|Queen of England and Ireland, Queen Consort of Aragon, Castile, and Naples, Consort of the Spanish Netherlands. (more...)|
|Queen Mary I of England|
painted in 1554 by Antonius Mor
Museum of Prado, Madrid
|Reign||19 July 1553–17 November 1558|
|Coronation||1 October 1553|
|Predecessor||Jane de facto;|
Edward VI de jure
|Consort||Philip II of Spain|
|Mother||Catherine of Aragon|
|Born||18 February 1516 |
Palace of Placentia, Greenwich
|Died||17 November 1558 (aged 42)|
Saint James's Palace, London
|Burial||14 December 1558|
Westminster Abbey, London
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years For the musician see Anthony More (musician. Sir Antonis Mor (c The Museo del Prado is a Museum and Art gallery located in Madrid, the capital of Spain. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine Philip II (Felipe II de España Filipe I ( May 21, 1527 &ndash September 13 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598 A royal house or royal dynasty is a familial designation or Family name of sorts used by Royalty. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536 also known as Catharine, Katherine or Katharine ( Castilian Infanta Catalina Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy The Palace of Placentia was an English Royal Palace built by Humphrey Duke of Gloucester in 1447 in Greenwich, on the banks of the Greenwich ( ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ GREN-itch /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-idge or /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-idge is a district in south-east London, Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers St James's Palace is one of London's oldest Palaces It is situated on Pall Mall in London, just north of St London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during The designation King of Ireland (Rí na hÉireann and Queen (regnant of Ireland was used during three periods of Irish history. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. The fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, she is remembered for restoring England to Roman Catholicism after succeeding her short-lived half brother, Edward VI, to the English throne. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine In the process, she had almost three hundred religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian Persecutions, resulting in her being called Bloody Mary. The Marian Persecutions refers to the persecutions of Religious Reformers Protestants and other Dissenters for their beliefs during the reign of Mary I of England Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her successor and half-sister, Elizabeth I.
Mary was the only child of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive infancy. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536 also known as Catharine, Katherine or Katharine ( Castilian Infanta Catalina A stillborn sister and three short-lived brothers, including Henry, Duke of Cornwall, had preceded her. A stillbirth occurs when a Fetus which has died in the Uterus or during labor or delivery exits a Woman 's body Henry Duke of Cornwall was the name of two sons of King Henry VIII of England and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Through her mother, she was a granddaughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. Ferdinand II of Aragon the Catholic (Fernando II de Aragón y V de Castilla "el Católico" Ferran II d'Aragó "el Catòlic" Ferrando II d'Aragón She was born at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London, on Monday 18 February 1516. The Palace of Placentia was an English Royal Palace built by Humphrey Duke of Gloucester in 1447 in Greenwich, on the banks of the Greenwich ( ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ GREN-itch /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-idge or /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-idge is a district in south-east London, London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy She was baptised on the following Thursday with Thomas Cardinal Wolsey standing as her godfather. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted Thomas Cardinal Wolsey (c1470–1471 – November 28 or November 29 1530 who was born in Ipswich Suffolk England was an English Statesman and a cardinal Mary was a sickly child who had poor eyesight, sinus conditions and bad headaches. A headache ( cephalalgia in medical terminology is a condition of pain in the Head; sometimes Neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted
Despite her health problems Mary was a precocious child. A great part of the credit for her early education likely came from her mother, who consulted the Spanish scholar Juan Luis Vives upon the subject and was Mary's first instructor in Latin. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Mary also studied Greek, science, and music. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. In July 1521, when scarcely five and a half years old, she entertained some visitors with a performance on the virginal (a smaller harpsichord). A harpsichord is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. Henry VIII doted on his daughter and would boast in company, "This girl never cries". When Mary was nine years old, Henry gave her her own court at Ludlow Castle and many of the Royal Prerogatives normally only given to a (male) Prince of Wales, even calling her the Princess of Wales. Ludlow Castle is a large now partly ruined non-inhabited Castle which dominates the town of Ludlow in Shropshire, England. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority privilege and immunity recognised in Common law and sometimes in Civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru is a title traditionally granted to the Heir Apparent to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom (and formerly the Kingdom In 1526, Mary was sent to Wales to preside over the Council of Wales and the Marches. See also the Council of Wales for the advisory council established in 1948 Despite this obvious affection, Henry was deeply disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons.
