Masturbation refers to sexual stimulation, especially of one's own genitals and often to the point of orgasm, which is performed manually, by other types of bodily contact (except for sexual intercourse), by use of objects or tools, or by some combination of these methods. Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute An orgasm (sexual climax is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females Sexual intercourse, in its biological sense is the act in which the male reproductive organ (in humans and other higher animals enters the female reproductive tract  Masturbation is the most common form of autoeroticism, and the two words are often used as synonyms, although masturbation with a partner (mutual masturbation) is also common. Autoeroticism is the practice of stimulating oneself sexually This article deals with the general meaning of the term "synonym" Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse and dry sex) is Sexual activity without Vaginal Anal, and Oral penetration Animal masturbation has been observed in many species, both in the wild and in captivity. Animal sexual behaviour takes many different forms even within the same Species. 
The word masturbation is believed to derive from either the Greek word mezea (μεζεα, "penes") or the Latin manus ("hand") and the Latin turbare ("to disturb"). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.  A competing etymology based on the Latin manu stuprare ("to defile with the hand") is said by the Oxford English Dictionary to be an "old conjecture". Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English The esoteric and little-used synonym manustupration is similarly derived from manus stuprare.
While "masturbation" is the medical term for this practice, many other terms and expressions are in common use. The term "Onanism," for example, alludes to the biblical story of Onan. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin In the Biblical Book of Genesis, Onan ( was the second son of Judah. In the vernacular, terms such as "pleasuring oneself", "wanking", "fap", and "jerking off" are common. See masturbate in Wikisaurus for many others. Wiktionary (a Portmanteau of Wiki and Dictionary) is a multilingual, Web -based project to create a Free
Ways of masturbating common to members of both sexes include pressing or rubbing the genital area, either with the fingers or against an object such as a pillow; inserting fingers or an object into the anus (see anal masturbation); and stimulating the penis or vulva with electric vibrators, which may also be inserted into the vagina or anus. A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute A pillow is a large Cushion support for the head, usually used while Sleeping in a Bed, or for the body as used on a Couch or The anus is an opening at the opposite end of an Animal 's Digestive tract from the Mouth. Anal masturbation is manual erotic stimulation focusing on the anal area Vibrators are devices intended to vibrate against the body and stimulate the nerves for a relaxing and pleasurable feeling Members of both sexes may also enjoy touching, rubbing, or pinching the nipples or other erogenous zones while masturbating. In its most general form a nipple is a Structure from which a fluid emanates An erogenous zone is an area of the Human body that has heightened Sensitivity and stimulation of which normally results in sexual response. Both sexes sometimes apply lubricating substances to intensify sensation. Personal lubricants are specialized Lubricants which serve during sexual intercourse to reduce Friction with the Vagina, the Anus, or other
Reading or viewing pornography, or sexual fantasy, are often common adjuncts to masturbation. Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer A sexual fantasy, also called an erotic fantasy, is a deliberate fantasy or pattern of Thoughts with the goal of creating or enhancing sexual feelings Often people will call upon memories during masturbation. Masturbation activities are often ritualised. Ritualization is a behavior that occurs typically in the member of a given Species in a highly Stereotyped fashion and independent of any direct Physiological Various fetishes and paraphilias can also play a part in the masturbation ritual. Sexual fetishism, or erotic fetishism, is the Sexual attraction to materials and objects not conventionally viewed as being sexual in nature Some potentially harmful or fatal activities include autoerotic asphyxiation and self-bondage. Erotic asphyxiation refers to intentionally cutting off oxygen to the brain for sexual arousal Self-bondage is the practice of sexual bondage on oneself or the application of restraints to oneself for the purpose of sexual Pleasure.
Some people get sexual pleasure by inserting objects into the urethra (the tube through which urine and, in men, semen, flows). Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings Sounding or urethral sounding is the medical use of probes called sounds to increase the inner diameter of the Urethra and to locate obstructions in it  If these objects are urethral sounds, the practice is known as "sounding". Sounding or urethral sounding is the medical use of probes called sounds to increase the inner diameter of the Urethra and to locate obstructions in it  Other objects such as ball point pens and thermometers are sometimes used, although this practice can lead to injury and/or infection.  Some people masturbate by using machines that simulate intercourse. An automated erotic stimulation device is a mechanical device used to simulate human Coitus.
Men and women may masturbate until they are close to orgasm, stop for a while to reduce excitement, and then resume masturbating. They may repeat this cycle multiple times. Called "edging", this "stop and go" build up can achieve even stronger orgasms. Rarely, people quit stimulation just before orgasm to retain the heightened energy that normally comes down after orgasm due to the release of prolactin hormone. Prolactin ( PRL) or Luteotropic hormone ( LTH) is a Peptide hormone primarily associated with Lactation. Doing this could lead to temporary discomfort due to pelvic congestion. Pelvic congestion is a condition of temporary uncomfortable and sometimes painful condition of both men and women usually caused by prolonged Sexual arousal.
Austrian psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich in his 1922 essay Concerning Specific Forms of Masturbation tried to identify healthy and unhealthy forms of masturbation. Wilhelm Reich ( March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian-American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. Concerning Specific Forms of Masturbation is a 1922 Essay by Austrian Psychiatrist and Psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich. He tried to relate the way people masturbated to their degree of inclination towards the opposite sex and to their psycho-sexual pathologies.
