Marquess of Londonderry (pronounced "Lundundry") is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. The Peerage of Ireland is the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland.
It was created in 1816 for Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Londonderry. Robert Stewart 1st Marquess of Londonderry ( September 27, 1739 – April 6, 1821) an Irish politician and landowner was the father He had earlier represented County Down in the Irish House of Commons. County Down, ( Ulster Scots: Coontie Doun. is one of the nine counties that form the province of Ulster and one of six counties that form The Irish House of Commons was the Lower house of the Parliament of Ireland, that existed from 1297 until 1800 Stewart had already been created Baron Londonderry in 1789, Viscount Castlereagh in 1795 and Earl of Londonderry in 1796. These titles are also in the Peerage of Ireland.
He was the son of Alexander Stewart, who represented County Londonderry in the Irish House of Commons. He married Mary Cowan, sister and heiress of Robert Cowan, who gained great wealth as Governor of Bombay from 1729 to 1737. Robert Cowan (died 1737 was a British colonial administrator and the British East India Company 's Governor of Bombay from 1729 to The city of Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay was attained by the British East India Company in 1664 Much of the Stewart family wealth was based on the estates which came into the family through this marriage.
The 1st Marquess was one of the few people to become a Marquess without inheriting any titles prior to the creation. He sat in the British House of Lords as one of the twenty-eight original Irish Representative Peers from 1800 to 1821. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" In the United Kingdom, representative peers were individuals elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to represent them He was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Lady Sarah Seymour. The 2nd Marquess, better known by his courtesy title of Viscount Castlereagh (which he used from 1796 to 1821), was a noted statesman and diplomat. A courtesy title is a form of address in systems of Nobility used by children former wives and other close relatives of a peer. Castlereagh is best remembered for his tenure as Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom from 1812 to 1822 and played an important role at the Congress of Vienna of 1814 to 1815. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a member of the United Kingdom Government heading the The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich He committed suicide in 1822, one year after succeeding his father in the marquessate.
Castlereagh was succeeded by his half-brother, the 3rd Marquess. He was the only son from the 1st Marquess's second marriage to Lady Frances Pratt, daughter of Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden. Charles Pratt 1st Earl Camden ( baptised 21 March 1714 &ndash 18 April 1794) Lord Chancellor of Great Britain He was a General in the Army and like his elder half-brother a prominent politician and diplomat. Lord Londonderry served as Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies from 1807 to 1809, fought in the Napoleonic Wars and was Ambassador to Austria from 1814 to 1823. The Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was a junior Ministerial post in the United Kingdom government subordinate to the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions The Ambassador from the United Kingdom to Austria is the United Kingdom 's foremost diplomatic representative in the Republic of Austria, and in charge of In 1814 he was created Baron Stewart, of Stewart's Court and Ballylawn in County Donegal, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most Peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801 when In 1819 Londonderry married as his second wife Frances Anne Emily Vane-Tempest (d. 1865), daughter and wealthy heiress of Sir Henry Vane-Tempest, 2nd Baronet, through which marriage substantial estates in County Durham came into the Stewart family. He assumed the additional surname of Vane on his marriage and in 1823 he was created Viscount Seaham, of Seaham in the County Palatine of Durham, and Earl Vane, with remainder to the male issue of his second marriage. These titles are in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Lord Londonderry was succeeded in the viscountcy of Seaham and earldom of Vane according to the special remainder by his eldest son from his second marriage while he was succeeded in the Irish titles and the barony of Stewart by his son from his first marriage to Lady Catherine Bligh, the 4th Marquess. He died childless in 1872 and was succeeded by his half-brother, the 5th Marquess, who had already succeeded his father as second Earl Vane in 1854. He represented Durham North in the House of Commons and served as Lord-Lieutenant of County Durham. North Durham is a County constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Durham. In 1851 the 5th Marquess assumed by Royal license the additional surname of Tempest. On his death the titles passed to his eldest son, the 6th Marquess. He was a Conservative politician and held office in the administrations of Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, as Postmaster General, as President of the Board of Education, as Lord Privy Seal and as Lord President of the Council. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. "Lord Salisbury" redirects here For other holders of the title see Marquess of Salisbury. Arthur James Balfour 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930 was a British Conservative politician and The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (Ard-Leifteanant na hÉireann ( Plural: Lords Lieutenant) also known as the Judiciar in the early Mediaeval period The Postmaster General in the United Kingdom is a defunct ministerial position in HM Government. The Secretary of State for Education and Skills was the chief minister of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom government The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom ranking beneath the The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Treasurer and above In 1885 he assumed by Royal license the additional and principal surname of Stewart.
He was succeeded by his son, the 7th Marquess, who was also a Conservative politician. He had a career in both Irish and British politics but is best known for his role as Secretary of State for Air from 1931 to 1935. The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet level British position in charge of the Air Ministry. Lord Londonderry subsequently gained notoriety for his informal diplomatic contacts with senior members of the German government. He became a close friend of Adolf Hitler, and sympathized with some of his ideas. His wife Edith Vane-Tempest-Stewart, Marchioness of Londonderry, was an influential society hostess remembered for her close friendship with Ramsay Macdonald. Edith Vane-Tempest-Stewart Marchioness of Londonderry DBE ( 3 December 1878 &ndash 23 April 1959) was a noted and influential James Ramsay MacDonald ( 12 October 1866 &ndash 9 November 1937) was a British politician and twice Prime Minister of the United Lord Londonderry was succeeded by his son, the 8th Marquess. He represented County Down in the House of Commons as a Conservative from 1931 to 1945. Down is former UK Parliament constituency in Ireland It was a two member constituency and existed in two periods 1801-1885 and 1922-1950
As of 2007 the titles are held by his son, the 9th Marquess, who succeeded in 1955. He has been married twice, latterly to the former Royal Ballet principal dancer Doreen Wells.
The Heir Apparent to the marquessate is styled Viscount Castlereagh, although the Marquess is also the Earl Vane, and the Heir Apparent's Heir Apparent (when such exists), in one of only two exceptions to the 'rule' that the heirs of Viscounts do not use courtesy titles, is styled Lord Stewart. An heir apparent is an Heir who (short of a fundamental change in the situation cannot be displaced from inheriting the term is used in contrast to Heir presumptive A courtesy title is a form of address in systems of Nobility used by children former wives and other close relatives of a peer.
Between 1823 and 1854 and between 1872 and 1999, the Marquesses of Londonderry sat in the House of Lords as The Earl Vane. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" Between 1822 and 1823 and between 1854 and 1872, they sat as The Lord Stewart.
The family owned the historic house and gardens at Mount Stewart, the Wynyard Park estate in County Durham as well as Londonderry House on Park Lane in London (where the Hilton London Hotel is now) and Plas Machynlleth in mid-Wales. Mount Stewart is an 18th-century house and garden in Northern Ireland owned by the National Trust. Wynyard Park, sometimes known as Wynyard Hall is a large Country house in County Durham, England. Londonderry House was an aristocratic townhouse situated on Park Lane in the Mayfair district of London, England Plas Machynlleth was the Welsh residence of the Marquesses of Londonderry. The family also gained Seaham Hall in County Durham. Seaham Hall is now a spa Hotel in County Durham. It was once the home of George Henry Robert Charles William Vane-Tempest 5th Marquess of Londonderry History
The Heir Apparent is the present holder's eldest son Frederick Aubrey Vane-Tempest-Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh (b. Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. An heir apparent is an Heir who (short of a fundamental change in the situation cannot be displaced from inheriting the term is used in contrast to Heir presumptive 1972)