Throughout her childhood Henry negotiated potential marriages for Mary. When she was only two years old she was promised to the Dauphin Francis, son of Francis I, King of France, but after three years, the contract was repudiated. Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 In 1522, she was instead contracted to marry her first cousin, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, then 22, by the Treaty of Windsor. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was The Italian War of 1521–26, sometimes known as the Four Years' War, was a part of the Italian Wars. Within a few years, however, the engagement was broken off. It was then suggested that Mary wed the Dauphin's father Francis I, who was eager for an alliance with England. A marriage treaty was signed which provided that Mary should marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orléans. Henry II (Henri II (31 March 1519 &ndash 10 July 1559 of the House of Valois and the son and successor of Francis I, was King of France from 31 However, Cardinal Wolsey, Henry VIII's chief adviser, managed to secure an alliance without the marriage.
Meanwhile, the marriage of Mary's parents was in jeopardy because Catherine had failed to provide Henry the male heir he desired. Henry attempted to have his marriage to her annulled, but to his disappointment, Pope Clement VII refused his requests. For the Antipope (1378&ndash1394 see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII ( May 26, 1478 &ndash September Some contend that the Pope's decision was influenced by Charles V, Mary's former betrothed and her mother's nephew. Henry had claimed, citing biblical passages, that his marriage to Catherine was unclean because she had been previously married briefly, at age 16 to his brother Arthur, although there was some debate as to whether that marriage had been consummated. Arthur Tudor (19 or 20 September 1486 - 2 April 1502 was the first son of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and therefore heir to the throne As a Verb, consummate means to bring something to its completion such as a transaction concept plan or action In 1533, Henry secretly married another woman, Anne Boleyn, and shortly thereafter, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, formally declared the marriage with Catherine void and the marriage with Anne valid. Anne Boleyn (1501 or 1507 – 19 May 1536 was the Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the Henry then broke with the Roman Catholic Church and declared himself head of the Church of England. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican As a consequence, Catherine lost the dignity of being queen and was demoted to Dowager Princess of Wales (a title she would have held as the widow of Arthur). Mary in turn was deemed illegitimate, and her place in the line of succession transferred to her half-sister, the future Elizabeth I, daughter of Anne Boleyn. She was styled "Lady Mary" rather than princess because of her illegitimate status.
Mary was expelled from Court, her servants dismissed from her service, and she was forced to serve as a lady-in-waiting to Elizabeth. Mary was not permitted to see her mother Catherine, nor attend her funeral in 1536. It is said that because of this treatment, Mary was very cold towards Elizabeth during Elizabeth's teenage years, deriding Anne Boleyn's execution and calling her a witch. Circumstances between Mary and her father worsened, and she attempted to reconcile with him by submitting to his authority as head of the Church of England. By this she repudiated papal authority, acknowledged that the marriage between her mother and father was unlawful, and accepted her own illegitimacy.
Mary may have expected her troubles to end when Anne Boleyn lost royal favour and was beheaded in 1536. Like Mary before, Elizabeth was downgraded to the status of Lady and removed from the line of succession. Within two weeks of Anne Boleyn's execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after giving birth to a son, the future Edward VI. Jane Seymour (1508– 24 October 1537) was Queen Consort of England and the third wife of Henry VIII. Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine Mary was godmother to her half-brother Edward and chief mourner at Jane Seymour's funeral. In return, Henry agreed to grant her a household, and Mary was permitted to reside in royal palaces. Her privy purse expenses for nearly the whole of this period have been published and show that Hatfield House, the Palace of Beaulieu (also called Newhall), Richmond and Hunsdon were among her principal places of residence. Hatfield House is a Country house set in a large park the Great Park on the eastern side of the town of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England. The Palace of Beaulieu also known as New Hall was located in Essex, England, north of Chelmsford. Richmond is a Market town on the River Swale in North Yorkshire, England and is the administrative centre of the district of Richmondshire Hunsdon is a town in Hertfordshire, England. See also Baron Hunsdon Hunsdon Airfield She was later awarded the Palace of Beaulieu as her own. When Mary reminded Henry VIII of Catherine of Aragon, he banished her to Beaulieu. He did the same to Elizabeth, but to the dismay of Mary, Elizabeth was sent to Hatfield.
In 1543 Henry married his sixth and last wife, Katharine Parr, who was able to bring the family closer together. Catherine Parr ( c 1512 &ndash 5 September 1548 also known as Katherine or Katharine Parr(e, was the last of the six wives of Henry The next year, through the Third Succession Act, Henry returned Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession, being placed after Edward. The Third Succession Act of Henry VIII's reign was passed by the Parliament of England in mid-1543 and returned both Mary and Elizabeth to the Both women, however, remained legally illegitimate.
In 1547, Henry died and was succeeded by his son, Edward VI. Since Edward was still a child, rule passed to a regency council dominated by Protestants, who attempted to establish Protestantism throughout the country. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. As an example, the Act of Uniformity 1549 prescribed Protestant rites for church services, such as the use of Thomas Cranmer's new Book of Common Prayer. The Act of Uniformity 1549 (citation 2 & 3 Edward VI (reigned 1547 - 1553 c The Book of Common Prayer is the common title of a number of prayer books of the Church of England and used throughout the Anglican Communion. When Mary, who had remained faithful to Roman Catholicism, asked to be allowed to worship in private in her own chapel, she was refused. A chapel is a holy place or area of Worship for Christians, which may be attached to an institution such as a large church, a College, a It was only after Mary appealed to her cousin Charles V that she was allowed to worship privately. Religious differences continued to be a problem between Mary and Edward, however. When Mary was in her thirties, she attended a reunion with Edward and Elizabeth for Christmas, where Edward embarrassed Mary and reduced her to tears in front of the court for "daring to ignore" his laws regarding worship.
|House of Tudor|
Royal Coat of Arms
|Henry, Duke of Cornwall|
On 6 July 1553, at the age of 15, the reigning king, Edward VI, died of tuberculosis. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official Coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Henry Duke of Cornwall was the name of two sons of King Henry VIII of England and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine Edward did not want the crown to go to Mary, whom he feared would restore the Catholic faith and undo his reforms, as well as those of Henry VIII. For this reason, he planned to exclude her from the line of succession. However, his advisors told him that he could not disinherit only one of his sisters, but that he would have to disinherit Elizabeth as well, even though she embraced the Reformed faith and the Church of England. Guided by the John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland and perhaps others, Edward excluded both of his sisters from the line of succession in his will. Lord John Dudley (1501 &ndash 22 August, 1553) was a Tudor general admiral and politician who de facto ruled England in the latter half of King 
Edward VI and his advisors instead devised that he should be succeeded by Dudley's daughter-in-law Lady Jane Grey, the granddaughter of Henry VIII's younger sister Mary, Duchess of Suffolk. Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant This article is about Mary Queen consort of France. For her niece and namesake Mary Tudor Queen regnant of England, see Mary I However, this exclusion was unlawful since (1) it was made by a minor and (2) it contradicted the Act of Succession. This latter act, passed in 1544, had restored Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession. Around the time of Edward VI's death, Mary had been summoned back to London from Framlingham Castle in Suffolk, into which she had recently moved after having left her former residence at the Palace of Beaulieu. Framlingham Castle is an important castle in the market town of Framlingham, Suffolk, England. Suffolk (ˈsʌfək is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in East Anglia, England. The Palace of Beaulieu also known as New Hall was located in Essex, England, north of Chelmsford. However, Mary initially hesitated; she suspected that this summons could be a pretext on which to capture her and, in so doing, facilitate Grey's accession to the throne.
