Maximilian Josef Garnerin, Count von Montgelas (September 12, 1759 – June 14, 1838) was a Bavarian statesman, from a noble family in Savoy. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 1759 ( MDCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 1276 - While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 For the two French départements of the region of Savoy see Savoie and Haute-Savoie Savoy ( French His father John Sigmund Garnerin, Baron Montgelas, entered the military service of Maximilian III, Elector of Bavaria, and married the Countess Ursula von Trauner. Maximilian III Joseph ( 28 March 1727 – 30 December 1777) was Prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1745 to 1777 Maximilian Josef, their eldest son, was born in the Bavarian capital Munich on the September 10, 1759. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Year 1759 ( MDCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
He was educated successively at Nancy, Strasbourg and Ingolstadt. Nancy (nɑ̃si archaic Nanzig Nanzeg is a city and commune in the Lorraine région of northeastern France Strasbourg (Strasbourg stʁazbuʁ Alsatian: Strossburi,; Straßburg) is the capital and principal City of the Alsace région Ingolstadt (ˈɪŋgɔlˌʃtat Austro-Bavarian: Inglstådt) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, Germany Being a Savoyard on his father's side, he naturally felt the French influence, which was then strong in Germany, with peculiar force. For the two French départements of the region of Savoy see Savoie and Haute-Savoie Savoy ( French Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. To the end of his life he spoke and wrote French more correctly and with more ease than German. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Nevertheless the Munich-born Montgelas always wanted to be addressed as a Bavarian by nationality.
In 1779 he entered the public service in the department of the censorship of books. Year 1779 ( MDCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor The Elector Charles Theodore, who had at first favored him, became offended on discovering that he was associated with the Illuminati, a secret society in Bavaria that held to the most anti-clerical propositions of the Enlightenment. The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl "Illuminata" redirects here For the 1998 John Turturro film see Illuminata (film. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Montgelas therefore went to Zweibrücken, where he was helped by his brother Illuminati to find employment at the Court of the Duke, the head of a branch of the Wittelsbach family. Zweibrücken is a City in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Schwarzbach river at the border of the Palatinate forest. The Wittelsbach family is a European Royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. From this refuge also he was driven by orthodox enemies of the Illuminati.
The brother of the Duke of Zweibrücken, Maximilian Joseph took him into his service as Private Secretary. Maximilian I (also known as Maximilian Joseph) ( May 27, 1756 &ndash October 13, 1825) was Prince-elector of When his employer succeeded to the Duchy, Montgelas was named Minister, and in that capacity he attended the Second Congress of Rastatt in 1798, where the reconstruction of Germany, which was the consequence of the French Revolution, was in full swing. The Second Congress of Rastatt, which was opened in December 1797, was intended to rearrange the map of Germany by providing compensation for those princes Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an
In 1799, the Duke of Zweibrücken succeeded to the Electorate of Bavaria, and he kept Montgelas as his most trusted adviser. Year 1799 ( MDCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Montgelas was the inspirer and director of the policy by which the Electorate of Bavaria was turned into a kingdom in 1806, and was very much increased in size by the annexation of church lands, free towns and small lordships. The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or As this end was achieved by undeviating servility to Napoleon, and the most cynical disregard of the rights of Bavaria's German neighbors, Montgelas became the type of an unpatriotic politician in the eyes of all Germans who revolted against the supremacy of France. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. From his own conduct and his written defence of his policy it is clear that such sentiments as theirs appeared to be merely childish to Montgelas.
He was a thorough politician of the 18th century type, who saw and attempted to see nothing except that Bavaria had always been threatened by the house of Habsburg, had been supported by Prussia for purely selfish reasons, and could look for useful support against these two only from France, who had selfish reasons of her own for wishing to counterbalance the power both of Austria and Prussia in Germany. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state As late as 1813, when Napoleon's power was visibly breaking down, and Montgelas knew the internal weakness of his empire well from visits to Paris, he still continued to maintain that France was necessary to Bavaria. Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The decision of the king to turn against Napoleon in 1814 was taken under the influence of his son and of Marshal Wrede rather than of Montgelas, though the minister would not have been influenced by any feeling of sentimentality to adhere to an ally who had ceased to be useful. Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I) ( August 25 1786 in Strasbourg &ndash February 29, 1868 in Nice Karl (or Carl) Philipp Josef Wrede Freiherr von Wrede 1st Fürst von Wrede ( April 29, 1767 – December 12, 1838) In internal affairs, Montgelas carried out a policy of secularization and of administrative centralization by determined means, which showed that he had never wholly renounced his opinions of the time of the Enlightenment movement. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century
In the field in interior politics he can be regarded as the most successful German politician of the early 19th century with a long list of astonishing achievements. Already in 1796, when the Duke of Zweibrücken (after the French advance towards Zweibrücken) was a landless prince exiled in Ansbach, Montgelas had developed a masterplan for the future modernisation of Bavaria. Ansbach, or Anspach, originally Onolzbach, is a town in Bavaria, Germany. This lengthy paper, the "Ansbacher mémoire" was rediscovered in the 1960s and published in 1970 by the Bavarian historian Eberhard Weis, who also is Montgelas' biographer. After 1799 when Maximilian Joseph succeeded to the electorate of Bavaria, Montgelas as his primary adviser and leading statesman very much followed his concept throughout the following years in a very uncompromising manner:
Montgelas enforced the taxation of the nobility and the clergy. Maximilian I (also known as Maximilian Joseph) ( May 27, 1756 &ndash October 13, 1825) was Prince-elector of Taxation went along with a complete economic description and measurement of Bavaria leading to an outstanding cadastral system. Montgelas passed the first modern constitution for Bavaria in 1808, which included the abolition of any relics of serfdom that had survived until then. Montgelas was responsible for the abolition of the torture in 1812 by introducing a new penal code based on contemporary humanitarian standards. He introduced compulsory school education, compulsory military service, compulsory vaccination. He reorganised the Bavarian administration by a centralised cabinet of modern ministries instead of a multitude of chambers. Montgelas was also responsible for the abolition of all tolls within the kingdom of Bavaria thus enabling free trade within the country. And he designed and passed a regulation for civil servants, the "Dienstpragmatik", which became a model for civil service in Germany as whole. According to its rules, admission to any service within the public administration was depending no more on the quality of birth and the Catholic denomination, but solely on the quality of education. Thus Montgelas broke the preponderance of the nobility in the higher and decisive ranks of public administration. Civil servants were granted a sufficient salary and their widows a pension. Thus Montgelas refounded the civil service on new ethics and created a social group of servants loyal only to the crown and kingdom of Bavaria.
In order to reduce the political and cultural influence of the Catholic church in Bavaria in favor of the secular state, Montgelas extended civil rights, including citizenship, to Protestants. The Jewish communities were awarded a secure legal status, although there remained a discriminating special registration. 
Along these lines, Montgelas secularized -- that is seized for the use and benefit of the State -- many Catholic institutions, most especially the Bavarian monasteries. According to principles of the Enlightenment and the Napoleonic reorganization of Europe, the expropriation of Church property and the suppression of Church institutions were essential steps to the modernization of the State. Since the earliest centuries of the Middle Ages, the monasteries had owned large stretches of land and governed the farmers working that land. Montgelas, again in keeping with principles of the Enlightenment and the Napoleonic reorganization of Europe that favored the establishment of absolute secular authority over against religion, eliminating such exercises of authority by and resources from church institutions was necessary. Monastic life as such was viewed by Montgelas, in keeping with the most religiously hostile forms of Enlightenment thinking, as useless, at best, and as a breeding ground of "superstition. "
In Montgelas's eyes, any form of parliamentary representation was as dangerous to the modern state as was the Church. Even the powerless and highly plutocratic Parliament introduced by the constitution of 1808 practically never came into being. Montgelas himself declared, that the repeated wars prevented any convocation of the Parliament. In fact he preferred his status as a benevolent dictator and successfully evaded any control by any form of Parliament. Only after Montgelas' dismissal in 1817, the second Bavarian constitution of 1818 introduced a real bicameral Parliament (to the standards of the era).
His enemies persuaded the king to dismiss him in 1817, and he spent the remainder of his life as a member of the Bavarian House of Lords ("Kammer der Reichsräte") till his death in 1838. Year 1817 ( MDCCCXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1838 ( MDCCCXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common He had married the Countess von Arco in 1803, and had eight children; in 1809 he was made a count. 1803 ( MDCCCIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin As a typical generous nobleman of the 18th century he allowed his very attractive wife to have her lovers and even invited some of them to his palace.
Eberhard Weis: Montgelas - Zwischen Revolution und Reform 1759-1799, München, Beck Verlag, 2nd edition, 1988, ISBN 3-406-32974-8
Eberhard Weis: Montgelas - Der Architekt des modernen bayerischen Staates 1799-1838, München, Beck Verlag 2005, ISBN 3-406-03567-1
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and its formation as a stem duchy in the 6th century through its inclusion in the Holy Roman Empires This is a list of the men who have served in the capacity of Minister President or equivalent office in Bavaria from the mid-18th century to the present Bavaria under Maximilian I (also known as Maximilian Joseph) ( May 27, 1756 &ndash October 13, 1825) was Prince-elector of Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I) ( August 25 1786 in Strasbourg &ndash February 29, 1868 in Nice The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
Count Matthäus von Vieregg
|Prime Minister of Bavaria|
1799 – 1817
Count Heinrich Aloys von Reigersberg