1945 – 1976
|Preceded by||Zhang Wentian|
|Succeeded by||Hua Guofeng|
1954 – 1959
|Succeeded by||Liu Shaoqi|
|Born||December 26, 1893|
Hunan, Great Qing
|Died||September 9, 1976 (aged 82)|
Beijing, People's Republic of China
|Political party||Communist Party of China|
|Spouse||Yang Kaihui (1920–1930)|
He Zizhen (1930–1937)
Jiang Qing (1939–1976)
Mao Zedong Simplified Chinese: 毛泽东; Traditional Chinese: 毛澤東; Pinyin: Máo Zédōng; Wade-Giles: Mao Tse-tung); December 26, 1893–September 9, 1976 was a Chinese military and political leader who led the Communist Party of China (CPC) to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, and was the leader of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. This article lists the leaders of the Communist Party of China, from its beginning to the present General Secretaries (1921-1943 Between 1921 and 1943 the Communist Zhang Wentian ( (1900&ndash July 1, 1976) also known as Luo Fu was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC from 1935 to March Hua Guofeng ( (16 February 1921 &ndash 20 August 2008 born as Su Zhu ( was Mao Zedong 's designated successor as the Paramount leader of the The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman Liu Shaoqi ( (24 November 1898 12 November 1969 was a Chinese revolutionary statesman and theorist Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1893 ( MDCCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Yáng Kāihuì ( Courtesy name: Yúnjǐn 云锦 1901 &ndash November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong from 1920 to 1930 He Zizhen ( Chinese:贺子珍; Pinyin: Hè Zǐzhēn September 1909 - April 19 1984) was the third wife of Mao Zedong from Jiang Qing ( March 14, 1914 May 14, 1991) is the Pseudonym that was used by Chinese leader Mao Zedong 's last wife Atheism Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Wade-Giles (ˌweɪdˈʤaɪlz) sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system (phonetic notation and Transcription) for the Mandarin Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1893 ( MDCCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES(
Regarded as one of the most important figures in modern world history, and named by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, Mao is still a controversial figure today, over thirty years after his death. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and The Time 100 The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's most influential politicians artists innovators scientists and cultural icons The twentieth century of the Common Era began on He is generally held in high regard in China where he is often portrayed as a great revolutionary and strategist who eventually defeated Chiang Kai-shek in the Chinese Civil War, and transformed the country into a major power through his policies. Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale However, many of Mao's socio-political programs such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution are blamed by critics from both within and outside China for causing severe damage to the culture, society, economy and foreign relations of China, as well as the deaths of 44. The Great Leap Forward ( of the People's Republic of China (PRC was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use China 's vast population The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into The Culture of China (traditional Chinese 中國文化 simplified Chinese 中国文化 is home to one of the world's oldest and most complex Civilizations covering a history The Culture of China (traditional Chinese 中國文化 simplified Chinese 中国文化 is home to one of the world's oldest and most complex Civilizations covering a history China has the second-largest economy in the world with a GDP of over $ 6 The Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China draw upon traditions extending back to imperial China in the Qing Dynasty 5 to 72 million people. 
Although still officially venerated in China, his influence has been largely overshadowed by the political and economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping and other leaders since his death. The Chinese economic reform ( refers to the program of economic reforms called " Socialism with Chinese characteristics " in the People's Republic of Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer  Mao is also recognized as a poet and calligrapher. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 
The eldest child of a relatively prosperous peasant family, Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893, in a village called Shaoshan in Xiangtan County (湘潭縣), Hunan province. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1893 ( MDCCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Shaoshan ( is a County-level city in Xiangtan, Hunan Province. Xiangtan ( is a city located in the center of Hunan province China. ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning His ancestors migrated from Jiangxi province during the Ming Dynasty, and had settled there as farmers. ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsi is a southern province of the People's Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led His father was Mao Jen-sheng, a peasant farmer. Wen Chi-mei, his mother, was a very devout Buddhist. Due to his family's relative wealth, his father was able to send him to school and later to Changsha for more advanced schooling. Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the
|Given name||Style name|
|IPA||/mau̯ː˧˥ tsɤ˧˥. Personal Names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. Personal Names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name ( zì) is a given name to be used later in life Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Wade-Giles (ˌweɪdˈʤaɪlz) sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system (phonetic notation and Transcription) for the Mandarin tʊŋ˥/||/ʐuənː˥˩ tʂ̩˥/|
|Pseudonym: The Great Helmsman|
|¹Originally 詠芝(咏芝) then 润芝, in Xiangtan dialect|
have the same pronunciation yùnzhī
During the 1911 Revolution, Mao enlisted as a soldier in a local regiment in Hunan which fought on the side of the revolutionaries. A surname is a name added to a Given name and is part of a Personal name. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) A helmsman is a person who steers a Ship, sailboat submarine or other type of maritime vessel The Xinhai Revolution or Shinhai Revolution ( also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, began with the Wuchang Uprising ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning Once the Qing Dynasty had been effectively toppled, Mao left the army and returned to school. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China 
After graduating from the First Provincial Normal School of Hunan in 1918, Mao traveled with Professor Yang Changji, his high school teacher and future father-in-law, to Beijing during the May Fourth Movement in 1919. The May Fourth Movement ( was an anti- imperialist, cultural and political movement in early modern China.
Professor Yang held a faculty position at Peking University. Peking University ( of Beijing, colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大 Běidà) is the first formally established university and the first Because of Yang's recommendation, Mao worked as an assistant librarian at the University with Li Dazhao as curator. Biography Early life Li was born in Leting (a county of Tangshan) Hebei province to a peasant family Mao registered as a part-time student at Beijing University and attended many lectures and seminars by famous intellectuals, such as Chen Duxiu, Hu Shi, Qian Xuantong, etc. Chronology October 9 1879 Birth in Anqing, Anhui. 1879 to 1901 Early life and education in China Hu Shih ( 17 December 1891 — 24 February 1962 born Hu Hung-hsing (胡洪騂 Hu Hongxing was a Chinese philosopher and Essayist Qian Xuantong ( (1887— January 17 1939) was a Chinese linguist During his stay in Beijing, he read as much as possible, and through his readings, he was introduced to Communist theories. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based He married Yang Kaihui, Professor Yang's daughter who was his fellow student, despite an existing marriage arranged by his father at home. Yáng Kāihuì ( Courtesy name: Yúnjǐn 云锦 1901 &ndash November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong from 1920 to 1930 Mao never acknowledged this marriage. In October 1930, the Guomindang (GMD) captured Yang Kaihui with her son, Anying. Yáng Kāihuì ( Courtesy name: Yúnjǐn 云锦 1901 &ndash November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong from 1920 to 1930 The GMD imprisoned them both and Anying, then, was later sent to his relatives after the GMD killed his mother, Yang Kaihui. At this time , Mao was living with a co-worker, He Zizhen, a 17 year old girl from Yongxing, Jiangxi. He Zizhen ( Chinese:贺子珍; Pinyin: Hè Zǐzhēn September 1909 - April 19 1984) was the third wife of Mao Zedong from ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsi is a southern province of the People's Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River  Mao turned down an opportunity to study in France because he firmly believed that China's problems could be studied and resolved only within China. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Unlike his contemporaries, Mao concentrated on studying the peasant majority of China's population.