On 10 July 1553, Lady Jane Grey assumed the throne as Queen of England. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during However, her support quickly eroded, which led to her being deposed only nine days later. In the wake of Grey's deposition, Mary rode triumphantly into London on a wave of popular support to assume the crown Grey left behind. For their part, Grey and Dudley were ultimately imprisoned in the Tower of London and executed. Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower) is a historic monument in central London Mary feared that if left alive Lady Jane would be a rallying point for rebels who rejected Mary's rule.
One of Mary's first actions as Queen was to order the release of the Roman Catholic Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk and Stephen Gardiner from imprisonment in the Tower of London. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1473 – 25 August 1554) was a prominent Tudor politician. For the British architect see Stephen Gardiner (architect. Stephen Gardiner (c  At this time, the Duke of Northumberland was the only conspirator executed for high treason. See also Treason, High treason in the United Kingdom High treason is criminal disloyalty to one's country Mary was left in a difficult position, as almost all the Privy Counsellors had been implicated in the plot to put Jane on the throne. Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. She could only rely on Gardiner, whom she appointed both Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor. See also List of bishops of Winchester The Bishop of Winchester is the head of the Church of England The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom.
On 1 October 1553, Gardiner formally crowned Mary. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
At age 37, Mary turned her attention to finding a husband and producing an heir, thus preventing the Protestant Elizabeth (still her successor under the terms of Henry VIII's will) from succeeding to the throne. Mary rejected Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, as a prospect when her cousin Charles V suggested she marry his only son, the Spanish prince Philip, later Philip II of Spain. Edward Courtenay 1st Earl of Devon (c 1527 - September 18, 1556) was the only son of Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess of Exeter and his second Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Philip II (Felipe II de España Filipe I ( May 21, 1527 &ndash September 13 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598 It is said that upon viewing a portrait of Philip, Mary declared herself to be in love with him.
Their marriage at Winchester Cathedral on 25 July 1554 took place just two days after their first meeting. Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest Cathedrals in England, with the longest nave and overall length of Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Philip's view of the affair was entirely political (he admired her dignity but felt "no carnal love for her"), and it was extremely unpopular with the English. Lord Chancellor Gardiner and the House of Commons petitioned her to consider marrying an Englishman, fearing that England would be relegated to a dependency of Spain. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords This fear may have arisen from the fact that Mary was – excluding the brief, unsuccessful and controversial reigns of Jane and Empress Matilda – England's first Queen regnant. Matilda of England (sometimes Maud or Maude; 7 February 1102 &ndash 10 September 1167 was the daughter and dispossessed Heir of Henry I of England List of current queens regnant A queen regnant (plural "queens regnant" is qualifying reference to a female Monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal
Insurrections broke out across the country when she insisted on marrying Philip, with whom she was in love. The Duke of Suffolk once again proclaimed that his daughter, Lady Jane Grey, was queen. In support of Elizabeth, Thomas Wyatt led a force from Kent that was not defeated until he had arrived at London. Sir Thomas Wyatt the younger (1521 – 11 April, 1554) was a rebel leader during the reign of Queen Mary I of England; his rising is traditionally called KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format After the rebellions were crushed, the Duke of Suffolk, his daughter, Lady Jane Grey, and her husband were convicted of high treason and executed. Elizabeth, though protesting her innocence in the Wyatt affair, was imprisoned in the Tower of London for two months, then was put under house arrest at Woodstock Palace. Woodstock Palace was a royal residence in the English town of Woodstock, Oxfordshire.
Mary married Philip on 25 July 1554, at Winchester Cathedral. Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest Cathedrals in England, with the longest nave and overall length of Under the terms of the marriage treaty, Philip was to be styled "King of England", all official documents (including Acts of Parliament) were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. Coins were also to show the heads of both Mary and Philip. The marriage treaty further provided that England would not be obliged to provide military support to Philip's father, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, in any war. Philip's powers, however, were extremely limited, and he and Mary were not true joint sovereigns like William and Mary. See also William III of England, Mary II of England The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England
Mary, thinking she was pregnant, had thanksgiving services at the diocese of London in November 1554. This turned out to be the first of two phantom pregnancies. In reality, Mary had a cyst in her stomach. A cyst is a closed sac having a distinct membrane and Division on the nearby tissue. Philip persuaded his wife to permit Elizabeth's release from house arrest, probably so that he would be viewed favourably by her in case Mary died during childbirth. After only fourteen months, Philip found an excuse to leave for Spain.
As Queen, Mary was very concerned about religious issues. She had always rejected the break with Rome instituted by her father and the establishment of Protestantism by Edward VI. She had England reconcile with Rome and Reginald Cardinal Pole, the son of her governess the Countess of Salisbury and once considered a suitor, became Archbishop of Canterbury after Mary had his predecessor Thomas Cranmer executed. Reginald Pole (1500 &ndash November 17, 1558) was an English prelate a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church, and the last Roman The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the Mary would come to rely greatly on Pole for advice.
Edward's religious laws were abolished by Mary's first Parliament in the Statute of Repeal Act (1553). Church doctrine was restored to the form it had taken in the 1547 Six Articles. The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion were established in 1563 and are the historic defining statements of Anglican doctrine in relation to the controversies of the
Mary also persuaded Parliament to repeal the Protestant religious laws passed by Henry VIII. Getting their agreement took several years, and she had to make a major concession: tens of thousands of acres of monastery lands confiscated under Henry were not to be returned to the monasteries because the new landowners created by this distribution were very influential. This was approved by the Papacy in 1554. The Revival of the Heresy Acts were also passed in 1554. In November 1554 the Revival of the Heresy Acts revived three former Acts against Heresy; the letters patent of 1382 of King Richard II, an Mary also started currency reform to counteract the dramatic devaluation overseen by Thomas Gresham that had characterized the last few years of Henry's reign and the reign of Edward VI. Sir Thomas Gresham (c 1519 &ndash 21 November, 1579) was an English Merchant and Financier who worked for King Edward VI of England These measures, however, were largely unsuccessful.
Numerous Protestant leaders were executed in the Marian Persecutions. The Marian Persecutions refers to the persecutions of Religious Reformers Protestants and other Dissenters for their beliefs during the reign of Mary I of England Many rich Protestants chose exile, and around 800 left the country. The first to die were John Rogers (4 February 1555), Laurence Saunders (8 February 1555), Rowland Taylor (9 February 1555), and John Hooper, the Bishop of Gloucester (9 February 1555). John Rogers (c 1505 &ndash 4 February 1555) was a minister, Bible translator and commentator and the first English Protestant Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Laurence Saunders (1500s - February 8, 1555) was the son of Thomas Saunders and Margaret Cave of Harrington, Northamptonshire, England Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Rowland Taylor ( October 6, 1510 - February 9, 1555) was an English martyr during the Marian Persecutions. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. John Hooper (c1495-1500 &ndash February 9, 1555) was an English churchman Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. The Bishop of Gloucester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Gloucester in the Province of Canterbury. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. The persecution lasted for almost four years. It is not known exactly how many died. John Foxe estimates in his Book of Martyrs that 284 were executed for their faith. John Foxe (1517 &ndash April 18, 1587) martyrologist is remembered as the author of what is popularly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs The Book of Martyrs, by John Foxe, is an Apocalyptically oriented English Protestant account of the Persecutions of The Marian persecutions are commemorated especially by bonfires in the town of Lewes in Sussex: there is a prominent martyrs' memorial outside St John's church at Stratford, London, to those Protestants burnt in Essex, and others in Christchurch Park Ipswich and the abbey grounds, Bury St Edmunds, to those executed in East and West Suffolk respectively. The Sussex Bonfire Societies are responsible for the series of Bonfire festivals around Central/Eastern Sussex along with bits of Surrey and Kent Lewes (ˈluːɨs Lewis) is the County town of East Sussex, England and gives its name to the Local government district in which it Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. Stratford, historically Stratford Langthorne, is a place in the London Borough of Newham in East London. Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common Christchurch Park is a 70 acre area of rolling lawns wooded areas and delicately created arboreta in central Ipswich, Suffolk, England. Ipswich ( ˈɪpswɪtʃ is a Non-metropolitan district and the County town of Suffolk, England on the Estuary of the River Orwell Bury St Edmunds is a town in the county of Suffolk, England and formerly the County town of West Suffolk. Suffolk (ˈsʌfək is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in East Anglia, England.
Henry VIII's creation of the Kingdom of Ireland in 1542 was not recognized by Europe's Catholic powers. The Kingdom of Ireland (Ríocht na hÉireann was the name given to the Irish state from 1541 by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 of the Parliament of Ireland. In 1555 Mary obtained a papal bull confirming that she and Philip were the monarchs of Ireland, and thereby the Church accepted the personal link between the kingdoms of Ireland and England. A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Furthering the Tudor Reconquest of Ireland, the midlands counties of Laois and Offaly were shired and named after the new monarchs respectively as "Queen's County" and "King's County". County Laois (liːʃ Contae Laoise in Irish) formerly also Laoighis or Leix, is a County in the midlands of Ireland, County Offaly (Contae Uíbh Fhailí is a County in Leinster, Ireland, bordered by seven other counties Galway, Roscommon, Westmeath Their principal towns were respectively named Maryborough (now Portlaoise) and Philipstown (now Daingean). Portlaoise (older spelling Portlaoighise; former name Maryborough in Irish Port Laoise a shortening of Port Laoighse) is the County Daingean (pronounced /dæŋgən/ Irish: An Daingean or Daingean Ua bhFáilghe) formerly Philipstown, is a small Town in east Under Mary's reign, English colonists were settled in the Irish midlands to reduce the attacks on the Pale (the colony around Dublin). The Irish midlands are made up of the central plain of Ireland. The Pale ( An Pháil in Irish) or the English Pale ( An Pháil Sasanach) was the English-controlled part of Ireland that had reduced by the late Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland.
Having inherited the throne of Spain upon his father's abdication, Philip returned to England from March to July 1557 to persuade Mary to support Spain in a war against France (the Italian Wars). There was much opposition to declaring war on France. There existed an old alliance between Scotland and France; French trade would be jeopardized; and England had a distinct lack of finances because of a bad economic legacy from the reign of Edward VI. Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine As a result of her agreement to declare war (which violated the carefully-written marriage treaty), England became full of factions and seditious pamphlets of Protestant origin inflaming the country against the Spaniards. English forces fared badly in the conflict and as a result lost Calais, England's sole remaining continental possession, on 13 January 1558. Calais (kaˈlɛ in English often kæˈleɪ traditional English pronunciation /ˈkælɨs/ Kales is a town in northern France. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Although this territory had recently become financially burdensome, the effects of its loss were ideological. Mary later lamented that when she died the words "Philip" and "Calais" would be found inscribed on her heart.
The most prominent problem was the decline of the Antwerp cloth trade. Despite Mary's marriage to Philip, England did not benefit from their enormously lucrative trade with the New World. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. The Spanish guarded their trading revenue jealously, and Mary could not condone illegitimate trade (in the form of piracy) because she was married to a Spaniard. In an attempt to increase trade and rescue the English economy, Mary continued Northumberland's policy of seeking out new commercial ports outside Europe. The Duke of Northumberland is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain.
Financially, Mary was trying to reconcile between a modern form of government—with correspondingly higher spending—with a medieval system of collecting taxation and dues. A failure to apply new tariffs to new forms of imports meant that a key source of revenue was neglected. In order to solve this problem, Mary's government published the "Book of Rates" (1558), listing the tariffs and duties for every import. This publication was not reviewed until 1604. Mary also appointed William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester as Surveyor of Customs and assigned him to oversee the revenue collection system. Sir William Paulet (c 1483 &ndash 10 March 1572) was an English Statesman who attained several peerages throughout his lifetime
During her reign, Mary suffered two phantom pregnancies. It has been speculated that these could simply be a result of the pressure to produce an heir, though the physical symptoms (including lactation and the later loss of her eyesight) reported by Mary's attendants may be indicative of a hormonal disorder such as a pituitary tumour.