Female masturbation techniques include a woman stroking or rubbing her vulva, especially her clitoris, with her index and/or middle fingers. The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in Female Mammals In humans the visible button-like portion is located near the Anterior The second Digit of a human Hand is also referred to as the index finger, pointer finger, forefinger, trigger finger, digitus The middle finger (or the long finger) is the third digit of the human Hand and usually the longest Finger, located between the Index finger Sometimes one or more fingers may be inserted into her vagina to repeatedly stroke the frontal wall of her vagina where her g-spot is located. The Gräfenberg spot, or G-spot, is a female Erogenous zone which when stimulated leads to high levels of sexual arousal and powerful Orgasms  Masturbation aids such as a vibrator, dildo or Ben Wa balls can also be used to stimulate the vagina and clitoris. Vibrators are devices intended to vibrate against the body and stimulate the nerves for a relaxing and pleasurable feeling A dildo is a Sex toy, often explicitly Phallic in appearance intended for bodily penetration during self-administered Masturbation Ben Wa balls, also known as Burmese bells or Geisha balls (In Chinese, Ben Wa balls are called 阴[[wiktionary 道|道]] 球 Many women caress their breasts or stimulate a nipple with the free hand, if these are receptive areas for sexual stimulation. In its most general form a nipple is a Structure from which a fluid emanates Anal stimulation is also enjoyed by some. Lubrication is sometimes used during masturbation, especially when penetration is involved, but this is not universal and many women find their natural lubrication sufficient. Personal lubricants are specialized Lubricants which serve during sexual intercourse to reduce Friction with the Vagina, the Anus, or other Sexual penetration is the Penetration of a Bodily orifice, such as the Vagina, Anus or Mouth, with a body part or another object Vaginal lubrication is the naturally produced lubricating fluid that reduces friction during Sexual intercourse.
Common positions include lying on back or face down, sitting, squatting, kneeling or standing. In a bath or shower a female may direct tap water at her clitoris and vulva. Lying face down one may use the hands, one may straddle a pillow, the corner or edge of the bed, a partner's leg or some scrunched-up clothing and "hump" her vulva and clitoris against it. Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse and dry sex) is Sexual activity without Vaginal Anal, and Oral penetration The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in Female Mammals In humans the visible button-like portion is located near the Anterior Standing up, a chair, the corner of an item of furniture or even a washing machine can be used to stimulate her clitoris through her labia and clothing.
In the 1920s, Havelock Ellis reported that turn-of-the-century seamstresses using treadle-operated sewing machines could achieve orgasm by sitting near the edge of their chairs. Henry Havelock Ellis ( February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939) was a British sexologist, physician and social reformer 
Women can sexually stimulate themselves by crossing their legs tightly and clenching the muscles in their legs, creating pressure on the genitals. This can potentially be done in public without observers noticing. Some masturbate using only pressure applied to the clitoris without direct contact, for example by pressing the palm or ball of the hand against underwear or other clothing.
Thoughts, fantasies and memories of previous instances of arousal and orgasm can produce sexual arousal. Some women even claim to be able to orgasm spontaneously by force of will alone, but that ability, if it exists at all, may not strictly qualify as masturbation as no physical stimulus is involved. 
Male masturbation techniques are also influenced by a number of factors and personal preferences. Techniques may also differ between circumcised and uncircumcised males, as some techniques which may work for one can often be quite painful for the other. Male circumcision is the removal of some or all of the Foreskin (prepuce from the Penis. In Male Human Anatomy, the foreskin or prepuce (a technically broader term that also includes the Clitoral hood, the homologous
The most common male masturbation technique is simply to hold the penis with a loose fist and then to move the hand up and down the shaft until orgasm and ejaculation take place. The penis (plural penises, penes An orgasm (sexual climax is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females Ejaculation is the ejecting of Semen from the Penis, and is usually accompanied by Orgasm. The speed of the hand motion will vary from person to person, although it is not uncommon for the speed to increase as ejaculation nears and for it to decrease during the ejaculation itself. When uncircumcised, stimulation of the penis in this way comes from the "pumping" of the foreskin. In Male Human Anatomy, the foreskin or prepuce (a technically broader term that also includes the Clitoral hood, the homologous This gliding motion of the foreskin reduces friction. In Male Human Anatomy, the foreskin or prepuce (a technically broader term that also includes the Clitoral hood, the homologous When circumcised, there is more direct contact between the hand and the glans, thus a personal lubricant is sometimes used to reduce friction. Personal lubricants are specialized Lubricants which serve during sexual intercourse to reduce Friction with the Vagina, the Anus, or other Sometimes, if too much pressure is applied, it may be rubbed sore for a time.
Circumcised or not, men may rub or massage the glans, the rim of the glans, and the frenular delta. The glans penis (or simply glans) is the sensitive tip of the Penis. The frenular delta in human anatomy is the area underneath the penile glans along the penile ventral body and is composed of a Mucosa.
Another technique is to place just the index finger and thumb around the penis about halfway along the penis and move the skin up and down. A variation on this is to place the fingers and thumb on the penis as if playing a flute, and then shuttle them back and forth. Another common technique is to lie face down on a comfortable surface such as a mattress or pillow and rub the penis against it until orgasm is achieved. This technique may include the use of a simulacrum, or artificial vagina. Simulacrum (plural -cra also -crums from the Latin simulacrum which means "likeness similarity" is first recorded in the English language in the late
There are many other variations on male masturbation techniques. Some men place both hands directly on their penis during masturbation, while others use their free hand to fondle their testicles, nipples, or other parts of their body. Physical intimacy is sensual proximity and/or touching It can be enjoyed by itself and/or be an expression of Feelings (such as close Friendship The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" virility plural testes) is the male In its most general form a nipple is a Structure from which a fluid emanates Some may keep their hand stationary while pumping into it with pelvic thrusts in order to simulate the motions of sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse, in its biological sense is the act in which the male reproductive organ (in humans and other higher animals enters the female reproductive tract Others may also use vibrators and other sexual devices more commonly associated with female masturbation. A few extremely flexible males can reach and stimulate their penis with their tongue or lips, and so perform autofellatio. Autofellatio is the act of oral stimulation of one's own Penis as a form of Masturbation.
The prostate gland is one of the organs that contributes fluid to semen. The prostate (from Greek προστάτης - prostates, literally "one who stands before" "protector" "guardian" is a Physiological aspects Internal and external fertilization Depending on the Species, spermatozoa can fertilize As the prostate is touch-sensitive, some directly stimulate it using a well-lubricated finger or dildo inserted through the anus into the rectum. A dildo is a Sex toy, often explicitly Phallic in appearance intended for bodily penetration during self-administered Masturbation The anus is an opening at the opposite end of an Animal 's Digestive tract from the Mouth. The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the Large intestine in some Mammals Stimulating the prostate from outside, via pressure on the perineum, can be pleasurable as well. In Human anatomy, the perineum is generally defined as the surface region in both males and females between the Pubic symphysis and the Coccyx. Some men, also, enjoy anal stimulation, with fingers or otherwise, without any prostate stimulation. Anal sex most often refers to the sex act involving insertion of the Penis into the Rectum.
Semen is sometimes ejaculated onto a tissue or some other item. Facial tissue refers to a class of soft absorbent disposable Paper that is suitable for use on the Face.
A somewhat controversial ejaculation control technique is to put pressure on the perineum, about halfway between the scrotum and the anus, just before ejaculating. In Human anatomy, the perineum is generally defined as the surface region in both males and females between the Pubic symphysis and the Coccyx. In some Male Mammals the scrotum - also 'scrutum' or 'scrootum' - is a protuberance of Skin and Muscle containing the Testicles The anus is an opening at the opposite end of an Animal 's Digestive tract from the Mouth. This can, however, redirect semen into the bladder (referred to as retrograde ejaculation). In males, retrograde ejaculation occurs when the fluid to be ejaculated, which would normally exit the body via the Urethra, is redirected to the Urinary If repeated on a regular basis, this technique could cause long term damage due to the pressure put on the nerves and blood vessels in the perineum. A dry orgasm is one that is reached while withholding ejaculation (or where retrograde ejaculation has taken place). An orgasm (sexual climax is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females In males, retrograde ejaculation occurs when the fluid to be ejaculated, which would normally exit the body via the Urethra, is redirected to the Urinary Proponents of dry orgasm say that this is a learnable skill that can shorten the refractory period. An orgasm (sexual climax is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females In sexuality the refractory period is the recovery phase after Orgasm during which it is physiologically impossible for an individual to have additional orgasms
Mutual masturbation is a sexual act where two or more people stimulate themselves or one another sexually, usually with the hands. Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse and dry sex) is Sexual activity without Vaginal Anal, and Oral penetration Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display
This may be done in situations where the participants do not feel physically able, that it is socially inappropriate or they do not want full sexual intercourse, but still wish to enjoy a mutual sexual act. It is also part of a full repertoire of sexual intercourse, where it may be used as an interlude, foreplay or simply as an alternative to penetration. In Human sexual behavior, foreplay is a set of intimate psychological and physical acts between two or more people meant to increase Sexual arousal. For some people, it is the primary sexual activity of choice above all others, perhaps because it enables the individuals to see each other face to face and leaves the hands free to caress, as in frottage. Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse and dry sex) is Sexual activity without Vaginal Anal, and Oral penetration
Mutual masturbation is practiced by people of all sexual orientations. Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes If used as an alternative to penile-vaginal penetration, the aim may be to preserve virginity or to prevent pregnancy. Some people choose it as it achieves sexual satisfaction without actual sex, possibly seeing it as an alternative to casual sex. Casual sex refers to certain types of sexual activity outside the context of a Romantic relationship.
Frequency of masturbation is determined by many factors, e. g. , one's resistance to sexual tension, hormone levels influencing sexual arousal, sexual habits, peer influences, health and one's attitude to masturbation formed by culture. Sexual tension is the occurrence between two people (which is often found in works of Fiction) where two or more of the individuals sexually long for one another but the consummation Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body  Medical causes have also been associated with masturbation. 
Different studies have found that masturbation is frequent in humans. Alfred Kinsey's studies have shown that 92% of men and 62% of women have masturbated during their lifespan. Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23 1894 &ndash August 25 1956 was an American Biologist and professor of Entomology and Zoology, who in 1947  Similar results have been found in a British national probability survey. It was found that 95% of men and 71% of women masturbated at some point in their lives. 73% of men and 37% of women reported masturbating in the four weeks before their interview, while 53% of men and 18% of women reported masturbating in the previous seven days. 
