Classification and external resources
|Skin of a patient after 3 days of measles infection.|
|ICD-10||B05.. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision ( ICD -10) is a coding of diseases and signs symptoms abnormal findings A00-A79 - Bacterial infections and other intestinal infectious diseases and STDs (A00-A09 Intestinal Infectious diseases ( -|
Measles, also known as rubeola, is a disease caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The Diseases Database is a free Website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions Symptoms, and Medications. MedlinePlus, with the MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, is a website network containing Health information from the world's largest medical Library eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996 by Scott Plantz and Richard Lavely two medical doctors Virus classification involves naming and placing Viruses into a taxonomic system An RNA virus is a Virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid as its Genetic material. The Mononegavirales are an order of Viruses comprising species that have a Non-segmented, negative sense RNA Genome Paramyxoviruses are Viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order they are negative-sense single-stranded Morbillivirus is a genus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family of Viruses in the order Mononegavirales. In biology a type is that which fixes a name to a Taxon. Depending on the nomenclature code which is applied to the organism in question a type may be a specimen A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Paramyxoviruses are Viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order they are negative-sense single-stranded Morbillivirus is a genus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family of Viruses in the order Mononegavirales.
Measles is spread through respiration (contact with fluids from an infected person's nose and mouth, either directly or through aerosol transmission), and is highly contagious—90% of people without immunity sharing a house with an infected person will catch it. FLUID ( F ast L ight '''U'''ser '''I'''nterface D esigner is a graphical editor that is used to produce FLTK Source code An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor Airborne precautions should be taken for all suspected cases of measles.
The incubation period usually lasts for 4–12 days (during which there are no symptoms). Incubation period is the Time elapsed between exposure to a Pathogenic Organism, or Chemical or radiation, and when Symptoms A symptom' (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident misfortune that which befalls" from συμπίπτω, "I befall" from Infected people remain contagious from the appearance of the first symptoms until 3–5 days after the rash appears. A rash is a change of the Skin which affects its color appearance or Texture.
Reports of measles go as far back to at least 600 B. C. however, the first scientific description of the disease and its distinction from smallpox is attributed to the Persian physician Ibn Razi (Rhazes) 860-932 who published a book entitled "The Book of Smallpox and Measles" (in Arabic: Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah). Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia In roughly the last 150 years, measles has been estimated to have killed about 200 million people worldwide.  In 1954, the virus causing the disease was isolated from an 11-year old boy from the US, David Edmonston, and adapted and propagated on chick embryo tissue culture. Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Tissue culture is the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism  To date, 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified.  Licensed vaccines to prevent the disease became available in 1963. A vaccine is a biological preparation which is used to establish or improve immunity to a particular disease Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
German measles is an unrelated condition caused by the rubella virus. Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a Disease caused by Rubella virus Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a Disease caused by Rubella virus
The classical symptoms of measles include a fever for at least three days, the three Cs—cough, coryza (runny nose) and conjunctivitis (red eyes). In Medicine, a cough ( Latin: tussis) is a sudden and often repetitively occurring defence Reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages Coryza is a word describing the symptoms of a head cold. It describes the Inflammation of the Mucus membranes lining the Nasal cavity which usually Conjunctivitis (commonly called " Pink Eye " or " Red Eye " in North America and " Madras eye " in India) is an inflammation The fever may reach up to 40° Celsius (104° Fahrenheit). The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 Koplik's spots seen inside the mouth are pathognomonic (diagnostic) for measles but are not often seen, even in real cases of measles, because they are transient and may disappear within a day of arising. Koplik's spots (kop'liks are small irregular red spots with a minute bluish white speck in the center of each seen on the buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa ( Pathognomonic (often misspelled as pathognomic and sometimes as pathomnemonic) is an adjective of Greek origin (παθογνωμονικό) often used in Medicine
The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash that begins several days after the fever starts. Erythema is redness of the Skin caused by Capillary congestion It starts on the head before spreading to cover most of the body, often causing itching. Itch ( Latin: pruritus) is an unpleasant Sensation that evokes the desire or Reflex to scratch The rash is said to "stain", changing colour from red to dark brown, before disappearing.
