A match is a consumable tool for lighting a fire under controlled circumstances on demand. A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Matches are readily available, being sold by tobacconists and many other kinds of shops. A tobacconist is an expert dealer in tobacco and the related accoutrements Matches are rarely sold singly; they are sold in multiples, packaged in match boxes or matchbooks. A matchbook is a small Cardboard folder ( Matchcover) enclosing a quantity of Matches and having a coarse striking surface on the exterior A match is typically a wooden stick (usually sold in match boxes) or stiff paper stick (usually sold in matchbooks) coated at one end (the match head) with a material often containing the element phosphorus, which will ignite from the heat of friction if rubbed ("struck") against a suitable surface. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Phosphorus, (ˈfɒsfərəs is the Chemical element that has the symbol P and Atomic number 15 Friction is the Force resisting the relative motion of two Surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid (e  Gelatin is used as a binder in match heads.
There are two main types of matches: safety matches, which can be struck only against a specially prepared surface; and strike-anywhere matches, for which any solid surface can be used.
Match-type compositions may also be used to produce electric matches, which are fired electrically. An electric match is a device that uses an externally applied Electric current to ignite a combustible compound These items do not rely on the heat of friction.
match: 1350–1400; Middle English macche (wick) < Middle French meiche, Old French mesche < Vulgar Latin *mesca (lamp wick), metathetic variant of Latin myxa < Greek mýxa, μυξα, (mucus, nostril, nozzle of a lamp)
Historically, the term match referred to lengths of cord, or later cambric, impregnated with chemicals, and allowed to burn continuously. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of thumb|Close up photo of a candle wick A candle wick is a wick specifically adapted for use in a Candle. Middle French (le moyen français is a historical division of the French language which covers the period from (roughly 1340 to 1611. Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium Vulgar Latin (in Latin sermo vulgaris, "folk speech" is a Blanket term covering the popular Dialects and Sociolects of the Latin An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source Metathesis (məˈtæθəsɨs is a Sound change that alters the order of Phonemes in a Word. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly In vertebrates mucus is a slippery secretion produced by and covering Mucous membranes It is a viscous Colloid containing Antiseptic enzymes (such as A nozzle is a mechanical device or Orifice designed to control the characteristics of a Fluid flow as it exits (or enters an enclosed chamber or Pipe. A rope is a length of Fibers twisted or Braided together to improve strength for pulling and Connecting. Cambric or chambray is a lightweight Cotton cloth used as fabric for Lace and Needlework.  These were used to light fires and set off guns and cannons. A gun is a particular Weapon that propels Projectiles The projectile is generally fired through a hollow tube known as the gun's barrel. | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural Such matches were characterised by their burning speed, e. g. quick match and slow match; depending on their formulation, they could provide burning rates of between, typically, 1 second and 15 seconds per centimetre. A centimetre ( American spelling: centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one hundredth
The modern equivalent of this sort of match is the simple fuse, still used in pyrotechnics to obtain a controlled time delay before ignition. In an Explosive, Pyrotechnic device or military Munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function The term "pyrotechnics" can also be used for Fireworks events The original meaning of the word still persists in some pyrotechnics terms, such as black match (a black powder–impregnated fuse) and Bengal match (a firework producing a relatively long-burning, coloured flame). In Pyrotechnics, black match is a type of crude fuse, constructed of Cotton string fibers intimately coated with a dried Black powder slurry Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes But, when friction matches were developed, they became the main object meant by the term.
A predecessor of the match, small sticks of pinewood impregnated with sulfur were developed in China in 577 A. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Events By Place Europe Battle of Deorham: The Anglo-Saxons under Ceawlin of Wessex defeat the British Celts D. .
