospital). Programs that are six years in length generally require high school qualifications. Programs that are four or five years in length generally require previous university degrees. The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and the University of Limerick are the first medical institutions to offer Graduate Entry Medicine of four years in duration in the Republic of Ireland. Graduate Medical Program (GMP or sometimes also known as Graduate Entry Program (GEP are terms generally used outside of the United States to refer to medical programs Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe.
Medical education is regulated by the Irish Medical Council, the statutory body which is also responsible for maintaining a register of medical practitioners. After graduation with the degrees of MB BCh BAO (Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus in Chirurgia, Baccalaureus in Arte Obstetricia), a doctor is required to spend one year as an "intern" under supervision before full registration is permitted. Graduates of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland also receive the traditional "Licenciate of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons and Physicians in Ireland" (LRCP&SI), which was awarded before the RCSI became an Affiliate of the National University of Ireland and thus was allowed grant degrees, under the Medical Practitioners Act (1978). The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland ( RCSI) (Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn is a Dublin -based private medical institution situated on St The National University of Ireland ( NUI) (Ollscoil na hÉireann is a federal University system of constituent universities, previously called
In Italy, admission to medical faculties, in every university of the Country, is administered by the Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR), the Ministry of University and Research of the Italian Republic. The most important criteria for admission is the so called Numero chiuso i. e. the number of new Medicine doctor who can be instructed in a year (connected with the statistical retirements of the old doctors). In September, after the conclusion of a 5 year high school (in July), there is an “admission exam”, in every university with a medical faculty, with the same 80 questions (general culture, logics, math and physic, biology, chemistry) in the same moment all around the Country.
The course of study lasts 6 years or 12 semesters. During the first 3 years students are engaged in pre-clinical courses (Anatomy, histology, chemistry, physics, cell biology, genetics, physiology, biochemistry, immunology, pathological physiology and anatomy, microbiology). The contact with patients begins, however, already at the 3rd year. The remaining 3 years are comprised of rotations (tirocini) at different hospital departments, but also in a number of clinical (or not) theoretical courses. In the term of 6 years there are about 36 exams, ad a number of tirocini.
At the end the students have to expose a thesis or dissertion that can be based on original experimental work by the student, or on a review of academic literature, and finally they gain the academic degree Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia, Doctor of medicine and surgery (Dott. ), which in accordance with the Bologna process is comparable with a master's degree qualification. The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords is to create the European higher education area by making Academic degree standards and quality assurance standards Now doctors must complete a three month, supervised, not-paid internship in a hospital, after which they take the Esame di Stato, state (license) examination, and are eligible to practice medicine as general practitioners.
In the year of Esame di Stato the doctors, after another competitive examination, can begin a Scuola di Specializzazione Medica (School of Medical Specialisation), which is an additional four to six years of supervised training, and also theoretical courses, in their area of expertise (e. g. anesthesiology, cardiology, dermatology, emergency medicine, gastroenterology, hematology, immunology and allergology, internal medicine, infectious disease, nephrology, neurology, obstetrics and gynecology, pathology, pediatric medicine, psychiatry, radiology, oncology, general surgery, neurosurgery, orthopaedics, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, plastic surgery, medical genetics).
In the Netherlands and Belgium, medical students receive respectively 6 and 7 years of university education prior to their graduation. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those
In the Netherlands, students used to receive four years of the preclinical training, followed by two years of clinical training in hospitals. However, for a number of medical schools this has recently changed to three years preclinical training, followed by three years of clinical training. After 6 years students graduate as basisarts (comparable with Doctor of Medicine), which in accordance with the Bologna process is comparable with a master's degree qualification. Doctor of Medicine ( MD or MD, from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor meaning "Teacher of Medicine" is a doctoral The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords is to create the European higher education area by making Academic degree standards and quality assurance standards All medical students are permitted entry from the highest level of secondary school: VWO, the entrant is not required to have a previous bachelor's degrees qualification. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and
The Belgian medical education is much more based on theoretical knowledge, whereas in the Netherlands medical education is focused more on skill than theoretical knowledge. In Belgium the first three years of education lead up to a bachelor's degree, followed by a four-year master's program.
Medical education in Norway begins with a six to six and a half year undergraduate university program. Admission requires a relatively high GPA from secondary school, with the medical program at the University of Oslo requiring the highest, although the GPA may be raised with post-secondary education and relevant work experience. The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo Universitas Osloensis is the oldest and largest University in Norway, situated in the Norwegian capital It is therefore not uncommon for future medical students to get a university degree before enrollment in the medical program. Upon completion, students are awarded a candidatus/candidata medicinae (cand. med. ) degree. Following this, the Norwegian Registration Authority for Health Personnel (Statens autorisasjonskontor for helsepersonell) requires a minimum of 18 months of internship (turnustjeneste) before granting a medical license. Once the doctor has got a license to practice, he or she is able to apply for a post to start specialist training. There are currently 43 recognized medical specialties in Norway.
