|Spoken in:||Chile, Argentina|
|Language family:||language isolate|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family A language isolate, in the absolute sense is a Natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic" relationship with other living languages that is ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages ISO 639 -3 (ISO 639-32007 is an international standard for Language codes The standard describes three‐letter codes for identifying languages In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's|
Mapudungun (mapu means 'earth' and dungun means 'to speak') is a language isolate spoken in central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche (mapu is 'earth' and che means 'people') people. A language isolate, in the absolute sense is a Natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic" relationship with other living languages that is Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. It is also known as Mapudungu, Araucanian (Araucano) (the name given to the Mapuche people by the Spanish, it sometimes has a negative connotation) and Mapuche. Its speakers number 440,000, with 400,000 in the Central Valley of Chile and 40,000 in the Argentinian region of Patagonia. Llao LLaojpg|thumb|250px| Lake Nahuel Huapi, near Bariloche, Argentina Some 200,000 people use the language regularly.
Mapudungun lacks substantive protection or promotion, despite the Chilean government's commitment to improve the situation and provide full access to education in Mapuche areas in southern Chile.
Mapudungun, also formerly known as the Araucanian language, has been classified by some authorities as being related to the Penutian languages of North America. Penutian is a proposed grouping of language families that includes many Native American languages of western North America, predominantly spoken at one Others group it among the Andean languages (Greenberg 1987, Key 1978), and yet others postulate an Araucanian-Mayan relationship (Stark 1970, Hamp 1971); Croese (1989, 1991) has advanced the hypothesis that it is related to Arawak. Other authorities regard it as an isolate language. It has had some lexical influence from Quechua (pataka 'hundred', warangka, 'thousand') and Spanish. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America.
When the Spanish arrived in Chile, they found three groups of Mapuche, one of which were the Picunche (from pikum 'north' and che 'people') who were conquered quite rapidly. Since the 18th century the southern group or Huilliche (willi 'south' and che 'people') has lost its specific identity, but the central group, the Mapuche, retains it. The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina.
The term Araucano is nowadays avoided by scholars and Mapuche alike.
Mapudungun has a number of dialects. In Argentina, the Pehuenche dialect is spoken in Neuquén (from Valdivia to Neuquén); the Moluche or Nguluche dialect is spoken from Limay to Lake Nahuel Huapi; the Huilliche or Veliche dialect is spoken in the Lake Nahuel Huapi region as well, and also in Valdivia, Chile; and the Ranquenche dialect is spoken in Chalileo, General Acha and in the Río Colorado region.
Two varieties of Mapudungu are still spoken. The most widely spoken is Mapudungun (also Araucano, Mapuche), the language of the Mapuche people. The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. There are an estimated 275,000 active users of the language, 200,000 in Chile and 75,000 in Argentina.
Huillice (also Huilliche, Veliche) has several thousand speakers, most of whom speak Spanish as a first language, south of the Mapuche in Chile's Valdivian Coastal Range, Osorno Province and on Chiloé Island. The Huilliche language (also known as Veliche and Huiliche) is an Araucanian language spoken (as of 1982 by about 2000 ethnic Huilliche The Huilliche ( Huillice) is an ethnic group of Chile, belonging to the Mapuche culture The Valdivian Coastal Range is a mountain range in southern Chile, along the Pacific coast Osorno Province is one of the four Provinces in the Los Lagos Region of Chile. Chiloé Island ( Spanish: "Isla de Chiloé" also known as' Isla Grande de Chiloé "Greater Island of Chiloé", is the largest island
Gordon (2005) treats these as separate languages.
The indicative present paradigm for an intransitive verb like konün 'enter' is as follows:
What some authors have described as an inverse system (similar to the ones described for Algonquian languages) can be seen from the forms of a transitive verb like pen 'see'. The Algonquian (also Algonkian, and pronounced both and) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic The 'intransitive' forms are the following:
The 'transitive' forms are the following (only singular forms are provided here):
|DIR pefi / INV peeyew / REFL pewi|
(< pe-fi-i-0-0 / pe-e-i-0-0-mew / pe-w-i-0-0)
When a third peson interacts with a first or second person, the forms are either direct (without -e) or inverse (with -e) and the speaker has no choice. When two third persons interact, two different forms are available: the direct form (pefi) is appropriate when the agent is topical (i. e. , the central figure in that particular passage). The inverse form (peenew) is appropriate when the patient is topical. Thus, chi wentru pefi chi domo means 'the man saw the woman' while chi wentru peeyew chi domo means something like 'the man was seen by the woman'; note, however, that it is not a passive construction; the passive would be chi wentru pengey 'the man was seen; someone saw the man'.
The formalization and normalization of Mapudungun was effected by the first Mapudungun grammar published by the Jesuit priest Luis de Valdivia in 1606 (Arte y Gramatica General de la Lengva que Corre en Todo el Reyno de Chile). Luis de Valdivia (1560 - November 5 1642 Spanish Jesuit missionary that defended the rights of the natives of Chile and pleaded for the reduction of the hostilities with the Mapuches More important is the Arte de la Lengua General del Reyno de Chile by the Jesuit Andrés Febrés (1765, Lima) composed of a grammar and dictionary. In 1776 three volumes in Latin were published in Westfalia (Chilidúgú sive Res Chilenses) by the German Jesuit Bernardo Havestadt. Bernhard Havestadt (b at Cologne, 27 February[[ 714]] died at Münster after 1778 was a German Jesuit missionary in Chile. The work by Febrés was used as a basic preparation from 1810 for missionary priests going into the regions occupied by the Mapuche people. A corrected version was completed in 1846 and a summary, without a dictionary in 1864. A work based on Febrés' book is the Breve Metodo della Lingua Araucana y Dizionario Italo-Araucano e Viceversa by the Italian Octaviano de Niza in 1888. It was destroyed in a fire at the Convento de San Francisco in Valdivia in 1928. Valdivia is a city and commune in southern Chile administered by the Municipality of Valdivia
The most comprehensive works to date are the ones by Augusta (1903, 1916). Salas (1992, 2006) is an introduction for non-specialists, featuring an ethnographic introduction and a valuable text collection as well. Zúñiga (2006) includes a complete grammatical description, a bilingual dictionary, some texts and an audio CD with text recordings (educational material, a traditional folktale and six contemporary poems). Smeets (1989) and Zúñiga (2000) are for specialists only. Catrileo (1995) and the dictionaries by Hernández & Ramos are trilingual (Spanish, English and Mapudungun).