Clinical diagnosis of measles requires a history of fever of at least three days together with at least one of the three Cs. Observation of Koplik's spots is also diagnostic of measles. Koplik's spots (kop'liks are small irregular red spots with a minute bluish white speck in the center of each seen on the buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa (
Alternatively, laboratory diagnosis of measles can be done with confirmation of positive measles IgM antibodies or isolation of measles virus RNA from respiratory specimens. Immunoglobulin M, or IgM for short is a basic Antibody that is present on B cells It is the primary antibody against A and B In cases of measles infection following secondary vaccine failure IgM antibody may not be present. In these cases serological confirmation may be made by showing IgG antibody rises by Enzyme immunoasay or complement fixation. In children, where phlebotomy is inappropriate, saliva can be collected for salivary measles specific IgA test. Immunoglobulin A ( IgA) is an Antibody playing a critical role in mucosal immunity
Positive contact with other patients known to have measles adds strong epidemiological evidence to the diagnosis. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the Health and Illness of populations and serves as the foundation and Logic of interventions made in the
There is no specific treatment or antiviral therapy for uncomplicated measles. Most patients with uncomplicated measles will recover with rest and supportive treatment.
Some patients will develop pneumonia as a sequela to the measles. Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal Histologically, a unique cell can be found in the paracortical region of hyperplastic lymph nodes in patients affected with this condition. This cell, known as the Warthin-Finkeldey cell, is a multinucleated giant with eosinophilic cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions. A Warthin-Finkeldey cell is a small multinucleated cell, found in the paracortical region of hyperplastic Lymph nodes in some patients of Measles and Inclusion bodies are nuclear or Cytoplasmic aggregates of stainable substances usually proteins
The measles is a highly contagious airborne pathogen which spreads primarily via the respiratory system. The virus is transmitted in respiratory secretions, and can be passed from person to person via aerosol droplets containing virus particles, such as those produced by a coughing patient. Once transmission occurs, the virus infects the epithelial cells of its new host, and may also replicate in the urinary tract, lymphatic system, conjunctivae, blood vessels, and central nervous system. 
Patients with the measles should be placed on droplet precautions.
Humans are the only known natural hosts of measles, although the virus can infect some non-human primate species.
Complications with measles are relatively common, ranging from relatively mild and less serious diarrhea, to pneumonia and encephalitis (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis), corneal ulceration leading to corneal scarring Complications are usually more severe amongst adults who catch the virus. In Medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences) is frequent loose or liquid Bowel movements Acute diarrhea Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal Encephalitis is an acute Inflammation of the Brain, commonly caused by a viral Infection. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ( SSPE) is a rare chronic progressive Encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults caused by a Persistent See Corneal ulcers in animals for information about the condition in animals For corneal abrasions in dogs and cats see Corneal ulcer. Corneal abrasion is a medical condition involving the loss of the surface Epithelial
The fatality rate from measles for otherwise healthy people in developed countries is low: approximately 1 death per thousand cases. In underdeveloped nations with high rates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates of 10 percent are common. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing In immunocompromised patients, the fatality rate is approximately 30 percent. In Medicine, immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the Immune system 's ability to fight Infectious disease is compromised
Measles is a significant infectious disease because, while the rate of complications is not high, the disease itself is so infectious that the sheer number of people who would suffer complications in an outbreak amongst non-immune people would quickly overwhelm available hospital resources. If vaccination rates fall, the number of non-immune persons in the community rises, and the risk of an outbreak of measles consequently rises.
In developed countries, most children are immunized against measles by the age of 18 months, generally as part of a three-part MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella). The MMR vaccine is a mixture of three live Attenuated viruses administered via injection for Immunization against Measles, Mumps and Rubella Mumps or epidemic Parotitis is a Viral disease of the Human species Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a Disease caused by Rubella virus The vaccination is generally not given earlier than this because children younger than 18 months usually retain anti-measles immunoglobulins (antibodies) transmitted from the mother during pregnancy. Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily A "booster" vaccine is then given between the ages of four and five. Vaccination rates have been high enough to make measles relatively uncommon. Even a single case in a college dormitory or similar setting is often met with a local vaccination program, in case any of the people exposed are not already immune. In developing countries, measles remains common.