The first modern, self-igniting match was invented in 1805 by K. Chancel, assistant to Professor Louis Jacques Thénard of Paris. Louis Jacques Thénard ( May 4, 1777 in the village of La Louptière, Aube - June 21, 1857 in Paris) was a Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The head of the match consisted of a mixture of potassium chlorate, sulfur, sugar, and rubber. Potassium chlorate is a compound containing Potassium, Chlorine and Oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3 Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. They were ignited by dipping the tip of the match in a small asbestos bottle filled with sulfuric acid. Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. This kind of match was quite expensive and its usage was dangerous, so Chancel's matches never gained much popularity.
The first "friction match" was invented by English chemist John Walker in 1827. John Walker ( 29 May 1781 &ndash 1 May 1859) was an English chemist from Stockton-on-Tees, who in 1827 Early work had been done by Robert Boyle in the 1680s with phosphorus and sulfur, but his efforts had not produced useful results. Robert Boyle was a Natural philosopher, chemist physicist inventor and early Gentleman scientist, noted for his work in Physics and Chemistry Walker discovered a mixture of antimony(III) sulfide or stibnite, potassium chlorate, gum, and starch could be ignited by striking against any rough surface. Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a Sulfide Mineral with the formula Sb 2 S 3 Potassium chlorate is a compound containing Potassium, Chlorine and Oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3 Natural gums are Polysaccharides of natural origin capable of causing a large Viscosity increase in solution even at small concentrations Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Walker called the matches congreves, but the process was patented by Samuel Jones and the matches were sold as lucifer matches. Lucifer is a name frequently given to Satan in Christian belief The early matches had a number of problems - the flame was unsteady and the initial reaction was disconcertingly violent; additionally, the odor produced by the burning match was unpleasant. It is described as a firework odor. Despite these problems, the new matches were responsible for a marked increase in the number of smokers. Tobacco Smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried or cured leaves of the Tobacco plant most often in the form of a Cigarette. Lucifers reportedly could ignite explosively, sometimes throwing sparks at a considerable distance. In the Netherlands matches are still called lucifers. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
In 1830, Frenchman Charles Sauria added white phosphorus to remove the odor. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Phosphorus, (ˈfɒsfərəs is the Chemical element that has the symbol P and Atomic number 15 These new matches had to be kept in an airtight box but were popular. Unfortunately, those involved in the manufacture of the new matches were afflicted with phossy jaw and other bone disorders, and there was enough white phosphorus in one pack to kill a person. Phossy jaw, formally phosphorus necrosis of the jaw is a deadly occupational hazard for those who work with White phosphorus without proper safeguards There was a vociferous campaign to ban these matches once the dangers became known.
The noiseless match was invented in 1836 by the Hungarian János Irinyi, who was a student of chemistry. Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. János Irinyi ( May 17, 1817 &ndash December 17, 1895) janoʃ iriɲi sometimes also spelled János Irínyi)was a Hungarian Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties  An unsuccessful experiment by his professor, Meissner, gave Irinyi the idea to replace potassium chlorate with lead dioxide in the head of the phosphorus match. Lead(IV oxide, PbO2 also plumbic oxide and lead dioxide, is an Oxide of Lead, with lead in Oxidation state +4  He liquefied phosphorus in warm water and shook it in a glass foil, until it became granulated. A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete Solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would He mixed the phosphorus with lead and gum arabic, poured the paste-like mass into a jar, and dipped the pine sticks into the mixture and let them dry. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Gum arabic, a Natural gum also called gum acacia, and chaar gund or char goond (in India is the hardened Sap taken from two species When he tried them that evening, all of them lit evenly. Irinyi thus invented the noiseless match and sold the invention to István Rómer, a match manufacturer. Rómer, a rich Hungarian pharmacist living in Vienna, bought the invention and production rights from Irinyi, the poor student, for 60 forints. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. The forint ( Currency code HUF) is the Currency of Hungary. It is divided into 100 Fillér, although fillér coins have not been The production of matches was now fully underway. István Rómer became richer off Irinyi's invention, and Irinyi himself went on to publish articles and a textbook on chemistry and founded several match factories. 
The early matches, including the Noiseless match, were dangerous to both the users and the people making them. This was due to the use of white phosphorus.
The search for a replacement for white phosphorus led to what was known as the safety match. However, this term is now confusing as it covers both the modern safety match and the modern strike anywhere match. These two different types of matches are discussed separately below.
Both of these types of matches were more expensive to make than white phosphorus-based matches, and customers continued to buy white-phosphorus based matches. Laws prohibiting the use of white phosphorus in matches generally had to be passed before these safer types of matches came into widespread usage. Finland banned white-phosphorus based matches in 1872; Denmark in 1874; Sweden in 1879; Switzerland in 1881 and the Netherlands in 1901. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
An agreement, the Berne Convention, was reached at Berne, Switzerland, in 1906 to prohibit the use of white phosphorus in matches. The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal This required each country to pass laws prohibiting the use of white phosphorus in matches. Great Britain passed a law in 1908 prohibiting its use in matches after 31 December 1910. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The United States did not pass a law, but instead placed a punitive tax on white-phosphorus based matches in 1913. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the India and Japan banned them in 1919; and China in 1925. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
The safety match was invented in 1844 by the Swede Gustaf Erik Pasch and was improved by John Edvard Lundström a decade later. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Gustaf Erik Pasch (born Berggren) ( September 3 1788 — September 6 1862) was a Swedish inventor and Professor of chemistry John Edvard Lundström (1815-1888 was the Swedish inventor of the improved safety Match.
Their safety is due to the separation of the combustible ingredients between a match head on the end of a paraffin-impregnated splint and a special striking surface; and the replacement of white phosphorus with red phosphorus. Phosphorus, (ˈfɒsfərəs is the Chemical element that has the symbol P and Atomic number 15 The striking surface is composed of typically 25% powdered glass, 50% red phosphorus, 5% neutralizer, 4% carbon black and 16% binder; and the match head is typically composed of 45-55% potassium chlorate, with a little sulphur and starch, a neutralizer (ZnO or CaCO3), 20-40% of siliceous filler, diatomite and glue. Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many Potassium chlorate is a compound containing Potassium, Chlorine and Oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3  Some heads contain antimony(III) sulfide so they burn more vigorously. Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a Sulfide Mineral with the formula Sb 2 S 3 Safety matches ignite due to the extreme reactivity of phosphorus with the potassium chlorate in the match head. When the match is struck the phosphorus and chlorate mix in a small amount forming something similar to the explosive Armstrong's mixture which ignites due to the friction. Armstrong's mixture is a highly sensitive primary explosive whose primary ingredients are red Phosphorus and Potassium chlorate, with Sulfur
The Lundström brothers - James and Gray - had obtained a sample of red phosphorus from Arthur Albright at The Great Exhibition, held at The Crystal Palace in 1851, and made safety matches with it. Albright and Wilson was founded in 1856 as a United Kingdom manufacturer of Potassium chlorate and white Phosphorus for the Match industry The Great Exhibition, also known as Crystal Palace, was an international exhibition that was held in Hyde Park, London, England, from 1 The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and Glass building originally erected in Hyde Park, London, England, to house the  They misplaced the matches and did not try them until just before the Paris Exhibition of 1855. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city They were still usable. 
The Swedes long held a virtual world-wide monopoly on safety matches, with the industry mainly situated in Jönköping. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient Jönköping is a city in Småland in southern Sweden with 84423 inhabitants (2005  In France, they sold the rights to their safety match patent to Coigent Père & Fils of Lyon, but Coigent contested the payment in the French courts, on the basis that the invention was known in Vienna before the Lundström brothers patented it. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria.  The British match manufacturer Bryant and May visited Jönköping in 1858 to try to obtain a supply of safety matches but were unsuccessful. Bryant and May was a United Kingdom company created specifically in the mid nineteenth century to make Matches Their original Bryant and May Factory was In 1862 they set up their own factory and bought the rights for the British safety match patent from the Lundström brothers. 
Safety matches are classed as dangerous goods, "U. A dangerous good is any Solid, Liquid, or Gas that can harm people other living Organisms property or the environment N. 1944, Matches, safety", and they are not universally forbidden on aircraft; however, they must be declared as dangerous goods and individual airlines and/or countries may impose tighter restrictions. 
Two French chemists, Savene and Cahen, developed a safety match using phosphorus sesquisulfide. Phosphorus sesquisulfide is the Chemical compound with the formula 43 They proved that the substance was not poisonous, that it could be used in a "strike anywhere" match and that the match heads were not explosive.  They patented a safety match composition in 1898 based on phosphorus sesquisulfide and potassium chlorate.  Albright and Wilson developed a safe means of making commercial quantities of phosphorus sesquisulfide in the United Kingdom in 1899 and started selling it to match makers. Albright and Wilson was founded in 1856 as a United Kingdom manufacturer of Potassium chlorate and white Phosphorus for the Match industry 
In 1901 Albright and Wilson started making phosphorus sesquisulfide at their Niagara Falls plant for the U. Niagara Falls is a City in Niagara County, New York, United States. S. market, but American manufacturers continued to use white phosphorus based matches.  The Niagara Falls plant stopped making it until 1910, when the United States Congress forbade the shipment of white phosphorus matches in interstate commerce. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses  At the same time the largest producer of matches in the USA granted free use, in the USA, of its phosphorus sesquisulfide safety match patents.  In 1913 Albright and Wilson also started making red phosphorus at Niagara Falls. 
Strike-anywhere matches are classed as dangerous goods, "U. A dangerous good is any Solid, Liquid, or Gas that can harm people other living Organisms property or the environment N. 1331, Matches, strike anywhere"; and their carriage is forbidden on both passenger aircraft and cargo-only aircraft. 
Storm matches (also known as lifeboat matches or flare matches), a component of many a survival kit, have a strikeable tip like a normal match but much of the remainder of the stick is coated with a combustible compound which will keep burning even in a strong wind. A lifeboat is a small craft carried on a ship to provide a means of emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard the ship A survival kit is a package of basic tools and supplies prepared in advance as an aid to survival in an emergency They have a wax coating to make them waterproof. Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by Bees ( Beeswax) and used by them in constructing their
Bengal matches are small hand-held fireworks akin to sparklers. A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes A sparkler is a type of hand-held Firework that burns slowly while emitting coloured flames sparks and many effects They are similar to storm matches in form but include compounds of strontium or barium in the compound on the stick to produce a red or green flame respectively. Strontium (ˈstrɒntiəm /ˈstrɒnʃiəm/) is a Chemical element with the symbol Sr and the Atomic number 38 Barium (ˈbɛəriəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol Ba, and Atomic number 56
The development of a specialised matchbook with both matches and a striking surface did not occur until the 1890s with the American Joshua Pusey, who later sold his patent to the Diamond Match Company. A matchbook is a small Cardboard folder ( Matchcover) enclosing a quantity of Matches and having a coarse striking surface on the exterior Phillumeny is the Hobby of Collecting different Match -related items Matchboxes matchbox labels Matchbooks Matchcovers A matchbook is a small Cardboard folder ( Matchcover) enclosing a quantity of Matches and having a coarse striking surface on the exterior Joshua Pusey ( March 27, 1842 - May 8, 1906 (? was an American Inventor and a prominent Attorney. The Diamond Match Company was later bought by Bryant and May.
The hobby of collecting match-related items, such as matchcovers and matchbox labels, is called phillumeny. A Matchcover, or "matchbook cover" is a thin cardboard covering that folds over Match sticks in a "book" or "pack" of matches Phillumeny is the Hobby of Collecting different Match -related items Matchboxes matchbox labels Matchbooks Matchcovers
specific --->A jet engine is a Reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet of Fluid to