On July 23, 1921, Mao, age 27, attended the first session of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China in Shanghai. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar The National Congress of the Communist Party of China ( is a Party congress that is held about once every five years Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million Two years later, he was elected as one of the five commissars of the Central Committee of the Party during the third Congress session. Later that year (1923), Mao returned to Hunan at the instruction of the CPC Central Committee and the Kuomintang Central Committee to organise the Hunan branch of the Kuomintang.  In 1924, he was a delegate to the first National Conference of the Kuomintang, where he was elected an Alternate Executive of the Central Committee. In 1924, he became an Executive of the Shanghai branch of the Kuomintang, and Secretary of the Organisation Department.
For a while, Mao remained in Shanghai, an important city that the CPC emphasized for the Revolution. A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively However, the Party encountered major difficulties organizing labour union movements and building a relationship with its nationalist ally, the Kuomintang. The Party had become poor, and Mao was disillusioned with the revolution and moved back to Shaoshan. During his stay at home, Mao's interest in the revolution was rekindled after hearing of the 1925 uprisings in Shanghai and Guangzhou. His political ambitions returned, and he then went to Guangdong, the base of the Kuomintang, and took part in the preparations for the second session of the National Congress of Kuomintang. In October 1925, Mao became acting Propaganda Director of the Kuomintang. 
In early 1927, Mao returned to Hunan where, in an urgent meeting held by the Communist Party, he made a report based on his investigations of the peasant uprisings in the wake of the Northern Expedition. The Northern Expedition ( was a military campaign led by the Kuomintang (KMT from 1926 to 1928. This is considered the initial and decisive step towards the successful application of Mao's revolutionary theories. 
Mao had a great interest in the political system, encouraged by his father.  In addition to his limited formal education, Mao spent six months studying independently. Mao was first introduced to communism while working at Peking University, and in 1921 he co-founded the Communist Party of China (or CPC). Peking University ( of Beijing, colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大 Běidà) is the first formally established university and the first 
In 1920, Mao also developed his theory of violent revolution. His theory was inspired by the Russian revolution and was likely influenced by the Chinese literary works: Outlaws of the Marsh and Romance of the Three Kingdoms. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them Water Margin ( (also Outlaws of the Marsh, All Men Are Brothers or The Marshes of Mount Liang) is one of the Four Great Classical Novels Romance of the Three Kingdoms ( written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese Historical novel based upon events in Mao sought to subvert the alliance of imperialism and feudalism in China. He thought the Nationalists to be both economically and politically vulnerable and thus that the revolution could not be steered by Nationalists. He concluded that violent revolution must be conducted by the proletariat under the supervision of a Communist party. The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian
Throughout the 1920s, Mao led several labour struggles based upon his studies of the propagation and organization of the contemporary labour movements.  However, these struggles were successfully subdued by the government, and Mao fled from Changsha after he was labeled a radical activist. Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the He pondered these failures and finally realized that industrial workers were unable to lead the revolution because they made up only a small portion of China's population, and unarmed labour struggles could not resolve the problems of imperial and feudal suppression.
Mao began to depend on Chinese peasants who later became staunch supporters of his theory of violent revolution. This dependence on the rural rather than the urban proletariat to instigate violent revolution distinguished Mao from his predecessors and contemporaries. Mao himself was from a peasant family, and thus he cultivated his reputation among the farmers and peasants and introduced them to Marxism. 
In 1927, Mao conducted the famous Autumn Harvest Uprising in Changsha, Hunan, as commander-in-chief. The Autumn Harvest Uprising ( was an Insurrection that took place in Hunan province and Jiangxi province China on September 7, Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning Mao led an army, called the "Revolutionary Army of Workers and Peasants", which was defeated and scattered after fierce battles. Afterwards, the exhausted troops were forced to leave Hunan for Sanwan, Jiangxi, where Mao re-organized the scattered soldiers, rearranging the military division into smaller regiments. Mao also ordered that each company must have a party branch office with a commissar as its leader who would give political instructions based upon superior mandates. This military rearrangement in Sanwan, Jiangxi initiated the CPC's absolute control over its military force and has been considered to have the most fundamental and profound impact upon the Chinese revolution. Later, they moved to the Jinggang Mountains, Jiangxi. Jinggangshan (井冈山 Pinyin: Jǐnggāngshān also Jinggang Shan or Jinggang Mountains is located in the Luoxian Mountains (羅霄山
In the Jinggang Mountains, Mao persuaded two local insurgent leaders to pledge their allegiance to him. There, Mao joined his army with that of Zhu De, creating the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China, Red Army in short. Zhū Dé ( Wade-Giles: Chu Te zi: Yùjiē 玉阶 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976 was a Chinese Communist miltary leader and statesman The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya (the Fourth Front of Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China).