Mary decreed in her will that her husband Philip should be the regent during the minority of her child. No child, however, was born, and Mary died at age 42 at St. James's Palace on 17 November 1558. St James's Palace is one of London's oldest Palaces It is situated on Pall Mall in London, just north of St Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers She was succeeded by her half-sister, who became Elizabeth I. Although her will stated that she wished to be buried next to her mother, Mary was interred in Westminster Abbey on 14 December in a tomb she eventually shared with Elizabeth. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people The Latin inscription on a marble plaque on their tomb (affixed there by James VI of Scotland when he succeeded Elizabeth to the throne of England as James I) translates to "Partners both in Throne and grave, here rest we two sisters, Elizabeth and Mary, in the hope of one resurrection". James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. James I may refer to James I Count of La Marche (1319-1362 Count of Ponthieu James I of Aragon (1208–1276 Count of Barcelona
Although Mary enjoyed tremendous popular support and sympathy for her mistreatment during the earliest parts of her reign, she lost almost all of it after marrying Philip. Hans Eworth or Hans Ewouts (c 1520 - 1574 was a Flemish Portrait painter. The marriage treaty clearly specified that England was not to be drawn into any Spanish wars, but this guarantee proved meaningless. Philip spent most of his time governing his European territories, while his wife usually remained in England. After Mary's death, Philip became a suitor for Elizabeth's hand, but she refused him.
The persecution of Protestants earned Mary the appellation "Bloody Mary" although many historians believe Mary does not deserve all the blame. There is disagreement as to the number of people put to death during Mary's five-year reign. However, several notable clerics were executed; among them Thomas Cranmer, the former Archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley the former Bishop of London and the reformist Hugh Latimer. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the Nicholas Ridley is a human name and may refer to Henry Nicholas Ridley (1855-1956 English botanist Nicholas Ridley Baron Ridley of Liddesdale The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. Latimer's belief in Christ's return Hugh Latimer said "It may come in my days old as I am or in my children's days the saints shall be taken up to meet Christ in the air John Foxe vilified Mary in his Book of Martyrs, which may have been a biased account of the events, considering the high level of emotion at the time.
One popular tradition traces the nursery rhyme Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary to Mary's attempts to bring Roman Catholicism back to England, although it may well be about her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots. A nursery rhyme is a traditional Song or Poem taught to young children originally in the nursery. "Mary Mary Quite Contrary" is an English Nursery rhyme; an alternate first line is "Mistress Mary quite contrary"
Like Henry VIII and Edward VI, Mary used the style "Majesty", as well as "Highness" and "Grace". Quartering in Heraldry is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing "Majesty", which Henry VIII first used on a consistent basis, did not become exclusive until the reign of Elizabeth I's successor, James I. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James
When Mary ascended the throne, she was proclaimed under the same official style as Henry VIII and Edward VI: "Mary, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Earth Supreme Head". God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during The English claims to the French throne have a long and rather complex history between the 1340s and the 1800s The Kingdom of Ireland (Ríocht na hÉireann was the name given to the Irish state from 1541 by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 of the Parliament of Ireland. "Defender of the Faith" redirects here For the 1984 platinum album of British heavy metal group Judas Priest, see Defenders of the Faith The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. The "supremacy phrase" at the end of the style was repugnant to Mary's Roman Catholic faith; from 1554 onwards, she omitted the phrase without statutory authority, which was not retroactively granted by Parliament until 1555. Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in
Under Mary's marriage treaty with Philip II of Spain, the couple were jointly styled Queen and King. Philip II (Felipe II de España Filipe I ( May 21, 1527 &ndash September 13 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598 The official joint style reflected not only Mary's but also Philip's dominions and claims; it was "Philip and Mary, by the grace of God, King and Queen of England, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Princes of Spain and Sicily, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Milan, Burgundy and Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol". The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291 as well as claimants to the title up to the present day Prince, from the Latin root Princeps, is a general term for a Monarch, for a member of a monarch's or former monarch's family and is a Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The title of Archduke (feminine Archduchess) ( German: Erzherzog, feminine -also spousal- form Erzherzogin) denotes a rank above Duke Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The following is a list of rulers of Milan from the 13th century to 1859 when Milan and the rest of Lombardy were incorporated into the Kingdom of Duke of Burgundy was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which The Duchy of Brabant was formally erected in 1183/1184 The title " Duke of Brabant " was created by the German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in favor of counts of Flanders were the Rulers over the county of Flanders from the 9th century until the abolition of the Countship by the French revolutionaries Tyrol is a region in Western Central Europe, which included the present day Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East This style, which had been in use since 1554, was replaced when Philip inherited the Spanish Crown in 1556 with "Philip and Mary, by the Grace of God King and Queen of England, Spain, France, Jerusalem, both the Sicilies and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Burgundy, Milan and Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol".
Mary I's arms were the same as those used by all her predecessors since Henry IV: Quarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or [for France] and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or [for England]. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. Henry IV (3 April 1367 &ndash 20 March 1413 was King of England and Lord of Ireland (1399&ndash1413 Sometimes, Mary's arms were impaled (depicted side-by-side) with those of her husband.
Mary I of EnglandBorn: 18 February 1516 Died: 17 November 1558
|Queen of England|
Queen of Ireland
19 July 1553 – 17 November 1558
|Heir to the English Throne|
as heiress presumptive
18 February 1516 – March 1534
Lady Elizabeth Tudor
Edward, Prince of Wales
|Heir to the English and Irish Thrones|
as heiress presumptive
28 January 1547 – 21 June 1553
Lady Jane Grey
Isabella of Portugal
|Queen consort of Naples|
25 July 1554 – 17 November 1558
Elisabeth of Valois
Isabella of Portugal
|Queen consort of Castile and Léon|
Queen consort of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily
Countess of Barcelona
16 January 1556 – 17 November 1558
Elisabeth of Valois
|Consort of the Seventeen Provinces of the Spanish Netherlands|
16 January 1556 – 17 November 1558
The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during The designation King of Ireland (Rí na hÉireann and Queen (regnant of Ireland was used during three periods of Irish history. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during Margaret Tudor ( 28 November, 1489 &ndash 18 October 1541) was the elder of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England This is a list of the individuals who were at any given time considered the next in line to inherit the thrones of England Great Britain or the United Kingdom should the incumbent monarch An heir presumptive is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne peerage or other hereditary honor but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir apparent Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine This is a list of the individuals who were at any given time considered the next in line to inherit the thrones of England Great Britain or the United Kingdom should the incumbent monarch An heir presumptive is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne peerage or other hereditary honor but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir apparent Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537&ndash 12 February 1554) also referred to as Queen Jane, a greatniece of Henry VIII of England, was a claimant The Infanta Isabel, commonly referred to in English as Isabel of Portugal ( October 23, 1503 &ndash May 1, 1539) was the The following is a list of monarchs of the Kingdom of Naples. Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Élisabeth of Valois ( April 2 1545 &ndash October 3 1568) was the eldest daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de' This is a list of Spanish Monarchs &mdashthat is rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word The Infanta Isabel, commonly referred to in English as Isabel of Portugal ( October 23, 1503 &ndash May 1, 1539) was the This is a list of the Queen Consorts of the Kingdom of Castile. This is a list of the rulers of Aragon, now a region of north-eastern Spain. The Kingdom of Majorca was founded by James I of Aragon, also known as James The Conqueror. The Christian Kingdom of Valencia, located in the Eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon. The following is a list of monarchs of Sicily. Counts of Sicily Sicily was granted pending its Christian reconquest to Robert Guiscard as "duke" Élisabeth of Valois ( April 2 1545 &ndash October 3 1568) was the eldest daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de' The Seventeen Provinces were a Personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century roughly covering the current Netherlands The Southern Netherlands (Zuidelijke Nederlanden Países Bajos del Sur Pays-Bas du sud were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain ( Spanish