In Romania, medical school is a department of a medical university, which typically includes Dentistry and Pharmacy departments as well. The name facultate is used for departments in their universities too, but the Medicine departments distinguish themselves by the length of studies (6 years), which grants to graduates a status equivalent to that of a Master in Science. The Medicine departments are also marked by reduced flexibility - in theory, a student in a regular university can take courses from different departments, like Chemistry and Geography (although it usually doesn't happen, majors being clearly defined), while the medical universities do not have any extra offers for their students, due to their specialization. Admission to medical faculty is usually awarded by passing a Human Biology, Organic Chemistry and/or Physics test. The program lasts 6 years, with first 2 years being preclinical and last 4 years being mostly clinical. After these six years, one has to take the national licence exam (which consists of mostly clinically-oriented questions, but some questions also deal with basic sciences) and has to write a thesis in any field he/she studied. Final award is Doctor-Medic (titlu onorific) (shortened Dr. ), which is not an academic degree (similar to Germany). All graduates have to go through residency and specialization exams after that in order to practice, although older graduates had different requirements and training (e. g. , clinical rotations similar to sub-internship) and might still be able to practice Family Medicine / General Medicine.
Medical education in Sweden begins with a five and a half year undergraduate university program. Upon completion, students are awarded a University Medical Degree (Läkarexamen). Following this the National board of health and welfare (Socialstyrelsen) requires a minimum of 18 months of clinical internship (Allmäntjänstgöring) before granting a medical license. This internship consists of surgery (3–6 months), internal medicine (3–6 months), psychiatry (three months) and family medicine (six months). Once the doctor has got a license to practice, the doctor is able to apply for a post to start his/her specialist training. There are currently 52 recognized medical specialties in Sweden. The specialist training has a duration of minimum five years, after which the doctor is granted formal qualification as a specialist.
In Turkey medical education is quite like the one in Thailand. All the high school graduates who wish to pursue further education are required to take an MCQ exam abbreviated by OSS. The exam covers most of the high school and secondary school curricula. Currently there are disputes about the exam's objectivity. A student who scores high enough gets a place in a faculty of his/her desire.
Medical education takes six years, first three years being Pre-clinical years and the latter three being Clinical years. Right after graduation, graduates can either work as GPs or take another exam called TUS (Medical Specialization Examination) to do residency in a particular department of a particular hospital.
Most of the medical schools in Turkey are state schools but the number of private schools are getting higher. Language of instruction is Turkish but few universities also offer schools with English being language of instruction. This makes Turkey a popular place to study medicine for students from near areas like The Balkans, The Middle East and to a lesser extent North Africa.
Medical degrees in Ukraine were offered only in institutions called medical universities, which are separate from traditional universities. However, some medical schools are now associated with classical universities. These include:
There are currently 32 institutions which offer medical degrees in the United Kingdom. The Crimea State Medical University is one of the oldest medical universities in Ukraine. Lugansk State Medical University (Луганського державного медичного університету located in the city of Luhansk, is one of the oldest The Odessa State Medical University ( OSMU; Ukrainian Одеський державний медичний університет, ОДМУ) is a In the United Kingdom, medical school generally refers to a department within a University which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners This list of medical schools in the United Kingdom includes all thirty-two medical schools in the United Kingdom which are recognised by the General Medical Council In the United Kingdom, medical school generally refers to a department within a University which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners Completion of a medical degree in the UK results in the award of the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery. Admission requirements to the schools varies; most insist on solid A-Levels/Highers, a good performance in an aptitude test such as the UKCAT, the BMAT or the GAMSAT, and usually an interview. The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT is a test that is beginning to be used in the selection process by a consortium of UK university Medical and Dental Schools The BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT is an Aptitude test used as part of the admissions process for Medicine, Veterinary Medicine or Physiological The Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test (more commonly known as the GAMSAT) is a test used to select candidates applying to study medicine dentistry and veterinary
Methods of education are diverse, with some courses offering problem-based learning, some having a more traditional pre-clinical/clinical structure, and others combining several approaches in an integrated approach. Problem-based learning (PBL is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences
Following qualification, UK doctors enter a generalised two-year, competency-based "foundation programme", gaining full GMC (General Medical Council) registration at the end of foundation year one, and applying for specialist training (in medicine, surgery, general practice etc. Modernising Medical Careers (MMC was a programme for postgraduate medical training introduced in the UK from 2005 onwards The General Medical Council (the GMC) is the regulator of the medical profession in the United Kingdom. ) after foundation year two.
Many medical schools offer intercalated degree programmes to allow students to focus on an area of research outside their medical degree for a year.
Some medical schools offer graduate entry programmes, which are typically accelerated (i. e. shorter courses). These may restrict entry to those who hold degrees in, or have previously worked in, other areas of healthcare, or may require a degree (not specifically in a science subject).
A person accepted into a medical school and enrolled in an educational program in medicine, with the goal of becoming a medical doctor, is referred to as a medical student or student doctor. Medical students are generally considered to be at the earliest stage of the medical career pathway. In some locations they are required to be registered with a government body.
Medical students typically engage in both basic science and practical clinical coursework during their tenure in medical school. Course structure and length vary greatly among countries (see above).