From 1931 to 1934, Mao helped establish the Soviet Republic of China and was elected Chairman of this small republic in the mountainous areas in Jiangxi. The Chinese Soviet Republic ( it is also translated as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, though it is generally referred to in Here, Mao was married to He Zizhen. He Zizhen ( Chinese:贺子珍; Pinyin: Hè Zǐzhēn September 1909 - April 19 1984) was the third wife of Mao Zedong from His previous wife, Yang Kaihui, had been arrested and executed in 1930, just three years after their departure. Yáng Kāihuì ( Courtesy name: Yúnjǐn 云锦 1901 &ndash November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong from 1920 to 1930
In Jiangxi, Mao's authoritative domination, especially that of the military force, was challenged by the Jiangxi branch of the CPC and military officers. Mao's opponents, among whom the most prominent was Li Wenlin, the founder of the CPC's branch and Red Army in Jiangxi, were against Mao's land policies and proposals to reform the local party branch and army leadership. Mao reacted first by accusing the opponents of opportunism and kulakism and then set off a series of systematic suppressions of them. Opportunism is a term used in Politics and Political science. Kulaks ( Russian: кула́к kulak " Fist ", by extension "tight-fisted" were a category of rich Peasants in later  It is reported that horrible forms of torture and killing took place. Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that victims were subjected to a red-hot gun-rod being rammed into the anus, and that there were many cases of cutting open the stomach and scooping out the heart.  The estimated number of the victims amounted to several thousands and could be as high as 186,000.  Critics accuse Mao's authority in Jiangxi was secured and reassured through the revolutionary terrorism, or red terrorism. For opposition to all forms of government social hierarchy or authority see Anarchism. The Red Terror in Soviet Russia was the campaign of mass arrests and Executions conducted by the Bolshevik government
Mao, with the help of Zhu De, built a modest but effective army, undertook experiments in rural reform and government, and provided refuge for Communists fleeing the rightist purges in the cities. Zhū Dé ( Wade-Giles: Chu Te zi: Yùjiē 玉阶 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976 was a Chinese Communist miltary leader and statesman Mao's methods are normally referred to as Guerrilla warfare; but he himself made a distinction between guerrilla warfare (youji zhan) and Mobile Warfare (yundong zhan). Mobile Warfare is the correct English term for Mao Zedong 's main military methods
Mao's Guerrilla Warfare and Mobile Warfare was based upon the fact of the poor armament and military training of the red army which consisted mainly of impoverished peasants, who, however, were all encouraged by revolutionary passions and aspiring after a communist utopia. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Mobile Warfare is the correct English term for Mao Zedong 's main military methods Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the
Around 1930, there had been more than ten regions, usually entitled "soviet areas," under control of the CPC.  The prosperity of "soviet areas" startled and worried Chiang Kai-shek, chairman of the Kuomintang government, who waged five waves of besieging campaigns against the "central soviet area. Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash " More than one million Kuomintang soldiers were involved in these five campaigns, four out of which were defeated by the red army led by Mao. By June 1932 (the height of its power), the Red Army had no less than 45,000 soldiers, with a further 200,000 local militia acting as a subsidiary force. 
Under increasing pressures from the KMT encirclement campaigns, there was a struggle for power within the Communist leadership. Mao was removed from his important positions and replaced by individuals (including Zhou Enlai) who appeared loyal to the orthodox line advocated by Moscow and represented within the CPC by a group known as the 28 Bolsheviks. Zhou Enlai ( (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976 was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from 1949 until his death in January 1976 The 28 Bolsheviks were a group of Chinese students who studied at the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University from the late 1920s until early 1935 also known as the "Returned
Chiang Kai-shek, who had earlier assumed nominal control of China due in part to the Northern Expedition, was determined to eliminate the Communists. Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash By October 1934, he had them surrounded, prompting them to engage in the "Long March," a retreat from Jiangxi in the southeast to Shaanxi in the northwest of China. The Long March ( was a massive Military retreat undertaken by the Red Armies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP the forerunner of the People's Liberation ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess It was during this 9,600 kilometer (5,965 mile), year-long journey that Mao emerged as the top Communist leader, aided by the Zunyi Conference and the defection of Zhou Enlai to Mao's side. The Zunyi Conference was a meeting of the Communist Party of China (CPC in January of 1935 during the Long March. Zhou Enlai ( (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976 was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from 1949 until his death in January 1976 At this Conference, Mao entered the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China.
According to the standard Chinese Communist Party line, from his base in Yan'an, Mao led the Communist resistance against the Japanese in the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). Yan'an ( is a city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province in China. The Second Sino-Japanese War ( July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was a major war fought between the Republic of China and the However, Mao further consolidated power over the Communist Party in 1942 by launching the Zheng Feng, or "Rectification" campaign against rival CPC members such as Wang Ming, Wang Shiwei, and Ding Ling. Chen Yu-hui ( is the Daughter of Chen Li-an, the former president of Control Yuan. Wang Ming ( Chinese: 王明 Pinyin: Wáng Míng ( May 23 1904 - March 27 1974) was a senior leader of the early Chinese Wang Shiwei (Wade-Giles Wang Shih-wei (王實味 ( March 12, 1906 - July 1, 1947) originally named Wang Sidao (王思禱 was a Journalist Dīng Líng (丁玲 was the pseudonym of Jiǎng Bīngzhī (蒋冰之 also known as Bīn Zhǐ (彬芷 ( October 12, 1904 - March 4 1986) a Also while in Yan'an, Mao divorced He Zizhen and married the actress Lan Ping, who would become known as Jiang Qing. Jiang Qing ( March 14, 1914 May 14, 1991) is the Pseudonym that was used by Chinese leader Mao Zedong 's last wife
During the Sino-Japanese War, Mao Zedong's strategies were opposed by both Chiang Kai-shek and the United States. The US regarded Chiang as an important ally, able to help shorten the war by engaging the Japanese occupiers in China. Chiang, in contrast, sought to build the ROC army for the certain conflict with Mao's communist forces after the end of World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including This fact was not understood well in the US, and precious lend-lease armaments continued to be allocated to the Kuomintang. Lend-Lease (Public Law 77-11 was the name of the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, In turn, Mao spent part of the war (as to whether it was most or only a little is disputed) fighting the Kuomintang for control of certain parts of China. Both the Communists and Nationalists have been criticised for fighting amongst themselves rather than allying against the Japanese Imperial Army. However the Nationalists were better equipped and did most of the fighting against the Japanese army in China. 
In 1944, the Americans sent a special diplomatic envoy, called the Dixie Mission, to the Communist Party of China. The United States Army Observation Group, commonly known as the Dixie Mission, was the first U According to Edwin Moise, in Modern China: A History 2nd Edition:
Then again, modern commentators have disputed such claims. Amongst others, Willy Lam stated that during the war with Japan:
After the end of World War II, the U. Yan'an ( is a city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province in China. S. continued to support Chiang Kai-shek, now openly against the Communist Red Army (led by Mao Zedong) in the civil war for control of China. The People's Liberation Army ( PLA) ( is the unified Military organization of all land sea and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The U. S. support was part of its view to contain and defeat world communism. Likewise, the Soviet Union gave quasi-covert support to Mao (acting as a concerned neighbor more than a military ally, to avoid open conflict with the U. S. ) and gave large supplies of arms to the Communist Party of China, although newer Chinese records indicate the Soviet "supplies" were not as large as previously believed, and consistently fell short of the promised amount of aid.
On January 21, 1949, Kuomintang forces suffered massive losses against Mao's Red Army. Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In the early morning of December 10, 1949, Red Army troops laid siege to Chengdu, the last KMT-occupied city in mainland China, and Chiang Kai-shek evacuated from the mainland to Taiwan (Formosa) that same day. Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. ( located in southwest People's Republic of China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a Sub-provincial city. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia.
The People's Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party A postage stamp is an adhesive paper evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It was the culmination of over two decades of civil and international war. From 1954 to 1959, Mao was the Chairman of the PRC. The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman During this period, Mao was called Chairman Mao (毛主席) or the Great Leader Chairman Mao (伟大领袖毛主席). The Communist Party assumed control of all media in the country and used it to promote the image of Mao and the Party. The Nationalists under General Chiang Kai-Shek were vilified as were countries such as the United States of America and Japan. Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash The Chinese people were exhorted to devote themselves to build and strengthen their country. In his speech declaring the foundation of the PRC, Mao announced: "The Chinese people have stood up!"
Mao took up residence in Zhongnanhai, a compound next to the Forbidden City in Beijing, and there he ordered the construction of an indoor swimming pool and other buildings. The Zhongnanhai ( is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China adjacent to the Forbidden City which serves as the central headquarters for the The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial Palace from the mid- Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. Mao often did his work either in bed or by the side of the pool, preferring not to wear formal clothes unless absolutely necessary, according to Dr. Li Zhisui, his personal physician. Dr Li Zhisui (李志绥 b 1919 Beijing, China d February 13, 1995, Carol Stream Illinois) was Mao Zedong 's personal (Li's book, The Private Life of Chairman Mao, is regarded as controversial, especially by those sympathetic to Mao. The Private Life of Chairman Mao is a memoir published in 1994 by Dr )
Mao’s first political campaigns after founding the People’s Republic were land reform and the suppression of counter-revolutionaries, which centered on mass executions, often before organized crowds. Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a Revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it in full or in part These campaigns of mass repression targeted former KMT officials, businessmen, former employees of Western companies, intellectuals whose loyalty was suspect, and significant numbers of rural gentry. Political repression is the Persecution of an individual or group for political reasons particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part Gentry generally refers to people of high Social class, especially in the past  The U.S. State department in 1976 estimated that there may have been a million killed in the land reform, 800,000 killed in the counterrevolutionary campaign.  Mao himself claimed a total of 700,000 killed during the years 1949–53.  However, because there was a policy to select "at least one landlord, and usually several, in virtually every village for public execution", 1 million deaths seems to be an absolute minimum, and many authors agree on a figure of between 2 million and 5 million dead.  In addition, at least 1. 5 million people were sent to "reform through labour" camps. Laogai ( the abbreviation for Láo dòng Gǎi zào (勞動改造 which means "reform through labor" is a slogan of the Chinese criminal  Mao’s personal role in ordering mass executions is undeniable.  He defended these killings as necessary for the securing of power. 
Following the consolidation of power, Mao launched the First Five-Year Plan (1953-8). The plan aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power. With the USSR's assistance, new industrial plants were built and agricultural production eventually fell to a point where industry was beginning to produce enough capital that China no longer needed the USSR's support. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The success of the First Five Year Plan was to encourage Mao to instigate the Second Five Year Plan, the Great Leap Forward, in 1958. Mao also launched a phase of rapid collectivization. Collective farming is an organization of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise The CPC introduced price controls as well as a Chinese character simplification aimed at increasing literacy. Land was taken from landlords and more wealthy peasants and given to poorer peasants. Large scale industrialization projects were also undertaken.
Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers Campaign, in which Mao indicated his supposed willingness to consider different opinions about how China should be governed. The Hundred Flowers Campaign, also termed the Hundred Flowers Movement, ( is the period referring to a brief interlude in the People's Republic of China from Given the freedom to express themselves, liberal and intellectual Chinese began opposing the Communist Party and questioning its leadership. This was initially tolerated and encouraged. After a few months, Mao's government reversed its policy and persecuted those, totalling perhaps 500,000, who criticized, and were merely alleged to have criticized, the Party in what is called the Anti-Rightist Movement. The Anti-Rightist Movement ( of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and early 1960s consisted of a series of campaigns to purge alleged "rightists" Authors such as Jung Chang have alleged that the Hundred Flowers Campaign was merely a ruse to root out "dangerous" thinking. Jung Chang ( born March 25, 1952) is a Chinese -born British writer now living in London, best known for her family Autobiography  Others such as Dr Li Zhisui have suggested that Mao had initially seen the policy as a way of weakening those within his party who opposed him, but was surprised by the extent of criticism and the fact that it began to be directed at his own leadership. Dr Li Zhisui (李志绥 b 1919 Beijing, China d February 13, 1995, Carol Stream Illinois) was Mao Zedong 's personal It was only then that he used it as a method of identifying and subsequently persecuting those critical of his government. The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation, silencing, and death of many citizens, also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist Movement, with death tolls possibly in the millions.
In January 1958, Mao launched the second Five-Year Plan known as the Great Leap Forward, a plan intended as an alternative model for economic growth to the Soviet model focusing on heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party. The Great Leap Forward ( of the People's Republic of China (PRC was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use China 's vast population The Great Leap Forward ( of the People's Republic of China (PRC was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use China 's vast population Under this economic program, the relatively small agricultural collectives which had been formed to date were rapidly merged into far larger people's communes, and many of the peasants ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and the small-scale production of iron and steel. The people's commune ( in the People's Republic of China, were formerly the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas during the period of 1958 to 1982-85 until All private food production was banned; livestock and farm implements were brought under collective ownership.
Under the Great Leap Forward, Mao and other party leaders ordered the implementation of a variety of unproven and unscientific new agricultural techniques by the new communes. Combined with the diversion of labour to steel production and infrastructure projects and the reduced personal incentives under a commune system this led to an approximately 15% drop in grain production in 1959 followed by further 10% reduction in 1960 and no recovery in 1961. In an effort to win favour with their superiors and avoid being purged, each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them and based on the fabricated success, party cadres were ordered to requisition a disproportionately high amount of the true harvest for state use primarily in the cities and urban areas but also for export. The net result, which was compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods, was that the rural peasants were not left enough to eat and many millions starved to death in what is thought to be the largest famine in human history. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Prehistory See also Prehistory Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens This famine was a direct cause of the death of tens of millions of Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962. Further, many children who became emaciated and malnourished during years of hardship and struggle for survival, died shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in 1962 (Spence, 553).
The extent of Mao's knowledge as to the severity of the situation has been disputed. According to some, most notably Dr. Li Zhisui, Mao was not aware of anything more than a mild food and general supply shortage until late 1959.
Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, in Mao: the Unknown Story, alleged that Mao knew of the vast suffering and that he was dismissive of it, blaming bad weather or other officials for the famine.
Whatever the case, the Great Leap Forward led to millions of deaths in China. Mao lost esteem among many of the top party cadres and was eventually forced to abandon the policy in 1962, also losing some political power to moderate leaders, notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. Liu Shaoqi ( (24 November 1898 12 November 1969 was a Chinese revolutionary statesman and theorist Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer However, Mao and national propaganda claimed that he was only partly to blame. As a result, he was able to remain Chairman of the Communist Party, with the Presidency transferred to Liu Shaoqi.
The Great Leap Forward was a disaster for China. Although the steel quotas were officially reached, almost all of it made in the countryside was useless lumps of iron, as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in home made furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal. According to Zhang Rongmei, a geometry teacher in rural Shanghai during the Great Leap Forward:
Moreover, most of the dams, canals and other infrastructure projects, which millions of peasants and prisoners had been forced to toil on and in many cases die for, proved useless as they had been built without the input of trained engineers, whom Mao had rejected on ideological grounds.
In the Party Congress at Lushan in July/August 1959, several leaders expressed concern that the Great Leap Forward was not as successful as planned. Mount Lu ( also known as Mount Lushan) is a mountain in the People's Republic of China, situated south of the city of Jiujiang in Jiangxi Province The most direct of these was Minister of Defence and Korean War General Peng Dehuai. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the Peng Dehuai ( ( October 24, 1898 - November 29 1974) was a prominent military leader of the Communist Party of China, and Mao, fearing loss of his position, orchestrated a purge of Peng and his supporters, stifling criticism of the Great Leap policies.
There is a great deal of controversy over the number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap Forward. Until the mid 1980s, when official census figures were finally published by the Chinese Government, little was known about the scale of the disaster in the Chinese countryside, as the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time had been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into believing that Great Leap Forward had been a great success. There was also an assumption that the flow of individual reports of starvation that had been reaching the West, primarily through Hong Kong and Taiwan, must be localised or exaggerated as China was continuing to claim record harvests and was a net exporter of grain through the period. Censuses were carried out in China in 1953, 1964 and 1982. The first attempt to analyse this data in order to estimate the number of famine deaths was carried out by American demographer Dr Judith Banister and published in 1984. Given the lengthy gaps between the censuses and doubts over the reliability of the data, an accurate figure is difficult to ascertain. Nevertheless, Banister concluded that the official data implied that around 15 million excess deaths incurred in China during 1958-61 and that based on her modelling of Chinese demographics during the period and taking account of assumed underreporting during the famine years, the figure was around 30 million. The official statistic is 20 million deaths, as given by Hu Yaobang. Hu Yaobang ( Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang 20 November 1915&ndash15 April 1989 was a leader of the People's  Various other sources have put the figure between 20 and 72 million. 
On the international front, the period was dominated by the further isolation of China, due to start of the Sino-Soviet split which resulted in Khrushchev withdrawing all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country. The Sino-Soviet split was a gradual divergence of diplomatic ties between the People's Republic of China (PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following The split was triggered by border disputes, and arguments over the control and direction of world communism, and other disputes pertaining to foreign policy. Most of the problems regarding communist unity resulted from the death of Stalin and his replacement by Khrushchev. Stalin had established himself as the successor of "correct" Marxist thought well before Mao controlled the Communist Party of China, and therefore Mao never challenged the suitability of any Stalinist doctrine (at least while Stalin was alive). The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Upon the death of Stalin, Mao believed (perhaps because of seniority) that the leadership of the "correct" Marxist doctrine would fall to him. The resulting tension between Khrushchev (at the head of a politically/militarily superior government), and Mao (believing he had a superior understanding of Marxist ideology) eroded the previous patron-client relationship between the CPSU and CPC. In China, the formerly favourable Soviets were now denounced as "revisionists" and listed alongside "American imperialism" as movements to oppose.
Partly-surrounded by hostile American military bases (reaching from South Korea, Japan, Okinawa, and Taiwan), China was now confronted with a new Soviet threat from the north and west. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is one of Japan 's southern prefectures, and consists of hundreds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1000 km long which extends southwest from Kyūshū Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for extraordinary statesmanship from Mao, but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of the People's Republic were in hostile confrontation with each other.
At a large Communist Party conference in Beijing in January 1962, called the "Conference of the Seven Thousand," State President Liu Shaoqi denounced the Great Leap Forward as responsible for widespread famine. The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman Liu Shaoqi ( (24 November 1898 12 November 1969 was a Chinese revolutionary statesman and theorist  The overwhelming majority of delegates expressed agreement, but Defense Minister Lin Biao staunchly defended Mao. Lin Biao ( born as Lin Yurong ( December 5, 1907 ?[[September 13]] 1971) was a Chinese Communist military leader  A brief period of liberalization followed while Mao and Lin plotted a comeback.  Liu and Deng Xiaoping rescued the economy by disbanding the people's communes, introducing elements of private control of peasant smallholdings and importing grain from Canada and Australia to mitigate the worst effects of famine. Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer
Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping's prominence gradually became a challenge to Mao's position of power. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Liu Shaoqi ( (24 November 1898 12 November 1969 was a Chinese revolutionary statesman and theorist Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer Liu and Deng, then the State President and General Secretary, respectively, had favoured the idea that Mao should be removed from actual power but maintain his ceremonial and symbolic role, and the party will uphold all of his positive contributions to the revolution. They attempted to marginalize Mao by taking control of economic policy and asserting themselves politically as well.
Facing the prospect of losing his place on the political stage, Mao responded to Liu and Deng's movements by launching the Cultural Revolution in 1966. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Under the pretext that certain liberal "bourgeois" elements of society, labeled as class enemies, continue to threaten the socialist framework under the existing dictatorship of the proletariat, the idea that a Cultural Revolution must continue after armed struggle allowed Mao to circumvent the Communist hierarchy by giving power directly to the Red Guards, groups of young people, often teenagers, who set up their own tribunals. Red Guards ( were a mass movement of civilians mostly students and other young people in the People's Republic of China, who were mobilized Chaos reigned over the country, and millions were prosecuted, including a famous philosopher, Chen Yuen. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao closed the schools in China and the young intellectuals living in cities were ordered to the countryside. They were forced to manufacture weapons for the Red Army. The Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens, as well as creating general economic and social chaos in the country. Millions of lives were ruined during this period, as the Cultural Revolution pierced into every part of Chinese life, depicted by such Chinese films as To Live, The Blue Kite and Farewell My Concubine. To Live ( is a Chinese film directed by Zhang Yimou in 1994, starring Ge You and Gong Li and produced by the Shanghai The Blue Kite is a film directed by Tian Zhuangzhuang in 1993 This article is about the film for other media with the same title see Farewell My Concubine. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution.  When Mao was informed of such losses, particularly that people had been driven to suicide, he blithely commented: "People who try to commit suicide — don't attempt to save them! . . . China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people. "
It was during this period that Mao chose Lin Biao, who seemed to echo all of Mao's ideas, to become his successor. The 1972 Nixon visit to China was the first step in formally normalizing relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China. Lin Biao ( born as Lin Yurong ( December 5, 1907 ?[[September 13]] 1971) was a Chinese Communist military leader Mao and Lin Biao formed an alliance leading up to the Cultural Revolution in order for the purges to succeed. Mao needed Lin's clout for his plan to work. In return, Lin was made Mao's successor. By 1971, however, because of Lin's grip over the military and Mao's own paranoia, a divide between the two men became clear, and it was unclear whether Lin was planning a military coup or an assassination attempt. Lin Biao died trying to flee China, probably anticipating his arrest, in a suspicious plane crash over Mongolia. Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East It was declared that Lin was planning to depose Mao, and he was posthumously expelled from the CPC. At this time, Mao lost trust in many of the top CPC figures. The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa described his conversation with Nicolae Ceauşescu who told him about a plot to kill Mao Zedong with the help of Lin Biao organized by KGB. Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928 in Bucharest, Romania) is the highest-ranking intelligence official ever to have defected Nicolae Ceauşescu (nikoˈlaje tʃauˈʃesku (January 26 1918 – December 25 1989 was the communist dictator of Romania from 1965 until December 1989 when a revolution Lin Biao ( born as Lin Yurong ( December 5, 1907 ?[[September 13]] 1971) was a Chinese Communist military leader KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty 
In 1969, Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over, although the official history of the People's Republic of China marks the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976 with Mao's death. In the last years of his life, Mao was faced with declining health due to either Parkinson's disease or, according to Li Zhisui, motor neurone disease, as well as lung ailments due to smoking and heart trouble. Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the Central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's The motor neurone diseases (or motor neuron diseases) (MND are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy Motor neurones the cells that control voluntary Tobacco Smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried or cured leaves of the Tobacco plant most often in the form of a Cigarette. Heart disease is an Umbrella term for a variety for different diseases affecting the Heart. Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilized for the power struggle anticipated after his death.
At five o'clock in the afternoon of September 2, 1976, Mao suffered another myocardial infarction (heart attack), far more severe than the previous two and affecting much larger area of his heart. The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic His body was giving out. The personal doctors group began emergency treatment immediately. X rays indicated that his lung infection had worsened, and his urine output dropped to less than 300 cc a day. X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of Electromagnetic radiation. Mao was awake and alert throughout the crisis and asked several times whether he was in danger. His condition continued to fluctuate and his life hung in the balance. Three days later, on September 5 Mao's condition was still critical, and Hua Guofeng called Jiang Qing back from her trip. Hua Guofeng ( (16 February 1921 &ndash 20 August 2008 born as Su Zhu ( was Mao Zedong 's designated successor as the Paramount leader of the Jiang Qing ( March 14, 1914 May 14, 1991) is the Pseudonym that was used by Chinese leader Mao Zedong 's last wife She spent only a few moments in Building 202 before returning to her own residence in the Spring Lotus Chamber. On the afternoon of September 7, Mao took a turn for the worse. Jiang Qing came to Building 202 where she learned the news. Mao had just fallen asleep and needed the rest, but she insisted on rubbing his back and moving his limbs, and she sprinkled powder on his body. The medical team protested that the dust from the powder was not good for his lungs, but she instructed the nurses on duty to follow her example later. The next morning, September 8, she came again. She wanted the medical staff to change Mao's sleeping position, claiming that he had been lying too long on his left side. The doctor on duty objected, knowing that he could breathe only on his left side, but she had him moved nonetheless. Mao's breathing stopped, and his face turned blue. Jiang Qing left the room while the medical staff put him on a respirator and performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Mao revived, and Hua Guofeng urged Jiang Qing not to interfere further with the doctor's work. Hua Guofeng ( (16 February 1921 &ndash 20 August 2008 born as Su Zhu ( was Mao Zedong 's designated successor as the Paramount leader of the Mao had been in poor health for several years and had declined visibly for some months prior to his death. His body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People. The Great Hall of the People ( is located at the western edge of Tiananmen Square, Beijing, People's Republic of China, and is used for legislative and A memorial service was held in Tiananmen Square on September 18, 1976. Tiananmen Square ( is the large Plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally Gate of Heavenly Peace Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. There was a three minute silence observed during this service. His body was later placed into the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, although he wished to be cremated and had been one of the first high-ranking officials to sign the "Proposal that all Central Leaders be Cremated after Death" in November 1956. The Chairman Mao Memorial Hall ( commonly known as the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, or the Mao Mausoleum, the final resting place of Mao Zedong, Chairman 
Mao's figure is largely symbolic both in China and in the global communist movement as a whole. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao's already glorified image manifested into a personality cult that stretched into every part of Chinese life. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise Mao presented himself as an enemy of landowners, businessmen, and Western and American imperialism, as well as an ally of impoverished peasants, farmers and workers. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude
At the 1958 Party congress in Chengdu, Mao expressed support for the idea of personality cults if they venerated figures who were genuinely worthy of adulation:
|“||There are two kinds of personality cults. One is a healthy personality cult, that is, to worship men like Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin. Because they hold the truth in their hands. The other is a false personality cult, i. e. not analysed and blind worship.||”|
In 1962, Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement (SEM) in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist the temptations of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside (due to Liu's economic reforms). Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Large quantities of politicised art were produced and circulated — with Mao at the centre. Numerous posters and musical compositions referred to Mao as "A red sun in the centre of our hearts" (我们心中的红太阳) and a "Savior of the people" (人民的大救星).
The Cult of Mao proved vital in starting the Cultural Revolution. China's youth had mostly been brought up during the Communist era, and they had been told to love Mao. Thus they were his greatest supporters. Their feelings for him were so strong that many followed his urge to challenge all established authority.
In October 1966, Mao's Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, which was known as the Little Red Book was published. Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong ( better known in the West as The Little Red Book, was published by the Government of the Party members were encouraged to carry a copy with them and possession was almost mandatory as a criterion for membership. Over the years, Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere, present in homes, offices and shops. His quotations were typographically emphasised by putting them in boldface or red type in even the most obscure writings. In Typography, emphasis is the exaggeration of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text&mdashto emphasise them Music from the period emphasized Mao's stature, as did children's rhymes. The phrase Long Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand years was commonly heard during the era, which was traditionally a phrase reserved for the reigning Emperor. The use of the phrase ten thousand years in various East Asian languages originated in ancient China as an expression used to wish long life to the Emperor and is The Emperor of China ( refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning since the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of
After the Cultural Revolution, there are some people who still worship Mao in family altars or even temples for Mao. 
As anticipated after Mao’s death, there was a power struggle for control of China. On one side was the left wing led by the Gang of Four, who wanted to continue the policy of revolutionary mass mobilization. The Gang of Four ( was the name given to a leftist political faction composed of four Chinese Communist party officials On the other side was the right wing opposing these policies. Among the latter group, the restorationists, led by Chairman Hua Guofeng, advocated a return to central planning along the Soviet model, whereas the reformers, led by Deng Xiaoping, wanted to overhaul the Chinese economy based on market-oriented policies and to de-emphasize the role of Maoist ideology in determining economic and political policy. Hua Guofeng ( (16 February 1921 &ndash 20 August 2008 born as Su Zhu ( was Mao Zedong 's designated successor as the Paramount leader of the Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer Eventually, the reformers won control of the government. Deng Xiaoping, with clear seniority over Hua Guofeng, defeated Hua in a bloodless power struggle shortly afterwards.
Mao's legacy has produced a large amount of controversy. Many historians and academics are critical of Mao, especially his many campaigns to suppress political enemies and gain international renown, some comparing him to Hitler and Stalin. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party 
Supporters of Mao credit him with advancing the social and economic development of Chinese society. They point out that before 1949, for instance, the illiteracy rate in Mainland China was 80 percent, and life expectancy was a meager 35 years. List of countries by Literacy rate, as included in the United Nations Development Programme Report 2007/2008 Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age At his death, illiteracy had declined to less than seven percent, and average life expectancy had increased to more than 70 years (alternative statistics also quote improvements, though not nearly as dramatic). In addition to these increases, the total population of China increased 57% to 700 million, from the constant 400 million mark during the span between the Opium War and the Chinese Civil War. The Opium Wars ( also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 the climax of a trade dispute between China under the Qing Supporters also state that, under Mao's government, China ended its "Century of Humiliation" from Western and Japanese imperialism and regained its status as a major world power. They also state their belief that Mao also industrialized China to a considerable extent and ensured China's sovereignty during his rule. Many, including some of Mao's supporters, view the Kuomintang, which Mao drove off the mainland, as having been corrupt.
They also argue that the Maoist era improved women's rights by abolishing prostitution, a phenomenon that was to return after Deng Xiaoping and post-Maoist CPC leaders increased liberalization of the economy. Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money. Indeed, Mao once famously remarked that "Women hold up half the heavens". A popular slogan during the Cultural Revolution was, "Break the chains, unleash the fury of women as a mighty force for revolution!"
Skeptics observe that similar gains in literacy and life expectancy occurred after 1949 on the small neighboring island of Taiwan, which was ruled by Mao's opponents, namely Chiang Kai-Shek and the Kuomintang, even though they themselves perpetrated substantial repression in their own right. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The government that continued to rule Taiwan was composed of the same people ruling the Mainland for over 20 years when life expectancy was so low, yet life expectancy there also increased. A counterpoint, however, is that the United States helped Taiwan with aid, along with Japan and other countries, until the early 1960s when Taiwan asked that the aid cease. The mainland was under economic sanctions from the same countries for many years. The mainland also broke with the USSR after disputes, which had been aiding it.
Another comparison has been between India and China. Noam Chomsky commented on a study by the Indian economist Amartya Sen. Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon (অমর্ত্য কুমার সেন Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian
The United States placed a trade embargo on China as a result of its involvement in the Korean War, lasting until Richard Nixon decided that developing relations with China would be useful in also dealing with the Soviet Union. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the
Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one, especially in manners of guerrilla warfare, at which Mao is popularly regarded as a genius. An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution As an example, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) followed Mao's examples of guerrilla warfare. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी is a Maoist Political party
The ideology of Maoism has influenced many communists around the world, including Third World revolutionary movements such as Cambodia's Khmer Rouge, The Communist Party of Peru, and the revolutionary movement in Nepal. Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East The Khmer Rouge (ខ្មែរក្រហម Kmae Krɑhɑɑm was the Communist ruling political party of Cambodia &mdashwhich it renamed The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish Partido Comunista del Perú) more commonly known as the Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso) is a Maoist The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी is a Maoist Political party Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. The Revolutionary Communist Party, USA also claims Marxism-Leninism-Maoism as its ideology, as do other Communist Parties around the world which are part of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement. The Revolutionary Communist Party USA ( RCP USA) known originally as the Revolutionary Union, is a Maoist Communist party formed in The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement is an international Communist organization which upholds Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. China itself has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's death, and most people outside of China who describe themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms to be a betrayal of Maoism, in line with Mao's view of "Capitalist roaders" within the Communist Party. In Maoist thought a capitalist roader (走资派 or 走资本主义路线派 is a person or group on the political left who demonstrates a marked tendency to bow
As the Chinese government instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late 1970s and as later Chinese leaders took power, less recognition was given to the status of Mao. This accompanied a decline in state recognition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organized numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's 100th birthday. Nevertheless, the Chinese government has never officially repudiated the tactics of Mao.
In the mid-1990s, Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi currency from the People’s Republic of China. This was officially instituted as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognized in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency. On March 13, 2006, a story in the People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The People's Daily ( a daily Newspaper, is the organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer 
In 2006, the government in Shanghai issued a new set of high school history textbooks which omit Mao, with the exception of a single mention in a section on etiquette. Students in Shanghai now only learn about Mao in junior high school. 
Mao lived in the government complex in Zhongnanhai, Beijing. The Zhongnanhai ( is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China adjacent to the Forbidden City which serves as the central headquarters for the
Mao Zedong had several wives which contributed to a large family. These were:
His ancestors were:
He had several siblings:
Note that the character ze (泽) appears in all of the siblings' given names. This is a common Chinese naming convention.
From the next generation, Zemin's son, Mao Yuanxin, was raised by Mao Zedong's family. Mao Yuanxin ( (born February 1941 was the liaison between Chinese leader Mao Zedong and the Communist Party's Central Committee in the latter's ailing years when he was no He became Mao Zedong's liaison with the Politburo in 1975. Sources like Li Zhisui (The Private Life of Chairman Mao) say that he played a role in the final power-struggles. Dr Li Zhisui (李志绥 b 1919 Beijing, China d February 13, 1995, Carol Stream Illinois) was Mao Zedong 's personal The Private Life of Chairman Mao is a memoir published in 1994 by Dr 
Mao Zedong had several children:
Sources suggest that Mao did have other children during his revolutionary days; in most of these cases the children were left with peasant families because it was difficult to take care of the children while focusing on revolution. Li Min ( original name Mao Jiaojiao ( (born in 1936 in Shaanxi with family roots in Xiangtan, Hunan) is the daughter of Mao Zedong Li Na ( ( Pinyin: Lĭ Nà born 1940 or Li Ne, is the daughter of Mao Zedong and his fourth wife Jiang Qing, and their only child together Two English researchers who retraced the entire Long March route in 2002-2003  located a woman who they believe might well be a missing child abandoned by Mao to peasants in 1935. Ed Jocelyn and Andrew McEwen hope a member of the Mao family will respond to requests for a DNA test. 
Mao was a prolific writer of political and philosophical literature.  Mao is the attributed author of Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, known in the West as the "Little Red Book" and in Cultural-revolution China as the "Red Treasure Book" (紅宝书): this is a collection of short extracts from his speeches and articles, edited by Lin Biao and ordered topically. Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong ( better known in the West as The Little Red Book, was published by the Government of the Lin Biao ( born as Lin Yurong ( December 5, 1907 ?[[September 13]] 1971) was a Chinese Communist military leader Mao wrote several other philosophical treatises, both before and after he assumed power. These include:
Mao was also a skilled calligrapher with a highly personal style. Mao Zedong 's On Contradiction ( is considered his most important philosophical essay On Protracted War ( is a work comprising a series of speeches by Mao Zedong given from May 26 to June 3, 1938, at the Yenan Association for Henry Norman Bethune ( March 4, 1890 &ndash November 12, 1939) was a Canadian Physician and medical innovator For different uses of the term including Political parties with the name "New Democracy" see New Democracy (disambiguation. " Serve the People " or " Service for the People " ( is a political slogan which first appeared in Mao -era China. Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 In China, Mao was considered a master calligrapher during his lifetime.  His calligraphy can be seen today throughout mainland China. The art of Calligraphy is widely practiced and revered in the East Asian Civilizations that use or used Chinese characters.  His work gave rise to a new form of Chinese calligraphy called "Mao-style" or Maoti, which has gained increasing popularity since his death. The art of Calligraphy is widely practiced and revered in the East Asian Civilizations that use or used Chinese characters. There currently exist various competitions specializing in Mao-style calligraphy. 
Politics aside, Mao is considered one of modern China's most influential literary figures, and was an avid poet, mainly in the classical ci and shi forms. Ci ( interchangeable with 辭 is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. Shi ( is the Chinese word for " Poetry " or "poem" His poems are all in the traditional Chinese verse style.
As did most Chinese intellectuals of his generation, Mao received rigorous education in Chinese classical literature. His style was deeply influenced by the great Tang Dynasty poets Li Bai and Li He. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by Li He ( 790–816 Courtesy name Changji (長吉 was a short-lived Chinese poet of the late Tang Dynasty, known for his unconventional and He is considered to be a romantic poet, in contrast to the realist poets represented by Du Fu. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Literary realism most often refers to the trend beginning with certain works of nineteenth-century French literature and extending to late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Du Fu ( 712–770 was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty.
Many of Mao's poems are still popular in China and a few are taught as a mandatory part of the elementary school curriculum. Some of his most well-known poems are: Changsha (1925), The Double Ninth (1929. Changsha ( Chinese: 长沙 Pinyin: Chángshā is a Poem written by Mao Zedong in 1925 10), Loushan Pass (1935), The Long March (1935), Snow (1936. 02), The PLA Captures Nanjing (1949. 04), Reply to Li Shuyi (1957. 05. 11), and Ode to the Plum Blossom (1961. 12).
The face of Mao Zedong, arguably still one of the most recognizable in the modern world, continues to appear on t-shirts and other merchandise. The Beatles song Revolution has a reference to Mao with the lines, "but if you go carrying pictures of chairman Mao/You ain't going to make it with anyone anyhow". The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 " Revolution " is a song by The Beatles, written by John Lennon and attributed to Lennon/McCartney. Mao is also featured in the Little Feat song Apolitical Blues. Little Feat is an American band formed by Singer-songwriter, Frontman and Guitarist Lowell George and keyboard player Bill In a Simpsons episode when the family goes to China, Homer visits Mao's mausoleum and talks to Mao's embalmed body.
(as Secretary General)
|Chairman of the Communist Party of China|
1943 – 1976
|Chairman of the CCP Central Military Commission|
1949 – 1976
|Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference|
1949 – 1954
|Chairman of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China|
1949 – 1954
(as Chairman of the People's Republic of China)
(as Chairman of the Central People's Government)
|Chairman of the People's Republic of China|
1954 – 1959
|Party political offices|
|President of the Central Party School|
1942 – 1947
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||毛泽东; 毛澤東; Máo Zédōng; Mao Tse-tung|
|DATE OF BIRTH||December 26, 1893|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Hunan, China|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 9, 1976|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Beijing, China|
The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D Rudolph Joseph Rummel (born October 21, 1932) is Professor emeritus of Political science at the University of Hawaii. The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. William Howard Hinton ( February 2, 1919 &ndash May 15, 2004) was an American Marxist best known for Fanshen Samir Amin ( Arabic: سمير أمين) (born 3 September 1931) is an Egyptian economist Will Hutton (born 1950 is a British Writer, weekly columnist and former Editor-in-chief for The Observer in London The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. Zhang Wentian ( (1900&ndash July 1, 1976) also known as Luo Fu was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC from 1935 to March This article lists the leaders of the Communist Party of China, from its beginning to the present General Secretaries (1921-1943 Between 1921 and 1943 the Communist Hua Guofeng ( (16 February 1921 &ndash 20 August 2008 born as Su Zhu ( was Mao Zedong 's designated successor as the Paramount leader of the A Central Military Commission or National Defense Commission is an organisation typical of Communist One-party states responsible for supervising the nation's The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference ( People's Political Consultative Conference Zhou Enlai ( (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976 was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from 1949 until his death in January 1976 The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman Liu Shaoqi ( (24 November 1898 12 November 1969 was a Chinese revolutionary statesman and theorist The Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China ( Simplified Chinese: 中共中央党校 in Beijing, also known as the Central Party School Liu Shaoqi ( (24 November 1898 12 November 1969 was a Chinese revolutionary statesman and theorist Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1893 ( MDCCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National