Maus: A Survivor's Tale is a memoir by Art Spiegelman, presented as a graphic novel. Pantheon Books is an American imprint with Editorial independence that is part of the Knopf Publishing Group which was acquired by Random House A limited series is a term originated by Marvel Comics referring to a Comic book series with a set number of issues A Art Spiegelman (born February 15, 1948) is an American Comics artist editor and advocate for the medium of comics best known for his Art Spiegelman (born February 15, 1948) is an American Comics artist editor and advocate for the medium of comics best known for his A It recounts the struggle of Spiegelman's father to survive the Holocaust as a Polish Jew and draws largely on his father's recollections of his experiences. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The book also follows the author's troubled relationship with his father and the way the effects of war reverberate through generations of a family. In 1992 it won a Pulitzer Prize Special Award. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The Pulitzer Prize jury has the option of awarding special citations where they consider necessary All people are presented as anthropomorphic animals (for example, all Jews are depicted as mice, hence the name Maus which is German for "mouse"). The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. The New York Times described the selection of Maus for the honor: "The Pulitzer board members . . . found the cartoonist's depiction of Nazi Germany hard to classify. "
The book alternates the stories told by Spiegelman's father Vladek Spiegelman about life in Poland before and during the Second World War with the contemporary life of Art, Vladek and their loved ones in the Rego Park neighborhood of New York City. Vladek Spiegelman or Władek Spiegleman ( October 11, 1906 - August 18, 1982) is the subject of the Pulitzer Prize -winning Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Rego Park is a diverse neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Queens. The City of New York The book recounts the struggle of Vladek Spiegelman living with his family in Radomsko, Częstochowa, Sosnowiec and Bielsko in the late 1930s and his tragic odyssey during the war which ultimately led him to Auschwitz as prisoner 175113. Radomsko is a town in central Poland with 50618 inhabitants (2006 Częstochowa is a city in south Poland on the Warta River with 248894 inhabitants (2004 Sosnowiec is a city located in the south of Poland. A county capital neighbouring Katowice, and a mining and industrial region it was one of the largest cities See also Bielsko County, and Bielsko Lublin Voivodeship. Bielsko (Bielitz Bílsko was until 1950 an independent town situated The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany
The book has a satirical feel about it since the characters are all presented as various types of anthropomorphic animals, according to nationality or race. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human Anthropomorphism is the attribution of uniquely Human characteristics to non-human creatures and beings natural and supernatural phenomena material states and objects
Throughout the book, Art Spiegelman confronts his complex and often conflicted relationship with his father. For example, Vladek exhibits racial prejudice against blacks despite his own experiences of anti-Semitism. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that The term black people usually refers to a racial group of Humans with dark Skin color, but the term has also been used to categorise a number of diverse Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility He is also presented as stingy and a person who makes life very difficult for those around him, including his first wife Anja (Art's mother, who committed suicide) and his second wife Mala, both concentration camp survivors. See also List of Nazi-German concentration camps, Extermination camp Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany under Hitler maintained The personality of the present day Vladek seems quite different from that of the man in the concentration camps, where he was resourceful and compassionate.
The author's articulation of the Holocaust is the main theme of the two graphic novels, giving the book a metabiographical aspect. Spiegelman often mentions the apprehension he feels in trying to express the inexpressible. The novel depicts the Holocaust through the perspectives of a survivor and of those who did not experience it directly, but are deeply connected to it nonetheless.
- The Jews are represented by mice. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ A mouse (plural mice) is a small Animal that belongs to one
- The Germans are represented by cats. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic
- The Americans are represented by dogs. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order
- The Poles are represented by pigs. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times
- The Roma (Gypsies) are represented as gypsy moths. The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin (found on page 133 of Maus II)
- The French are represented by frogs. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This article is about the block cipher algorithm For the ultrafast laser pulse measurement technique see Frequency-resolved optical gating.
- The Swedes are represented by reindeer. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
- The British are represented by fish. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two (found on page 131 of Maus II)
- The child of a Jew and a German is shown as a mouse with cat stripes. (found on page 131 of Maus II)
- In the background of page 35 of Maus I, there are rabbits which are unspecified as a group. Rabbits are small Mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world
The animals are symbolic of the different nationalities and races for a number of reasons::
- The Jews, as mice, can be seen as weak and helpless victims, as well as satirizing the Nazi portrayal of Jews as vermin. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human Too, this may symbolize the resourcefulness many Jews exhibited during the Holocaust and the inability of the Nazis to completely wipe out such a species.
- After the comic was released in Poland many Poles found it very offensive to be represented by pigs. Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times However, there are many Polish characters who are portrayed sympathetically or positively such as the Spiegelmans' governess or Mrs. Motonowa who hides Vladek and Anja at great personal risk. Spiegelman explained that he chose pigs in good faith because of their resemblance to famous American cartoon characters like Miss Piggy and Porky Pig. Spi(egelman(n (German for "mirror man" is a surname and may refer to Art Spiegelman, American comics artist James Spigelman Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times Miss Pigathius "Piggy" Lee is a Muppet character primarily played by Frank Oz and sometimes Richard Hunt in Season 1 of The Muppet Show Porky Pig is an animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros The choice may also reflect the traditional agricultural Polish way of life. 
- The French being frogs would appear to be a direct reference to an oft-used nickname, itself a lampoon of the fact that the French are supposedly renowned for eating frogs: it is also, however, suggested that Spiegelman wanted a certain amount of sliminess about the French, as he says to his (French) wife: "Bunnies are too innocent for the French. . . Think of the years of anti-Semitism. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility "
With the exception of the Americans (dogs), the animal characters are all drawn alike. For instance, most of the Jewish mice resemble each other regardless of sex or age. Clothing and other details are used in order to tell them apart: Spiegelman himself, for instance, is always wearing a white shirt and a black sleeveless overshirt; his French wife, Françoise (herself portrayed as a mouse, because she converted to Judaism), wears a striped t-shirt. Françoise Mouly (born 1955 is a Paris -born French artist and designer best known for her work with RAW, a showcase publication for cutting Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut While wandering the streets of their Nazi-occupied town, the Jews wear pig masks in order to show the trouble they went through to pass off as non-Jewish Poles.
The use of animals in the graphic novel may seem incongruous, but instead of creating social stereotypes, Spiegelman attempts to lampoon them and show how stupid it is to classify a human being based on nationality or ethnicity.  His images are not his: they were "borrowed from the Germans. . . Ultimately what the book is about is the commonality of human beings. It's crazy to divide things down along nationalistic or racial or religious lines. . . These metaphors, which are meant to self-destruct in my book - and I think they do self-destruct - still have a residual force and still get people worked up over them. "
The use of animals may also be used in order to detach the reader from real life. This may have been done to appeal to a younger generation of readers, yet still telling a story of survival and death during the holocaust. But instead of fully detaching the reader from the book, he shows a human aspect by illustrating how his father tells his story and by showing the emotions and relationships of the characters throughout. 
Maus was originally published as a three-page strip for Funny Aminals(cq), an underground comic published by Apex Novelties in 1972. In 1977, Spiegelman decided to lengthen the work, publishing most of the work serially in RAW magazine, a publication Spiegelman co-edited along with his wife Françoise Mouly. RAW was a groundbreaking Comics anthology edited by Art Spiegelman and Françoise Mouly and published from 1980 to 1991 Françoise Mouly (born 1955 is a Paris -born French artist and designer best known for her work with RAW, a showcase publication for cutting It was then published in its final form in two parts (Volume I: "My Father Bleeds History" and Volume II: "And Here My Troubles Began"), before eventually being integrated into a single volume. A CD-ROM edition also exists. CD-ROM (an initialism of "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory " is a pre-pressed Compact Disc that contains data accessible to but not writable
Since its publication, Maus has been the subject of numerous essays. Deborah R. Geis published a collection of essays involving Maus titled Considering Maus: Approaches to Art Spiegelman's "Survivor's Tale" of the Holocaust, which received criticism in an Image & Narrative essay for, among other things, excluding several essays praising and even the rare essay critiquing the graphic novel. 
Alan Moore praised Maus in a recommendations list for the website http://www.readyourselfraw.com, saying "I have been convinced that Art Spiegelman is perhaps the single most important comic creator working within the field and in my opinion Maus represents his most accomplished work to date…"
Maus has also been studied in schools. Alan Moore (born November 18 1953 in Northampton) is an English Writer most famous for his influential work in Comics, including the acclaimed  It is used both in courses dedicated to the study of modern English literature and Jewish culture.
Awards and nominations
- 1988 Angoulême International Comics Festival Awards - Religious Award: Christian Testimony & Prize for Best Comic Book: Foreign Comic Award (Maus: un survivant raconte). Angoulême International Comics Festival ( French: Festival International de la Bande Dessinée d'Angoulême) is the main comics festival in Europe A variety of religious awards has been presented to comics at the Angoulême International Comics Festival between 1985 and 2003 This Prize for Best Comic Book is awarded to comics authors at the Angoulême International Comics Festival.
- 1988 Urhunden Prize - Foreign Album (Maus). Urhunden Prizes have been given out each year by the Svenska Seriefrämjandet (Swedish Comicbook Association since 1987
- 1990 Max & Moritz Prizes - Special Prize (Maus). The Max & Moritz Prize is a prize for Comic books Comic strips and other similar materials which has been awarded at each of the biennial International Comics Shows
- 1992 Pulitzer Prize - Special Awards and Citations - Letters (Maus). The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, 
- 1992 Eisner Award - Best Graphic Album: Reprint (Maus II). The Will Eisner Comic Industry Award is a prize given for creative achievement in American Comic books It is named in honor of the pioneering writer and artist Will Eisner
- 1992 Harvey Award - Best Graphic Album of Previously Published Work (Maus II). The Harvey Awards, named for writer-artist Harvey Kurtzman (1924-1993 and coordinated by the publisher Fantagraphics are given for achievement in Comic books 
- 1993 Los Angeles Times Book Prize for Fiction (Maus II, A Survivor's Tale). The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily Newspaper published in Los Angeles California and distributed 
- 1993 Angoulême International Comics Festival Awards - Prize for Best Comic Book: Foreign comic (Maus: un survivant raconte, part II).
- 1993 Urhunden Prize - Foreign Album (Maus II).
- ISBN 0-394-74723-2, Volume One (paperback)
- ISBN 0-394-54155-3, Volume One (hardcover)
- ISBN 0-679-72977-1, Volume Two (paperback)
- ISBN 0-394-55655-0, Volume Two (hardcover)
- ISBN 0-679-41038-4, Hardcover set (both volumes in two books)
- ISBN 0-679-74840-7, Paperback boxed set
- ISBN 0-14-101408-3, Paperback containing both volumes in one book
- ISBN 0-679-40641-7, Hardcover containing both volumes in one book
- ^ Stanley, Alessandra. The National Book Critics Circle Award is an annual award given by the National Book Critics Circle (NBCC to promote the finest books and reviews published in "'Thousand Acres' Wins Fiction As 21 Pulitzer Prizes Are Given", New York Times, April 8, 1992. Events 217 - Roman Emperor Caracalla is Assassinated (and succeeded by his Praetorian Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar)
- ^ , Ian Johnston, On Spiegelman's Maus I and II
- ^ Krzysztof Masłoń, Goebbels' Tradition in the Comic Book
- ^ Prof. Marcuse, sample journal entries, Laura Byrne, journal entries for UCSB Hist 133D, Fall 2001 "Maus and the “Gray Zone”
- ^ a b Wally Hastings, Art Spiegelman's Maus
- ^ Art Spiegelman (http). Witness & Legacy - Contemporary Art about the holocaust:. Retrieved on February 14, 2006. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- ^ Ole Frahm, Review of Considering MAUS
- ^ RAW: "recommended by Alan Moore"
- ^ Teaching Resources for Art Spiegelman's Maus: A Survivor's Tale
- Art Spiegelman (http). Witness & Legacy - Contemporary Art about the Holocaust:. Retrieved on February 14, 2006. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Allen, Sara (1997). MAUS: A Narrative History of Family and Tragedy (http). Retrieved on July 27, 2006. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Feinstein, Stephen C. . Witness and Legacy (http). Witness & Legacy - Contemporary Art about the Holocaust:. Retrieved on February 14, 2006. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- McQuade, Donald (2003). Embodying Identity (pdf). Seeing & Writing 2. Retrieved on February 14, 2006. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Masłoń, Krzysztof. Goebbels' Tradition in the Comic Book (http). Retrieved on February 14, 2006. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Maus (http). National Museum of American Jewish History (1996). Retrieved on February 14, 2006. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Dooley, Michael (2005). The Unsinkable Denis Kitchen (http). AIGA Journal of Design. Retrieved on February 14, 2006. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
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