"Forty-eight female college students were asked to complete a sexual attitudes questionnaire in which a frequency of masturbation scale was embedded. Twenty-four of the women (the experimental group) then individually viewed an explicit modeling film involving female masturbation. One month later, all subjects again completed the same questionnaire. Subjects in the experimental group also completed a questionnaire evaluating aspects of the film. Results indicated that the experimental group reported a significant increase in the average monthly frequency of masturbation, as compared to the control group. This same group, however, reported that the film had no effect on sexual attitudes or behavior. "
A 2004 survey by Toronto magazine NOW was answered by an unspecified number of thousands. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario NOW is an Alternative newsweekly in Toronto, Canada published by Now Communications Inc.  The results show that an overwhelming majority of the males – 81% – began masturbating between the ages of 10 and 15. Among females, the same figure was a more modest majority of 55%. (Note that surveys on sexual practices are prone to self-selection bias. Selection bias is a distortion of evidence or data that arises from the way that the data are collected ) It is not uncommon however to begin much earlier, and this is more frequent among females: 18% had begun by the time they turned 10, and 6% already by the time they turned 6. Being the main outlet of child sexuality, masturbation has been observed in very young children. Child sexuality refers to phenomena researched as the Sexual feelings behaviors and development of Children. In the book Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America, by Strong, Devault and Sayad, the authors point out, "A baby boy may laugh in his crib while playing with his erect penis (although he does not ejaculate). Baby girls sometimes move their bodies rhythmically, almost violently, appearing to experience orgasm. An orgasm (sexual climax is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females "
The NOW magazine survey has it that the frequency of masturbation declines after the age of 17. Many males masturbate daily, or even more frequently, well into their 20s and sometimes far beyond. This decline is more drastic among females, and more gradual among males. While females aged 13–17 masturbated almost once a day on average (and almost as often as their male peers), adult women only masturbated 8–9 times a month, compared to the 18–22 among men. Adolescent youths report being able to masturbate to ejaculation around six times per day, though some men in older middle age report being hard pressed to ejaculate even once per day. On the other hand healthy 21-28 year old males are able to masturbate at least 8-10 times per day if they are not stressed. The survey does not give a full demographic breakdown of respondents, however, and the sexual history of respondents to this poll, who are readers of an urban Toronto lifestyle magazine, may not extend to the general population.
It appears that females are less likely to masturbate while in a heterosexual relationship than men. Heterosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the opposite sex or to a heterosexual orientation Popular belief asserts that individuals of either sex who are not in sexually active relationships tend to masturbate more frequently than those who are; however, much of the time this is not true as masturbation alone or with a partner is often a feature of a relationship. Contrary to conventional wisdom, several studies actually reveal a positive correlation between the frequency of masturbation and the frequency of intercourse. One study reported a significantly higher rate of masturbation in gay men and women who were in a relationship. 
Among some cultures, such as the Hopi in Arizona, the Wogeno in Oceania, and the Dahomeans and Namu of Africa, masturbation is encouraged, including regular masturbation between males. The Hopi are Native American people who primarily live on the 12635 km² (2531 The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. Namu or NAMU may refer to The North American Monetary Union Namu British Columbia, a town in Canada Namu In certain Melanesian communities this is expected between older and younger boys. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people" One interesting twist is the Sambia tribe of New Guinea. Sambia (Земландский полуостров Zemlandsky poluostrov) or Samland ( is a Peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known This tribe has rituals and rites of passage surrounding manhood which involve frequent ejaculation through fellatio. Fellatio, also called fellation, is Oral sex performed upon the Penis. Semen is valued and masturbation is seen as a waste of semen and is therefore frowned upon even though frequent ejaculation is encouraged. The capacity and need to ejaculate is nurtured for years from an early age through fellatio so that it can be consumed rather than wasted. Semen is ingested for strength and is considered in the same line as mothers' milk. 
Other cultures have rites of passage into manhood that culminate in the first ejaculation of a male, usually by the hands of a tribal elder. In some tribes such as the Agta, Philippines, stimulation of the genitals is encouraged from an early age.  Upon puberty, the young male is then paired off with a "wise elder" or "witch doctor" who uses masturbation to build his ability to ejaculate in preparation for a ceremony. The ceremony culminates in a public ejaculation before a celebration. The ejaculate is saved in a wad of animal skin and worn later to help conceive children. In this and other tribes, the measure of manhood is actually associated more with the amount of ejaculate and his need than penis size. Frequent ejaculation through masturbation from an early age fosters frequent ejaculation well into adulthood. 
Masturbation is becoming accepted as a healthy practice and safe method for sharing pleasure without some of the dangers that can accompany intercourse. It is socially accepted and even celebrated in certain circles. Group masturbation events can be easily found online. Masturbation marathons are yearly events and are occurring across the globe. The Masturbate-a-thon is a competition in which participants Masturbate in order to raise money for charity and increase the public awareness and dispel the Shame These events provide a supportive environment where masturbation can be performed openly among young and old without embarrassment. Participants talk openly with onlookers while masturbating to share techniques and describe their pleasure. 
Masturbation may increase fertility during intercourse.
Female masturbation alters conditions in the vagina, cervix and uterus, in ways that can alter the chances of conception from intercourse, depending on the timing of the masturbation. A woman's orgasm between one minute before and up to 45 minutes after insemination favors the chances of that sperm reaching her egg. If, for example, she has had intercourse with more than one male, such an orgasm can increase the likelihood of a pregnancy by one of them.  Female masturbation can also provide protection against cervical infections by increasing the acidity of the cervical mucus and by moving debris out of the cervix. 
In males, masturbation flushes out old sperm with low motility from the male's genital tract. The next ejaculate then contains more fresh sperm, which have higher chances of achieving conception during intercourse. If more than one male has intercourse with a female, the sperm with the highest motility will compete more effectively. Sperm competition is " competition between Sperm of two or more Males for the Fertilization of an Ovum " (Parker 1970 
The physical benefits of masturbation and having an orgasm or ejaculating creates heightened arousal while epinephrine courses through the body, producing the flushed face, shallow breath and post-climactic euphoria. Euphoria is a medically recognized emotional state related to Pleasure and Happiness.  It is held in many mental health circles that masturbation can relieve depression, stress and lead to a higher sense of self-worth (Hurlbert & Whittaker, 1991). Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression In Psychology, self-esteem reflects a Person 's overall evaluation or appraisal of her or his own worth Masturbation can also be particularly useful in relationships where one partner wants more sex than the other – in which case masturbation provides a balancing effect and thus a more harmonious relationship. 
Mutual masturbation, the act by which two or more partners stimulate themselves in the presence of each other, allows a couple to reveal the "map to [their] pleasure centers". Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse and dry sex) is Sexual activity without Vaginal Anal, and Oral penetration Witnessing a partner masturbate is an educational activity to find out the method a partner pleases him- or herself, allowing each partner to learn exactly how the other enjoys being touched. 
In 2003, an Australian research team led by Graham Giles of The Cancer Council Australia concluded that frequent masturbation by males appears to help prevent the development of prostate cancer. The Cancer Council Australia is a national not for profit organisation which aims to promote Cancer -control policies and to reduce the illness caused by cancer in The study also indicated that this would be more helpful than ejaculation through sexual intercourse because intercourse can transmit diseases that may increase the risk of cancer instead. Cervical cancer is Malignant Cancer of the Cervix uteri or cervical area Also, frequent ejaculation is more easily obtained and sustained over time with the aid of masturbation.
A study published in 1997 found an inverse association between death from coronary heart disease and frequency of orgasm even given the risk that myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction can be triggered by sexual activity. Excerpt, "The association between frequency or orgasm and all cause mortality was also examined using the midpoint of each response category recoded as number of orgasms per year. The age adjusted odds ratio for an increase of 100 orgasms per year was 0. 64 (0. 44 to 0. 95). " That is, a difference between any two subjects appeared when one subject ejaculated at around two or more more times per week than the other. Assuming a broad range average of between 3 to 5 ejaculations per week for healthy males, this would mean 5 to 7 ejaculations per week. This is consistent with a 2003 Australia article on the benefits against prostate cancer. 
Masturbation is also seen as a sexual technique that protects individuals from the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Support for such a view, and for making it part of the American sex education curriculum, led to the dismissal of US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders during the Clinton administration. Minnie Joycelyn Elders (born August 13, 1933) was the 15th Surgeon General of the United States and a former vice admiral in
Sexual climax, from masturbation or otherwise, leaves one in a relaxed and contented state. This is frequently followed closely by drowsiness and sleep – particularly when one masturbates in bed.
Some professionals consider masturbation to function as a cardiovascular workout.  Though research is still as yet scant, those suffering from cardiovascular disorders (particularly those recovering from myocardial infarction, or heart attacks) should resume physical activity (including sexual intercourse and masturbation) gradually and with the frequency and rigor which their physical status will allow. This limitation can serve as encouragement to follow through with physical therapy sessions to help improve endurance.
Both sex and masturbation lower blood pressure. A small study has shown that in one test group, recent full intercourse resulted in the lowest average blood pressure in stressful situations. Masturbation then led to lower blood pressure than did no recent sexual activity. 
Objects inserted into the vagina or anus should be clean and of a kind that will not scratch or break. Care should be taken not to fully insert anything into the anus – any object used should have a flared or flanged base; otherwise retrieval can require medical intervention. Modern dildos and anal plugs are designed with this feature. A dildo is a Sex toy, often explicitly Phallic in appearance intended for bodily penetration during self-administered Masturbation Butt plugs (or anal plugs) are Sex toys designed to be inserted in the Anus and Rectum for sexual pleasure.
Masturbation involving both a man and a woman (see mutual masturbation) can result in pregnancy only if semen contacts the vulva. Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse and dry sex) is Sexual activity without Vaginal Anal, and Oral penetration Physiological aspects Internal and external fertilization Depending on the Species, spermatozoa can fertilize The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs Masturbation with a partner can also theoretically result in transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by contact with bodily fluids.
A man whose penis has suffered a blunt trauma or injury during intercourse may rarely sustain a penile fracture or suffer from Peyronie's disease. A penile fracture is an extremely rare injury caused by the rupture of the tunica albuginea, which envelopes the Corpus cavernosum penis. Peyronie's disease is a Connective tissue disorder involving the growth of Fibrous plaques ref name="pmid12514077"> in the Soft tissue of  Phimosis is "a contracted foreskin (that) may cause trouble by hurting when an attempt is made to pull the foreskin back". Phimosis is a condition where the male foreskin cannot be fully retracted from the head of the Penis.  In these cases, any energetic manipulation of the penis can be problematic.
Lawrence I. Sank thought that masturbating prone (lying face downward) could be responsible for sexual problems in some men including anorgasmia and erectile dysfunction. He based this theory on four men he examined and coined the term traumatic masturbatory syndrome to describe it. As of 2008, no follow-up research has been conducted and the idea is not familiar or widely-held within the medical community. Some authors, however, continue to give it credence. 
Sigmund Freud pointed out that every normal child usually experiments with many types of autoerotic sexual stimulation. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Autoeroticism is the practice of stimulating oneself sexually Social repressions of sexuality reached their peak in the Victorian era when popular authors wrote books threatening young children with mental deficiency or insanity if they indulged in any form of masturbation. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Mental retardation is a generalized triarchic disorder characterized by subaverage cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors with onset before the age Traditionally insanity or madness is the behaviour whereby a person flouts societal norms and may become a danger to himself and others Actually there is no scientific evidence of any causative relationship between autoeroticism and any form of mental disorder. Though mentally disturbed persons characteristically show poor judgment in expressing sexuality, this may be understood as a symptom rather than a cause. Each child however, must learn the appropriate social and legal limitations relating to expressing sexuality. Masturbating frequently presents no physical, mental or emotional risk in itself, but masturbation can be used to relieve boredom or stress. In either case, as with any "nervous habit", it is more helpful to consider the causes of the boredom or of the stress, rather than try to repress the masturbation. 
There is some discussion between professionals and other interested parties as to the existence or validity of sexual addictions. Sexual addiction is a controversial term to describe sexual behaviour that is characterized at least by two key features recurrent failure to control the behavior and continuation of the Nevertheless, there are lists of warning signs such as when sexual activity affects a person's ability to function in everyday life, or is placing them at risk, for example, of pursuing illegal or destructive activities. Very frequent and compulsive masturbation may be seen as a sign of sexual addiction. 
There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Rock art is a term in Archaeology for any man-made markings made on natural stone Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.
From the earliest records, ancient Sumer had a relaxed attitude toward sex, and masturbation was a popular technique for enhancing potency, either alone or with a partner. Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar 
Male masturbation became an even more important image in ancient Egypt: when performed by a god it could be considered a creative or magical act: the god Atum was believed to have created the universe by masturbating to ejaculation, and the ebb and flow of the Nile was attributed to the frequency of his ejaculations. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Atum (alternatively spelled Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem) is an important Deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River Egyptian pharoahs, in response to this, were at one time required to masturbate ceremonially into the Nile. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods 
The ancient Greeks had a more relaxed attitude toward masturbation than the Egyptians did, regarding the act as a normal and healthy substitute for other forms of sexual pleasure. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions They considered it a safety valve against destructive sexual frustration. The Greeks also dealt with female masturbation in both their art and writings. One common term used for it was anaphlan, which roughly translates as "up-fire".
Diogenes, speaking in jest, credited the god Hermes with its invention: he allegedly took pity on his son Pan, who was pining for Echo but unable to seduce her, and taught him the trick of masturbation in order to relieve his suffering. Diogenes (Διογένης ὁ Σινωπεύς Diogenes ho Sinopeus) "the Cynic " Greek Philosopher, was born in Sinope Hermes ( Greek,, ˈhɝmiːz in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them of Shepherds and Pan ( Greek, Genitive) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks of mountain wilds hunting and rustic music paein means to pasture In Greek mythology, Echo ( Greek: Ἠχώ was an Oread (a mountain Nymph) who loved her own voice Pan in his turn taught the habit to young shepherds. 
Religions vary broadly in their views of masturbation, from completely impermissible to encouraged as a way to achieve greater spirituality (see, for example Tantric sexuality and Taoist sexual practices). Among the world's religions views on Masturbation vary widely Sexual morality varies greatly over time and between cultures Neotantra is a term used to describe the modern western use of the word Tantra. Taoist sexual practices (Simplified Chinese 合气 Traditional Chinese 合氣 pinyin heqiliterally "Joining Energy" or "The Joining of the Essences" is the way
Immanuel Kant regarded masturbation as a violation of the moral law. Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg In the Metaphysics of Morals (1797) he made the a posteriori argument that 'such an unnatural use of one's sexual attributes' strikes 'everyone upon his thinking of it' as 'a violation of one's duty to himself', and suggested that it was regarded as immoral even to give it its proper name (unlike the case of the similarly undutiful act of suicide). The Metaphysics of Morals ( Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797 is a major work of moral and political philosophy by Immanuel Kant. "A priori" redirects here For other uses see A priori. He went on, however, to acknowledge that 'it is not so easy to produce a rational demonstration of the inadmissibility of that unnatural use', but ultimately concluded that its immorality lay in the fact that 'a man gives up his personality … when he uses himself merely as a means for the gratification of an animal drive'.
Subsequent critics of masturbation tended to argue against it on more physiological grounds, however (see medical attitudes). Masturbation refers to Sexual stimulation especially of one's own genitals ( self masturbation) and often to the point of Orgasm, which
The first use of the word "onanism" to consistently and specifically refer to masturbation appears to be Onania, an anonymous pamphlet first distributed in London in 1716. It drew on familiar themes of sin and vice, this time in particular against the "heinous sin" of "self-pollution". After dire warnings that those who so indulged would suffer impotence, gonorrhea, epilepsy and a wasting of the faculties (included were letters and testimonials supposedly from young men ill and dying from the effects of compulsive masturbation) the pamphlet then goes on to recommend as an effective remedy a "Strengthening Tincture" at 10 shillings a bottle and a "Prolific Powder" at 12 shillings a bag, available from a local shop. Gonorrhea (also gonorrhoea) caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is a common Sexually transmitted disease. Epilepsy is a common chronic Neurological disorder that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures.
One of the many horrified by the descriptions of malady in Onania was the notable Swiss physician Samuel-Auguste Tissot. Samuel Auguste André David Tissot (1728 - 1797 was a notable 18th Century Swiss physician In 1760, he published L'Onanisme, his own comprehensive medical treatise on the purported ill-effects of masturbation. Citing case studies of young male masturbators amongst his patients in Lausanne, Switzerland as basis for his reasoning, Tissot argued that semen was an "essential oil" and "stimulus" that, when lost from the body in great amounts, would cause "a perceptible reduction of strength, of memory and even of reason; blurred vision, all the nervous disorders, all types of gout and rheumatism, weakening of the organs of generation, blood in the urine, disturbance of the appetite, headaches and a great number of other disorders. Lausanne ( pronounced, Losanna is a city in Romandy, the French -speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease created by a buildup of Uric acid. Rheumatism or Rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the Heart, Bones Joints Kidney, Skin "
Though Tissot's ideas are now considered conjectural at best, his treatise was presented as a scholarly, scientific work in a time when experimental physiology was practically nonexistent. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible The authority with which the work was subsequently treated – Tissot's arguments were even acknowledged and echoed by luminaries such as Kant and Voltaire – arguably turned the perception of masturbation in Western medicine over the next two centuries into that of a debilitating illness. Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French
This continued well into the Victorian Era, where such medical censure of masturbation was in line with the widespread social conservatism and opposition to open sexual behavior common at the time. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined  There were recommendations to have boys' pants constructed so that the genitals could not be touched through the pockets, for schoolchildren to be seated at special desks to prevent their crossing their legs in class and for girls to be forbidden from riding horses and bicycles because the sensations these activities produce were considered too similar to masturbation. Boys and young men who nevertheless continued to indulge in the practice were branded as "weak-minded. " Many "remedies" were devised, including eating a bland, meatless diet. This approach was promoted by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (inventor of corn flakes) and Rev. Sylvester Graham (inventor of Graham crackers). John Harvey Kellogg ( February 26, 1852 &ndash December 14, 1943) was an American Medical doctor in Battle Creek Corn flakes are a popular Breakfast cereal originally manufactured by Kellogg's through the treatment of corn. Sylvester Graham ( July 5, 1794 &ndash September 11, 1851) was born in Suffield Connecticut, and was ordained in 1826 as a Presbyterian The graham cracker was developed in 1822 in Bound Brook New Jersey, by Presbyterian minister Rev The medical literature of the times describes procedures for electric shock treatment, infibulation, restraining devices like chastity belts and straitjackets, cauterization or – as a last resort – wholesale surgical excision of the genitals. See also Female genital cutting Infibulation, in modern usage is the practice of surgical closure of the Labia majora (outer lips of the vulva by sewing A chastity belt is a locking item of clothing designed to prevent Sexual intercourse and possibly Masturbation. A straitjacket is a Garment shaped like a Jacket with overlong Sleeves The ends of these can be tied to the back of the wearer so that the arms are kept Cauterize redirects here For the band see Cauterize (band Cauterization is a medical term describing the burning of the body to remove Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental Routine neonatal circumcision was widely adopted in the United States and the UK at least partly because of its believed preventive effect against masturbation (see also History of male circumcision). Male circumcision is the removal of some or all of the Foreskin (prepuce from the Penis. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located It has been variously proposed that male Circumcision began as a religious Sacrifice, as a Rite of passage marking a boy's entrance into adulthood In later decades, the more drastic of these measures were increasingly replaced with psychological techniques, such as warnings that masturbation led to blindness, hairy hands or stunted growth. Some of these persist as myths even today.
At the same time, the supposed medical condition of hysteria—from the Greek hystera or uterus—was being treated by what would now be described as medically administered or medically prescribed masturbation for women. Hysteria in its colloquial use describes a state of Mind, one of unmanageable Fear or Emotional excesses Techniques included use of the earliest vibrators and rubbing the genitals with placebo creams. 
Medical attitudes toward masturbation began to change at the beginning of the 20th century when H. Havelock Ellis, in his seminal 1897 work Studies in the Psychology of Sex, questioned Tissot's premises, cheerfully named famous men of the era who masturbated and then set out to disprove (with the work of more recent physicians) each of the claimed diseases of which masturbation was purportedly the cause. Henry Havelock Ellis ( February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939) was a British sexologist, physician and social reformer "We reach the conclusion", he wrote, "that in the case of moderate masturbation in healthy, well-born individuals, no seriously pernicious results necessarily follow. "
Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of The Scout Association, incorporated a passage in the 1914 edition of Scouting for Boys warning against the dangers of masturbation. The Scout Association is the World Organization of the Scout Movement recognised Scouting association in the United Kingdom Scouting for Boys A Handbook for Instruction in Good Citizenship is the first book on the Scout Movement, published in 1908 This passage stated that the individual should run away from the temptation by performing physical activity which was supposed to tire the individual so that masturbation could not be performed. By 1930, however, Dr. F. W. W. Griffin, editor of The Scouter, had written in a book for Rover Scouts that the temptation to masturbate was "a quite natural stage of development" and, citing Ellis' work, held that "the effort to achieve complete abstinence was a very serious error. Henry Havelock Ellis ( February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939) was a British sexologist, physician and social reformer "
The works of Sexologist Alfred Kinsey during the 1940s and 1950s insisted that masturbation was an instinctive behavior for both males and females, citing the results of Gallup Poll surveys indicating how common it was in the United States. Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23 1894 &ndash August 25 1956 was an American Biologist and professor of Entomology and Zoology, who in 1947 Some critics of this theory held that his research was biased and that the Gallup Poll method was redundant for defining "natural behavior".
In 1994, when the Surgeon General of the United States, Dr. Overview The Surgeon General is nominated by the US President and confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. Joycelyn Elders, mentioned as an aside that it should be mentioned in school curricula that masturbation was safe and healthy, she was forced to resign, with opponents asserting that she was promoting the teaching of how to masturbate. Minnie Joycelyn Elders (born August 13, 1933) was the 15th Surgeon General of the United States and a former vice admiral in In formal education a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their content offered at a School or University. Many believe this was the result of her long history of promoting controversial viewpoints and not due solely to her public mention of masturbation.
The legal status of masturbation throughout history has varied from virtually unlimited acceptance to complete illegality. In a 1640s law code for the Puritan colony of New Haven, Connecticut in the 17th century "blasphemers, homosexuals and masturbators" were eligible for the death penalty. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Blasphemy is the disrespectful use of the name of one or more gods. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. 
Masturbate-a-thons are public, charity events that are "intended to encourage people to explore safer sex, talk about masturbation and lift the taboos that still surround the subject. The Masturbate-a-thon is a competition in which participants Masturbate in order to raise money for charity and increase the public awareness and dispel the Shame " May is considered "Masturbation Month" by an evolving, loosely connected group of masturbation activists, including Betty Dodson, Joani Blank, Susan Block, Kyla Zellers, Carol Queen, and Dr. Betty Dodson PhD (born August 24 1929) is an American sex educator, Author, and Artist. Joani Blank (born 1937 is an Entrepreneur, editor, writer Videographer, educator and inventor in the field of sexuality. Susan Marilyn Block, PhD, also known as Dr Susan Block and Dr Carol Queen is an American author editor sociologist and Sexologist active in the Sex-positive feminist movement Gary Francis Fanning Jr.
A large variety of euphemisms and dysphemisms exist which describe masturbation. A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener or in the case of doublespeak In Language, both dysphemism (from the Greek dys δύς "mis-" and pheme φήμη "reputation" and cacophemism For a complete list of terms, see the entry for masturbate in Wikisaurus. Wiktionary (a Portmanteau of Wiki and Dictionary) is a multilingual, Web -based project to create a Free
There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Gustav Klimt (July 14 1862 – February 6 1918 was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Art Nouveau Rock art is a term in Archaeology for any man-made markings made on natural stone Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.
A number of films feature masturbation scenes.
In popular music, there are a handful of songs that deal with the issue of masturbation. Some of the earliest examples are "My Ding-a-Ling" by Chuck Berry and "Pictures of Lily" by The Who. " My Ding-a-Ling " was a 1972 novelty hit record for Chuck Berry, and his only U Charles Edward Anderson "Chuck" Berry (born October 18 1926 in St " Pictures of Lily " is a single by the British rock band The Who. The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964. The primary lineup consisted of guitarist Pete Townshend 
Some of the more recent popular songs are "Turning Japanese" by The Vapors, a reference to the Oriental facial features people get at the moment of climax and "She Bop" by Cyndi Lauper which was so obviously about masturbation that it was required to have a parental advisory sticker. " Turning Japanese " is the most popular song released by The Vapors from their album New Clear Days, and the song for which they are best The Vapors were a new wave and Power pop band from England that existed between 1979 and 1981 " She Bop " was the third commercially released solo single by American singer Cyndi Lauper. Cynthia Ann Stephanie "Cyndi" Lauper (born June 22 1953 is an American Grammy - and Emmy award winning Singer-songwriter and Parental Advisory is a message affixed by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA to audio and video recordings in the United States containing offensive In an interview Lauper admitted recording the song naked. "I Touch Myself" by Divinyls is a celebration of female masturbation. " I Touch Myself " is a 1991 Pop rock song written by Christina Amphlett, Tom Kelly, Billy Steinberg and Mark McEntee for Australian Divinyls are an Australian rock band formed in Sydney in 1980 and featuring vocalist Christina Amphlett and Guitarist "Touch of My Hand" by Britney Spears is also about how female masturbation is normal. " Touch Of My Hand " is a controversial pop song from American pop Singer Britney Spears, featured on her 2003 fourth Britney Jean Spears (born December 2 1981 is an American recording artist and entertainer
The song Orgasm Addict by The Buzzcocks also features lyrics centered around the theme of masturbation. " Orgasm Addict' " is a single by Punk rock band the Buzzcocks and its B-side is "Whatever Happened To Buzzcocks are an English Punk rock band formed in Manchester in 1975 Another song, Wow, I Can Get Sexual Too By Say Anything has a chorus that repeats the lines "She Touched Herself". " Wow I Can Get Sexual Too " is the first single from Say Anything 's 7-track bonus disc.
In October 1972, an important censorship case was held in Australia, leading to the banning of Philip Roth's novel Portnoy's Complaint in that country due to its masturbation references. Philip Milton Roth (born March 19, 1933, Newark New Jersey) is an American novelist Portnoy's Complaint (1969 is American writer Philip Roth 's most popular novel with many of its characteristics (comedic prose themes of sexual desire and Sexual The censorship led to public outcry at the time. 
Masturbatory behavior has been documented in a very wide range of species. Animal sexual behaviour takes many different forms even within the same Species. Individuals of some species have been known to create tools for masturbation purposes.