Martin David Kamen (August 27, 1913, Toronto – August 31, 2002), was co-discoverer (with Sam Ruben) of the isotope carbon-14 on February 27, 1940, at the University of California Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Samuel Ruben (born Charles Rubenstein in San Francisco California, November 5, 1913 - September 28, 1943) the son Isotopes (Greek isos = "equal" tópos = "site place" are any of the different types of atoms ( Nuclides Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a Radioactive isotope of Carbon discovered on February 27, 1940, by Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ( LBNL) is a U The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley
Kamen was born August 27, 1913 in Toronto, the son of Russian immigrants. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term He grew up in Chicago. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. He received a bachelor's degree in chemistry from the University of Chicago in 1933 and obtained a PhD in physical chemistry from the same university in 1936. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. Physical chemistry, is the application of Physics to macroscopic microscopic atomic subatomic and particulate phenomena in chemical systems It is mostly defined as a large Thereafter he sought a research position in chemistry and nuclear physics under Ernest Lawrence at the radiation laboratory in Berkeley, where he worked without pay for six months until being hired to oversee the preparation and distribution of the cyclotron's products. Nuclear physics is the field of Physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of Atomic nuclei. Ernest Orlando Lawrence ( August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel Laureate best known for his A cyclotron is a type of Particle accelerator. Cyclotrons accelerate Charged particles using a high- Frequency, alternating Voltage (potential The discovery of carbon-14 occurred at Berkeley when Kamen and Ruben bombarded graphite in the cyclotron in hopes of producing a radioactive isotope of carbon that could be used as a tracer in investigating chemical reactions in photosynthesis. The Mineral graphite, as with Diamond and Fullerene, is one of the Allotropes of carbon. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 A radioactive tracer, also called a radioactive label, is a substance containing a Radioisotope (which is an isotope that has an unstable nucleus and that stabalizes Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. Their experiment resulted in production of carbon-14.
In 1943 Kamen was assigned to Manhattan Project work at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where he worked briefly before returning to Berkeley. The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb Oak Ridge is an incorporated City in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, USA, about 25 miles northwest of He was fired from Berkeley in 1945 after being accused of leaking nuclear weapons secrets to Russia, and for a time was unable to obtain an academic position, until being hired by Arthur Holly Compton to run the cyclotron program in the medical school of Washington University at St. Louis. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Arthur Holly Compton (September 10 1892 &ndash March 15 1962 was an American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics for his discovery of the Compton effect Medical education A medical school or faculty of medicine is a Tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches Medicine Kamen taught the faculty how to use radioactive tracer materials in research, and his own interests gradually shifted into biochemistry. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as
In 1957 he moved to Brandeis University in Massachusetts, and in 1961 he joined the University of California, San Diego, where he remained until his retirement in 1978. Brandeis University is a private research University with a Liberal arts focus located in Waltham Massachusetts, United States. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. The University of California San Diego (popularly known as UC San Diego or UCSD) is a public Research university in San Diego, California
Martin Kamen died August 31, 2002 at the age of 89. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
By bombarding matter with particles in the cyclotron, radioactive isotopes such as carbon-14, were generated. A cyclotron is a type of Particle accelerator. Cyclotrons accelerate Charged particles using a high- Frequency, alternating Voltage (potential Using carbon-14, the order of events in biochemical reactions could be elucidated, showing the precursors of a particular biochemical product, revealing the network of reactions that constitute life. Kamen is credited with confirming that all of the oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from water, not carbon dioxide. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single He also studied the role of molybdenum in biological nitrogen fixation, the biochemistry of cytochromes and their in photosynthesis and metabolism, the role of iron in the activity of porphyrin compounds in plants and animals, and calcium exchange in cancerous tumors. Molybdenum (məˈlɪbdənəm from the Greek word for the metal " Lead " is a Group 6 Chemical element with the symbol Mo Nitrogen fixation is the process by which Nitrogen is taken from its natural relatively inert molecular form (N2 in the atmosphere and converted into Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 A porphyrin is a heterocyclic Macrocycle derived from four Pyrroline subunits interconnected via their α carbon atoms via Methine bridges (=CH- Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20 Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled See also Cancer A tumor or tumour is the name for a swelling or lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells (termed neoplastic
Kamen was a target and victim of American anti-communist fervor in the 1940s and 1950s. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive He described his experiences during this era in his autobiography, Radiant Science, Dark Politics. An autobiography, from the Greek αὐτός autos "self" βίος bios "life" and γράφειν graphein "to write" He first aroused suspicion while working at Oak Ridge. A cyclotron operator prepared radioactive sodium for an experiment, and Kamen was surprised that the resulting sodium had a purple glow, indicating it was much more intensely radioactive than could be produced in a cyclotron. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Kamen recognized immediately that the sodium must have been irradiated in a nuclear reactor elsewhere in the facility. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled Because of wartime secrecy, he had not been aware of the reactor's existence. He excitedly told his colleagues about his discovery. Shortly thereafter, an investigation was launched to find out who had leaked the information to Kamen.
After returning to Berkeley, Kamen met two Russian officials at a party given by his friend, the violinist Isaac Stern, whom he sometimes accompanied as a viola player in social evenings of chamber music. Isaac Stern ( July 21, 1920 &ndash September 22, 2001) was an American Violin Virtuoso. The viola is a bowed String instrument. It is the middle voice of the Violin family, Chamber music is a form of Classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber The Russians were Grigory Kheifets and Grigory Kasparov, posted as undercover KGB officers in the Soviet Union's San Francisco consulate. KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city One of them asked Kamen for assistance in getting experimental radiation treatment for a colleague with leukemia. Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, "white" aima αίμα, "blood" is a Cancer of the Blood Kamen made inquiries, and in appreciation the official invited him for dinner at a local restaurant. In the aftermath of the Oak Ridge incident, Kamen was under continuing surveillance by FBI agents who observed the July 1, 1944 dinner, where Kamen was alleged to have discussed atomic research with Kheifets. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Kamen lost his Berkeley position shortly afterwards.
The House Committee on Un-American Activities summoned Kamen to testify in 1948. The House Committee on Un-American Activities ( HUAC or HCUA 1938–1975 was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. A Congressional investigation established that Kheifets had received classified information from Kamen concerning uranium stockpiles . The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Subsequently the State Department refused to issue him a passport. A passport is a document issued by a national government which certifies for the purpose of international travel the identity and nationality of its holder In 1951 the Chicago Tribune named him as a suspected spy. The Chicago Tribune is a major daily Newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and owned by the Tribune Company Kamen attempted suicide. After a 10-year effort to establish his innocence and prove that he had been blacklisted as a security risk, he won a libel suit against the Tribune in 1955 and was able once again to obtain a passport.
Some time during the 1980s, Kamen became a member of the "faculty" at the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, the think tank which was responsible for the controversial Oregon Petition. The Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (OISM is a 501(c(3 Non-profit organization located about seven miles from Cave Junction Oregon. The Oregon Petition is the name commonly given to a Petition opposed to the Kyoto protocol, organized by the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (OISM The purpose of this petition was to show a lack of consensus among scientists on the subject of global warming. A petition is a request to change some thing most commonly made to a government official or public entity Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the The text accompanying the petition has since come under attack for being deceptively written.
Winner of the Enrico Fermi Award April 24, 1996. The Enrico Fermi Award is a US government "Presidential" award honoring scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development use or production Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) He was awarded the 1989 Albert Einstein World Award of Science. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The Albert Einstein World Award for Science is a yearly award given by the World Cultural Council " as a means of recognition and as an incentive to scientific and
Kamen, Martin D. Radiant Science, Dark Politics: A Memoir of the Nuclear Age, Foreword by Edwin M. McMillan, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Edwin Mattison McMillan ( September 18, 1907 &ndash September 7, 1991) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate credited with being The University of California ( UC) is a Public university system in the state of California. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) ISBN 0-520-04929-2