Unvaccinated populations are at risk for the disease. After vaccination rates dropped in northern Nigeria in the early 2000s due to religious and political objections, the number of cases rose significantly, and hundreds of children died. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal  A 2005 measles outbreak in Indiana was attributed to children whose parents refused vaccination. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union  In the early 2000s the MMR vaccine controversy in the United Kingdom regarding a potential link between the combined MMR vaccine (vaccinating children from mumps, measles and rubella) and autism prompted a comeback in the measles party, where parents deliberately infect the child with measles to build up the child's immunity without an injection. The MMR vaccine controversy is over the safety of the MMR vaccine. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Language development. The terminology This practice poses many health risks to the child, and has been discouraged by the public health authorities.  Scientific evidence provides no support for the hypothesis that MMR plays a role in causing autism. Evidence-based medicine (EBM aims to apply Evidence gained from the Scientific method to certain parts of medical practice  However, the MMR scare in Britain caused uptake of the vaccine to plunge, and measles cases came back: 2007 saw 971 cases in England and Wales, the biggest rise in occurrence in measles cases since records began in 1995. 
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), measles is a leading cause of vaccine preventable childhood mortality. Worldwide, the fatality rate has been significantly reduced by partners in the Measles Initiative: the American Red Cross, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United Nations Foundation, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO). Measles Initiative (MI launched in 2001 is a long-term commitment and Partnership among leaders in Public health and supports the goal of reducing Measles The American Red Cross (also known as the American National Red Cross) is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance disaster relief and education inside Globally, measles deaths are down 60 percent, from an estimated 873,000 deaths in 1999 to 345,000 in 2005. Africa has seen the most success, with annual measles deaths falling by 75 percent in just 5 years, from an estimated 506,000 to 126,000. 
The joint press release by members of the Measles Initiative brings to light another benefit of the fight against measles: "Measles vaccination campaigns are contributing to the reduction of child deaths from other causes. Measles Initiative (MI launched in 2001 is a long-term commitment and Partnership among leaders in Public health and supports the goal of reducing Measles They have become a channel for the delivery of other life-saving interventions, such as bed nets to protect against malaria, de-worming medicine and vitamin A supplements. Combining measles immunization with other health interventions is a contribution to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal Number 4: a two-thirds reduction in child deaths between 1990 and 2015. "
Indigenous measles were declared to have been eliminated in North, Central, and South America; the last endemic case in the region was reported on November 12, 2002. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.  Outbreaks are still occurring, however, following importations of measles viruses from other world regions. In June 2006, there was an outbreak in Boston which resulted from a resident who had recently visited India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  In 2007, the country Japan has become a nidus for measles. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Japan has suffered a record number of cases, and a number of universities and other institutions in the country have closed in an attempt to contain the outbreak. Major outbreak of measles was registered in the beginning of 2008 in Israel. There were about 1000 cases of the decease since August 2007 and till May 2008 (in sharp contrast to just some dozen cases year before). Majority of infected are children from ultra-Orthodox families which refused vaccination. In Michigan in the fall of 2007, a confirmed case of measles occurred in a girl who had been vaccinated and who apparently contracted it overseas. There were at least 6 other suspected cases, all among children who had been vaccinated. There was outbreak having originated in Switzerland which has spread to countries such as Austria and the United States.  Between January 1 and April 25, 2008, a total of 64 confirmed measles cases were preliminarily reported in the United States to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,, the most reported by this date for any year since 2001. Of the 64 cases, 54 were associated with importation of measles from other countries into the United States, and 63 of the 64 patients were unvaccinated or had unknown or undocumented vaccination status. 
The largest outbreak in the United States so far this year is underway in Pima County, Arizona. Pima County is a county in the south central region of the US The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. 22 cases have been confirmed as of June 06, 2008. The outbreak began in mid-February. All Physicians and health care employees are now being required to be vaccinated. The outbreak has spread into Pinal County, Arizona where one infant has contracted the virus. The host carrier has been identified and all of the 22 people who have the measles in Arizona have been linked together. 
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated