|Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings|
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings,
photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1953
|Born||August 8, 1896|
Washington, DC (USA)
|Died||December 14, 1953|
St. Augustine, FL
|Writing period||1928 - 1953|
|Genres||fiction, Florida history|
|Notable work(s)||The Yearling, 1939|
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (August 8, 1896 – December 14, 1953) was an American author who lived in rural Florida and wrote novels with rural themes and settings. Carl Van Vechten ( June 17, 1880 &ndash December 21, 1964) was an American Writer and Photographer who was a Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The United States of America —commonly referred to as the St Augustine is the County seat of St Johns County, Florida, in the United States. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A literary genre is a category of literary composition Genres may be determined by Literary technique, tone, Content, or even (as in the case of fiction The Yearling is a 1938 novel written by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the Her best known work, The Yearling, about a boy who adopts an orphaned fawn, won a Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1939 and was later made into a movie, also known as The Yearling. The Yearling is a 1938 novel written by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings. The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, The Yearling is a 1946 Family film drama made by MGM. It was directed by Clarence Brown and produced by Sidney Franklin The book was written long before the concept of young-adult fiction, but is now commonly included in teen-reading lists. Young-adult fiction (often abbreviated as YA fiction, or simply YA) is Fiction written for published for or marketed to adolescents roughly between the
Marjorie Kinnan was born in 1896 in Washington, DC, to Frank, an attorney for the US Patent Office, and Ida Kinnan. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The United States Patent and Trademark Office ( PTO or USPTO) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that issues Patents to  She was interested in writing as early as age six, and submitted stories to the children's sections of newspapers until she was 16. At age 15, she entered a story titled "The Reincarnation of Miss Hetty," for which she won a prize. 
She attended the University of Wisconsin-Madison where she joined Kappa Alpha Theta sorority and received a degree in English in 1918, and met Charles Rawlings while working for the school literary magazine. Kappa Alpha Theta ( ΚΑΘ) is an international women's fraternity founded on January 27, 1870 at DePauw University. Kinnan briefly worked for the YWCA editorial board in New York, and married Charles in 1919. For other uses see Young Women's Christian Association The World YWCA is the umbrella organization of the global network of the YWCA - a movement of women working for New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous  The couple moved to Louisville, Kentucky writing for the Louisville Courier-Journal and then Rochester, New York both writing for the Rochester Journal, and Marjorie writing a syndicated column called "Songs of the Housewife. The Courier-Journal, nicknamed the "C-J", is the main Newspaper for the city of Louisville Kentucky, USA Rochester is a city in Monroe County, New York State, south of Lake Ontario in the United States. "
In 1928, with a small inheritance from her mother, the Rawlingses purchased a 72 acre (290,000 m²) orange grove near Hawthorne, Florida, in a hamlet named Cross Creek for its location between Orange Lake and Lochloosa Lake. An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn Hawthorne is a city in Alachua County, Florida, United States. Cross Creek is an Unincorporated community in Alachua County, Florida, United States. Orange Lake is an Unincorporated community in Marion County, Florida, United States. She brought the place to international fame through her writing. She was fascinated with the remote wilderness and the lives of Cross Creek residents, her Cracker neighbors, and felt a profound and transforming connection to the region and the land. Florida Cracker refers to the original colonial era American Pioneer Settlers of the State of Florida.  Wary at first, the local residents soon warmed to her and opened up their lives and experiences to her. Marjorie filled several notebooks with descriptions of the animals, plants, Southern dialect, and recipes and used these descriptions in her writings. 
In 1926, Scribner's accepted two of her stories, "Cracker Chidlings" and "Jacob's Ladder," both about the poor, backcountry Florida residents who were quite similar to her neighbors at Cross Creek. Charles Scribner's Sons is a publisher The firm published Scribner's Magazine for many years Local reception to her stories was mixed between puzzlement of whom she was writing about and rage, as apparently one mother recognized her son as a subject in a story and threatened to whip Rawlings until she was dead. 
Her first novel, South Moon Under, was published in 1933. The book captured the richness of Cross Creek and its environs in telling the story of a young man, Lant, who must support himself and his mother by making and selling moonshine, and what he must do when a traitorous cousin threatens to turn him in. Production Uses Usually large scale distillation is practiced for the purpose of making ethanol for drinking, yet it may also practiced for creating Biofuel Moonshiners were the subject of several of her stories, and Rawlings lived with a moonshiner for several weeks near Ocala to prepare for writing the book. Ocala is a city in Marion County, Florida, United States. As of 2007 the population recorded by the U  "South Moon Under" was included in the Book-of-the-Month Club and was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. The Book of the Month Club (founded 1926) is a United States Mail-order business customers of which are offered a new Book each month
One of her least well received books, Golden Apples, came out in 1935. It tells the stories of several people who suffer from unrequited love from people unsuited for them. Rawlings herself was disappointed in it, and in a 1935 letter to her publisher Max Perkins, she called it "interesting trash instead of literature. "
But she found immense success in 1938 with The Yearling, a story about a Florida boy and his pet deer, which he is forced to shoot when the deer grows up and eats the family's crop, and the break he makes with his father as a result of it. It was also selected for the Book-of-the-Month Club, and it won the Pulitzer Prize for 1939. MGM purchased the rights to the film version, which was released in 1946, and it made her very famous.
In 1942, Rawlings published Cross Creek, an autobiographical account of her relationships with her neighbors and her beloved Florida hammocks. Hammocks are dense stands of Hardwood trees that grow on natural rises of only a few inches higher than surrounding marshland that is otherwise too wet to support them Again it was chosen by the Book-of-the-Month Club, and it was even released in a special armed forces edition, sent to servicemen during World War II.  She followed that with Cross Creek Cookery, a compilation of recipes that was evidence of her passion for cooking.
Rawlings' final novel, The Sojourner, published in 1953 and set in a northern setting, was about a boy who feels unwanted as his mother is distracted with missing his absent brother. In order to absorb the natural setting so vital to her writing, she bought an old farmhouse in Van Hornesville, New York and spent part of each year there until her death. Stark is a Town in Herkimer County, New York, United States. The population was 767 at the 2000 census Rawlings published 33 short stories from 1912 to 1949. Her editor was the legendary Maxwell Perkins of Scribner’s. William Maxwell Evarts Perkins, ( September 20, 1884 – June 17, 1947) editor was born on September 20, 1884 in New York Over the years, she built friendships with fellow writers Ernest Hemingway whom she met in 1936 and traded praises with about their writing, Thomas Wolfe, F. Scott Fitzgerald whom she also met in 1936 when Fitzgerald was recuperating in the mountains in North Carolina, Robert Frost, and Margaret Mitchell. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21 1899 — July 2 1961 was an American novelist short-story writer, and Journalist. Thomas Clayton Wolfe ( October 3, 1900 &ndash September 15, 1938) was an acclaimed American Novelist of the early 20th Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24 1896 – December 21 1940 was an American writer of Novels and Short stories, whose works are evocative of the North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States Robert Lee Frost (March 26 1874 &ndash January 29 1963 was an American Poet. Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell Marsh ( November 8 1900 – August 16 1949) popularly known as Margaret Mitchell was an American
Because many of Rawling's works were centered in the North and Central Florida area, she was often considered a regional writer. Rawlings herself rejected this label saying, "I don't hold any brief for regionalism, and I don't hold with the regional novel as such … don't make a novel about them unless they have a larger meaning than just quaintness. "
In 1943, Rawlings faced a libel suit for her book Cross Creek by her very good friend Zelma Cason, whom Rawlings met the first day she moved to Florida. Cason, in fact, helped to smooth the angry mother made upset by her son's depiction in "Jacob's Ladder. "
Rawlings described Cason in this passage, yet never used her last name in the book:
"Zelma is an ageless spinster resembling an angry and efficient canary. She manages her orange grove and as much of the village a county as needs management or will submit to it. I cannot decide whether she should have been a man or a mother. She combines the more violent characteristics of both and those who ask for or accept her ministrations think nothing at being cursed loudly at the very instant of being tenderly fed, clothed, nursed, or guided through their troubles. " 
Cason was outraged, and claimed Rawlings made her out to be a "hussy," although Rawlings spoke with her immediately and assumed their friendship was intact.  Cason, however, decided to sue Rawlings for $100,000 US for invasion of privacy — a charge that had never been argued in a Florida court — as the courts found libel too ambiguous. Privacy law is the area of law concerning the protection and preservation of the Privacy rights of individuals Cason was represented by one of the first women lawyers in Florida, Kate Walton. Cason was reportedly profane indeed (one of her neighbors reported her swearing could be heard for a quarter of a mile), wore pants, had a fascination with guns, and was just as extraordinarily independent as Rawlings herself.  The toll the case took on Rawlings was great, in both time and emotion. Reportedly, Rawlings was shocked to learn of Cason's reaction to the book, and felt somewhat betrayed.  After the case was over, she moved away from Cross Creek and never wrote about it again, despite the fact that Cason and Rawlings eventually mended their friendship. 
Rawlings won the case and enjoyed a brief vindication, but the verdict was overturned in appellate court and Rawlings was ordered to pay damages in the amount of $1 US. 
With money she made from The Yearling, Rawlings bought a beach cottage at Crescent Beach, ten miles south of St. Augustine. Crescent Beach is an unincorporated Census-designated place in St St Augustine is the County seat of St Johns County, Florida, in the United States.
In 1941 Rawlings married Ocala hotelier Norton Baskin, and he remodeled an old mansion into the Castle Warden Hotel in St. Augustine (currently the Ripley's Believe it or Not Museum). Ocala is a city in Marion County, Florida, United States. As of 2007 the population recorded by the U St Augustine is the County seat of St Johns County, Florida, in the United States. Ripley's Believe It or Not! is a franchise founded by Robert Ripley, which deals in bizarre events and items so After World War II, he sold the hotel and managed the Dolphin Restaurant at Marineland, which was then Florida's number one tourist attraction. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Marineland of Florida ("Marineland" one of Florida 's first Theme parks is billed as "the world's first Oceanarium " Rawlings and Baskin made their primary home at Crescent Beach, and Rawlings and Baskin both continued their respective occupations independently. When a visitor to the Castle Warden Hotel suggested she saw the influence of Rawlings in the decor, Baskin protested, saying, "You do not see Mrs. Rawlings' fine hand in this place. Nor will you see my big foot in her next book. That's our agreement. She writes. I run a hotel. " After purchasing her land in New York, Rawlings spent half the year there and half the year with Baskin in St. Augustine.
Her singular admitted vanity was cooking. She said, "I get as much satisfaction from preparing a perfect dinner for a few good friends as from turning out a perfect paragraph in my writing. "
Rawlings befriended and corresponded with Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neale Hurston. Mary Jane McLeod Bethune (July 10 1875--May 18 1955 was an educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a school for black students in Daytona Beach Florida that Zora Neale Hurston ( January 7, 1891 &ndash January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time  Her views on race relations were much different than her neighbors, castigating white Southerners for infantalizing African Americans and labeling their economic differences with whites "a scandal", but simultaneously considered whites superior.  She described her African-American employee Idella as "the perfect maid. " Their relationship is described in the book Idella: Marjorie Rawlings' "Perfect Maid", by Idella Parker and Mary Keating.
Biographers have noted her longing for a male child through her writings, as far back as her first story as a teenage girl in, "The Reincarnation of Miss Hetty," and repeated throughout several works, letters, and characters, most notably in The Yearling. Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings Historic State Park is a Florida State Park and historic site located on the former homestead of Florida author Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings  In fact, she stated that as a child she had a gift for telling stories, but that she demanded all her audiences be boys. 
Her hatred of cities was intense: she wrote a sonnet titled, "Having Left Cities Behind Me" published in Scribner's in 1938 to illustrate it (excerpt):
"Now, having left cities behind me, turned
Away forever from the strange, gregarious
Huddling of men by stones, I find those various
Great towns I knew fused into one, burned
Together in the fire of my despising. . . "
She was criticized throughout her career for being uneven with her talent in writing, something she recognized in herself, and that reflected periods of depression and artistic frustration. She has been described has having unique sensibilities; she wrote of feeling "vibrations" from the land, and often preferred long periods of solitude at Cross Creek. She was known for being remarkably strong-willed, but after her death, Norton Baskin wrote of her, "Marjorie was the shyest person I have ever known. This was always strange to me as she could stand up to anybody in any department of endeavor but time after time when she was asked to go some place or to do something she would accept -'if I would go with her. '"
Rawlings died in 1953 in St. Augustine of a cerebral hemorrhage. A cerebral hemorrhage (or intracerebral hemorrhage, ICH) is a subtype of Intracranial hemorrhage that occurs within the Brain tissue itself She bequeathed most of her property to the University of Florida in Gainesville, where she taught creative writing in Anderson Hall. The University of Florida ( Florida or UF) is a public land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant major Research Gainesville is the largest City in and County seat of Alachua County, Florida, United States. Anderson Hall is a historic building in Gainesville Florida, in the northeastern section of the University of Florida campus In return, her name was given to a new dormitory dedicated in 1958 as Rawlings Hall which occupies prime real estate in the heart of the campus. Her land at Cross Creek is now the Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings Historic State Park. Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings Historic State Park is a Florida State Park and historic site located on the former homestead of Florida author Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Norton Baskin survived her by 44 years, passing away in 1997. They are buried side-by-side at Antioch Cemetery near Island Grove, Florida. Rawlings' tombstone, with Baskin's inscription, reads "Through her writing she endeared herself to the people of the world. " Rawlings' reputation has managed to outlive those of many of her contemporaries. A posthumously-published children's book, The Secret River, won a Newbery Honor in 1956, and movies were made, long after her death, of her story Gal Young 'Un, and her semi-fictionalized memoir Cross Creek (Norton Baskin, then in his eighties, made a cameo appearance in the latter movie). The Newbery Honor is a citation given by the Association for Library Service to Children of the American Library Association (ALA Cross Creek is a 1983 Film starring Mary Steenburgen as The Yearling author Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings.