Manga (in kanji 漫画; in hiragana まんが; in katakana マンガ?) is the Japanese word for comics (sometimes called komikku コミック) and print cartoons. are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with Hiragana (ひらがな 平仮名 Katakana is a Japanese Syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with Katakana and Kanji; the Latin alphabet is a Japanese Syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with Hiragana, Kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities Comics (via Latin from the Greek "" kōmikos, of or pertaining to "comedy" from kōmos "revel" The word cartoon has various meanings based on several very different forms of Visual art and Illustration.  In their modern form, manga date from shortly after World War II but have a long, complex history in earlier Japanese art. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media including ancient pottery sculpture in wood and bronze ink painting on silk and paper and a myriad of other types of works of 
In Japan, manga are widely read by people of all ages, so that a broad range of subjects and topics occur in manga, including action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, horror, sexuality, and business and commerce, among others. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.  Since the 1950s, manga have steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry, representing a 481 billion yen market in Japan in 2006 (approximately $4. 4 billion dollars).  Manga have also become increasingly popular worldwide.  In 2006, the United States manga market was $175–200 million. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Manga are typically printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist (e. Black-and-white is a number of Monochrome forms in Visual arts. g. Colorful manga, not the anime series). is a sixteen episode Anime directed by Ryutaro Nakamura and based on the Manga by Torajirou Kishi  In Japan, manga are usually serialized in telephone book-size manga magazines, often containing many stories each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue.  If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankōbon. is the Japanese term for a book that is complete in itself and is not part of a series though the Manga industry uses it for volumes which may be in a series  A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. is the Japanese word for a comic artist or Cartoonist. Outside of Japan, Manga usually refers to a Japanese Comic book and mangaka  If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run, although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films (e. (anime in Japanese, g. Star Wars). Four Star Wars films have been adapted to Manga Comics. There are currently no manga adaptations of Attack of the Clones or 
Manga as a term outside of Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan.  However, manga and manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in South Korea ("manhwa") and in the People's Republic of China, including Hong Kong ("manhua"). South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Manhwa (manɦʷa is the general Korean term for Comics and print Cartoons (common usage also includes animated cartoons Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Manhua ( are Chinese Comics originally produced in China. Possibly due to their greater degree of artistic freedom of expression and closer international ties  In France, "la nouvelle manga" is a form of bande dessinée drawn in styles influenced by Japanese manga. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Nouvelle Manga is an artistic movement which gathers Franco-Belgian and Japanese Comic creators together  In the U. S. , manga-like comics are called Amerimanga, world manga, or original English-language manga (OEL manga). Original English-language manga or OEL manga is the term commonly used to describe Comic books or Graphic novels in the "international manga" genre 
Manga, literally translated, means "whimsical pictures". An image (from Latin imago) or picture is an artifact usually two-dimensional that has a similar appearance to some subject &mdashusually The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook "Shiji no yukikai" (1798), and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's "Manga hyakujo" (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai manga containing assorted drawings from the sketchbook of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system was a Poet, Writer and Artist in the Edo period. His real name was, and he was also known popularly as. "pictures of the floating world" is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or Woodcuts) and Paintings produced between the 17th was a Japanese Artist, Ukiyo-e painter and Printmaker of the Edo period.  The first user of the word "manga" as its modern usage is Rakuten Kitazawa. was the pen name of, who was a Mangaka and Nihonga artist He drew many Editorial cartoons and Comic strips during the late 
Historians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-War, Meiji, and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The, or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor, running in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan 's political and social structure
The first view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan (1945–1952), and stresses that manga was strongly shaped by U. At the end of World War II, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with contributions also from Australia, British S. cultural influences, including U. S. comics brought to Japan by the GIs and by images and themes from U. S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).  Alternately, other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Frederik L Schodt is an American Writer, Translator and interpreter, notable in Manga and Anime fandom for his translations Kern stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga.
In the modern manga originates in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952–early 1960s), when a previously militaristic and ultranationalist Japan was rebuilding its political and economic infrastructure.  There was an explosion of artistic creativity in this period from manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) and Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san)
Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere, and Sazae-san is still running today. Tezuka and Hasegawa were both stylistic innovators. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique (right), the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots.  This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists.  Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga. is a Japanese word originally derived from a Chinese expression written with the same characters  Between 1950 and 1969, increasingly large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls. is a Japanese word literally meaning few years which can have the following meanings Shōnen a typical Boy, from elementary school through junior high 
In 1969, a group of female manga artists later called the Year 24 Group (also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut (year 24 comes from the Japanese name for 1949, when many of these artists were born). refers to one of two female manga artist groups are considered to have revolutionized Shōjo manga (girls' comics  The group included Hagio Moto, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi and they marked the first major entry of women artists into manga. is a manga artist born on May 12, 1949 in Omuta City, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, though she currently lives in Saitama Prefecture is a Japanese manga artist and singer She is included in Year 24 Group. is a female Japanese manga artist and a member of Year 24 group. is a female manga artist. She is included in the Year 24 Group. is a female manga artist. She is one of Year 24 Group. In 1983 she won the Kodansha Manga Award for Shōjo for Hi Izuru Tokorono Tenshi  Thereafter, shōjo manga would be drawn primarily by women artists for an audience of girls and young women.  In the following decades (1975-present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres.  Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese, redisu レディース, redikomi レディコミ, and josei 女性). 
In modern shōjo manga romance, love is a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization.  With the superheroines, shōjo manga saw releases such as Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon (Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn: "Pretty Girl Soldier Sailor Moon"), which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats. born March 15, 1967, is a Manga artist who lives in Tokyo, Japan. is the title of a Japanese Media franchise created by Naoko Takeuchi.  The superheroine subgenre also extensively developed the notion of teams (sentai) of girls working together. is a Japanese language word for a Military unit and may be literally translated as "task force" " group " or " wing " 
Manga for male readers can be characterized by the age of its intended audience: boys up to 18 years old (shōnen manga) and young men 18- to 30-years old (seinen manga), as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality.  The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"—青年 for "youth, young man" and 成年 for "adult, majority"—the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin ("adult," 成人) manga.  Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga share many features in common.
Boys and young men were among the earliest readers of manga after World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots and space travel, and heroic action-adventure.  Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as popular. Superman is a fictional Comic book Superhero widely considered to be one of the most recognized of such characters and an American Cultural icon Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a fictional Comic book Superhero co-created Spider-Man is a Fictional character appearing in Comic books published by Marvel Comics. 
The role of girls and women in manga for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls (bishōjo) such as Belldandy from Oh My Goddess!, stories where the hero is surrounded by such girls and women, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team, or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo)
With the relaxation of censorship in Japan after the early 1990s, a wide variety of explicitly drawn sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers that correspondingly occur in English translations. is a Japanese term used to refer to young and pretty girls usually below university age is a character in the popular Manga Oh My Goddess! (OMG and in the Anime of the same name was first published on September 25, 1988 as a spinoff from the manga; Kosuke Fujishima had added a four-panel gag strip to You're Under Arrest in Negima! Magister Negi Magi is an Anime and Manga Bishōjo series created by Morishige. Hanaukyo Maid Team is about a young boy Taro Hanaukyo who has inherited  These depictions range from mild partial nudity through implied and explicit sexual intercourse through bondage and sadomasochism (SM), zoophilia (bestiality), incest, and rape. Sexual intercourse, in its biological sense is the act in which the male reproductive organ (in humans and other higher animals enters the female reproductive tract Sadism refers to Sexual or non-sexual gratification in the infliction of Pain or humiliation upon or by another person Zoophilia, from the Greek ζῷον ( zṓion, "animal" and φιλία ( philia, "friendship" or "love" is a Paraphilia Incest refers to any sexual activity between closely related persons (often within the immediate family that is illegal or socially Taboo. Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person 
Gekiga is a style of drawing is emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent, and focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions. is Japanese for "dramatic pictures" The term was coined by Yoshihiro Tatsumi and adopted by other more serious Japanese cartoonists who did not want their trade  Gekiga such as Sampei Shirato's 1959-1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō) arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working class political activism and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga. Sanpei Shirato (白土三平 Shirato Sanpei, birth name Okamoto Noboru 岡本登 born February 15 1932 in Tokyo, Japan) is a Japanese Yoshihiro Tatsumi (辰巳 ヨシヒロ is a Mangaka who is widely credited with starting the Gekiga style of Alternative comics in Japan, having 
In Japan, manga constitutes a 406. 7 billion yen (3. 707 billion USD) publication industry for 2007.  Recently, the manga industry has expanded worldwide with distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages.
When a series has been running for a while, the stories are usually collected together and printed in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon. These are the equivalent of U. S. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. Paperback, softback, or softcover describe and refer to a Book by the nature of its binding. A These volumes use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. Recently, "deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have got older and the need for something special grew. Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U. S. dollar) each to compete with the used book market.
Manga are primarily classified by the age and gender of the target audience.  In particular, books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) have distinctive cover art and are placed on different shelves in most bookstores. Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics. For example, male readers subscribing to a series intended for girls and so on.
Japan also has manga cafés, or manga kissa (kissa is an abbreviation of kissaten). A is a kind of café in Japan where people can read Manga. People pay for the time they stay in the café A kissaten (喫茶店 is a Japanese-style Coffee shop. By law kissaten are able to serve sweets and tea but almost all will also serve coffee sandwiches At a manga kissa, people drink coffee and read manga, and sometimes stay there overnight. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom
There has been an increase in the amount of publications of original webmanga. Webcomics, online comics, or Internet comics are Comics Published on a Website, often exclusively providing easy access to an It is internationally drawn by enthusiasts of all levels of experience, and is intended for online viewing. It can be ordered in graphic novel form if available in print.
The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese. The is located in Nakagyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. The building housing the museum is the former Tatsuike Elementary School 
Manga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. This is a listing by country of publication and Target audience, of Manga magazines Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype features single chapters within their monthly periodicals. For the magazine Newtype, see Newtype (magazine. A Newtype is theorized to be the next stage of human evolution in the fictional These manga magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"), are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages long. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). In the American Comic book industry the term one-shot is used to denote a pilot comic or a stand-alone story created to last as one issue Yonkoma manga (4コマ漫画 "four cell Manga " or written 4-koma for short is a Comic strip format which generally consists of gag comic A comic strip is a sequence of drawings that tells a story Currently in the Western world, most comic strips are written and drawn by a Comics artist Manga series can run for many years if they are successful. Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued.
Dōjinshi are produced by small amateur publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market in a similar fashion to small-press independently published comic books in the United States. are self-published Japanese works usually manga or novels They are often the work of amateurs though some professional artists participate as a way to publish material outside the regular See also Alternative media Small press is a term often used to describe Publishers with annual sales below a certain level A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative Comiket, the largest comic book convention in the world with over 510,000 gathering in 3 days, is devoted to dōjinshi. otherwise known as the or CM, is the world's largest comic convention held twice a year in Tokyo, Japan. A convention, in the sense of a meeting is a gathering of individuals who meet at a arid place and time in order to discuss or engage in some common interest While they are many times original stories, many are parodies of or include fictional characters from popular manga and anime series. Some dōjinshi continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. Fan fiction (alternately referred to as fanfiction, fanfic, FF or fic) is a broadly defined term for Fiction about characters or settings In 2007, dōjinshi sold for 27. 73 billion yen (245 million USD). 
The influence of manga on international cartooning has grown considerably in the last two decades.  Influence refers to effects on comics markets outside of Japan and to aesthetic effects on comics artists internationally.
Traditionally, manga are written from top to bottom and right to left, as this is the traditional reading pattern of the Japanese written language. Many East Asian scripts can be written horizontally or vertically. Some publishers of translated manga keep this format, but other publishers flip the pages horizontally, changing the reading direction to left to right, so as not to confuse foreign audiences or traditional comics consumers. This practice is known as "flipping". For the most part, the criticisms suggest that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it, and gets flipped, then the word is altered to "YAM"). Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right.
Manga were introduced only gradually into U. S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently.  Some U. S. fans were aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s. Fans in Little Italyjpg|thumb|right|Fans in Little Italy Manhattan celebrating the victory of the Italian association football team after the 2006 FIFA World Cup]][[Image Wm-oly-de-cr  However, anime was initially more accessible than manga to U. S. fans, many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain, subtitle and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute tankōbon-style manga books.  One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U. S. was Keiji Nakazawa's Barefoot Gen, an autobiographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics (1980-1983). is a Japanese Manga artist and writer He was born in Hiroshima, and was in the city when it was destroyed by an atomic bomb in 1945. is a Japanese Manga series by Keiji Nakazawa. It run in several magazines including Weekly Shonen Jump, from 1973 to 1985  More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s, including Golgo 13 in 1986, Lone Wolf and Cub from First Comics in 1987, and Kamui, Area 88, and Mai the Psychic Girl, also in 1987 and all from Viz Media-Eclipse Comics. is a Manga series written and illustrated by Takao Saito, published in Shogakukan 's Big Comic magazine since 1969 is a well-known Gekiga or Manga created by the writer Kazuo Koike and the artist Goseki Kojima. First Comics was an American Comic-book publisher History First Comics launched in 1983 with a line-up of creators including Frank Brunner Kamui or Kamuy is the Ainu word for a spiritual or divine being in Ainu mythology is a Japanese Manga series by Kaoru Shintani serialized between 1979 and 1986. Mai the Psychic Girl, known simply as in Japan, is a Manga written by Kazuya Kudō and illustrated by Ryoichi Ikegami. Viz Media LLC, headquartered in San Francisco California, is an Anime, Manga and Japanese Entertainment company founded in 1986 Eclipse Comics was an American Comic book Publisher, one of several influential independent publishers during the 1980s and early 1990s  Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel Comics-Epic Comics and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in 1988, and later Iczer-1 (Antarctic Press, 1994) and Ippongi Bang's F-111 Bandit (Antarctic Press, 1995). is a black and white serial Manga or graphic novel by Katsuhiro Otomo. Marvel Comics is an American comic book company owned by Marvel Publishing Inc Epic Comics was a creator-owned Imprint of Marvel Comics started in 1982 lasting through the mid-1990s and being briefly revived on a small scale in the mid-2000s is a Science fiction Manga authored by Masamune Shirow. The series follows the adventures of ESWAT members Deunan Knute and Briareos Hecatonchires Antarctic Press is a San Antonio -based Comic book Publishing company which publishes 'American Manga' style comic books Ippongi Bang (一本木蛮 Ippongi Ban) is a Multimedia and Manga artist born Jan 4 1965 in Yokohama City. 
In the 1980s to the mid-1990s, Japanese animation, like Akira, Dragon Ball, Stand Alone Complex, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Pokémon, dominated the fan experience and the market compared to manga. is a 1988 Japanese animated Film co-written and directed by Katsuhiro Otomo based on his manga of the same name commonly referred to as NGE, Eva, or Evangelion, is a commercially and critically successful influential and controversial Japanese Anime that Pokémon (abbreviated from in Japan) is an ongoing Japanese animated series which has since been adapted for the North American and European  Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus in 1986. Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus with Adam Warren in 1986 He is co-creator and writer of the first three Graphic novel releases of the Original Studio Proteus was a Japanese manga import translation and lettering company founded in 1986 by Toren Smith and based in San Francisco. Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of many Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow's Appleseed and Kōsuke Fujishima's Oh My Goddess!, for Dark Horse and Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan. is an internationally renowned Manga artist born Masanori Ota (太田 まさのり Ōta Masanori) on November 23, 1961. is a Japanese manga artist. Born in Chiba, Japan, he first came to public attention as an editor of Puff magazine his first job after completing was first published on September 25, 1988 as a spinoff from the manga; Kosuke Fujishima had added a four-panel gag strip to You're Under Arrest in This article describes dark horse candidates For other uses see Dark Horse. Eros Comix is an adult-oriented imprint of Fantagraphics Books, established in 1990 to publish Pornographic Comic books.  Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U. is a Japanese publisher of dictionaries, Literature, Manga, Non-fiction, DVDs and other media in Japan. S. market initiative with their U. S. subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills. 
The U. S. manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell, translated by Frederik L. Schodt and Toren Smith and becoming very popular among fans. is a Japanese Science fiction Manga created by Masamune Shirow. Frederik L Schodt is an American Writer, Translator and interpreter, notable in Manga and Anime fandom for his translations Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus with Adam Warren in 1986 He is co-creator and writer of the first three Graphic novel releases of the Original  Another success of the mid-1990s was Sailor Moon. is the title of a Japanese Media franchise created by Naoko Takeuchi.  By 1995–1998, the Sailor Moon manga had been exported to over 23 countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, most of Europe and North America. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.  In 1998, Mixx Entertainment-TokyoPop issued U. For the music movie see Tokyo Pop. Tokyopop, stylized TOKYOPOP, and formerly known as Mixx, is a distributor licensor S. manga book versions of Sailor Moon and CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth. is a Japanese Mangaka group The group's Manga series are often made into Anime after release  In 1996, Mixx Entertainment founded TokyoPop to publish manga in trade paperbacks and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics. 
In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues.  As of December 2007, at least 15 U. December 2007 is the twelfth month of that year It began on a Saturday and 31 days later ended on a Monday S. manga publishers have released 1300 to 1400 titles.  Simultaneously, mainstream U. S. media began to discuss manga, with articles in the New York Times, Time magazine, the Wall Street Journal, and Wired magazine. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Wired is a full-color monthly American Magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993 
The influence of manga on European cartooning is somewhat different than U. S. experience. Manga was opened to the European market during the 1970s when Italy and France broadcasted anime.  French art has borrowed from Japan since the 19th century (Japonisme), and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning. Japonism, or Japonisme, the original French term which is also used in English is a term for the influence of the arts of Japan on those of the Franco-Belgian comics are Comics that are created in Belgium and France.  In France, imported manga has easily been assimilated into high art traditions. For example, Volumes 6 and 7 of Yu Aida's Gunslinger Girl center on a cyborg girl, a former ballet dancer named Petruchka. name shortened to Yu Aida in the publications of Gunslinger Girl, is a Japanese manga author and Illustrator, born on is an ongoing Manga by Yu Aida. It first premiered in the November 2002 issue of the monthly Shōnen magazine Dengeki Daioh. The Asuka edition of volume 7 contains an essay about the ballet Petruchka by Russian composer Igor Stravinsky and first performed in Paris in 1911. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to  However, Francophone readership of manga is not limited to an artistic elite. Instead, beginning in the mid-1990s, manga has proven very popular to a wide readership, accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since 2004.  According to the Japan External Trade Organization, sales of manga reached $212. 6 million within France and Germany alone in 2006.  European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Glénat, Asuka, Casterman, Kana, and Pika, among others.  European publishers also translate manga into German, Italian, Spanish, and Dutch, and other languages.  Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include Orionbooks/Gollancz and Titan Books. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  U. S. manga publishers have a strong marketing presence in the UK, e. g. , the Tanoshimi line from Random House. Tanoshimi is a part of Random House a US based publisher Tanoshimi is an arm of the United Kingdom branch of the company and is used for the publication of new English 
A number of U. S. artists have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. An early example was Vernon Grant, who drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s-early 1970s. For the Kellogg's illustrator see Vernon Grant. Vernon Ethelbert Grant ( February 14, 1935, Cambridge Massachusetts  Others include Frank Miller's mid-1980s Ronin, Adam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 The Dirty Pair, Ben Dunn's 1993 Ninja High School, Stan Sakai's 1984 Usagi Yojimbo, and Manga Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics (1997). Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American Writer, Artist and Film director best known for his dark Adam Warren (born 1967) is an American comic book illustrator and writer who is most famous for his adaptation of the characters known as Dirty Pair The Dirty Pair is an Original English-language manga written and illustrated by Adam Warren, based on the Dirty Pair characters created Ben Dunn is an American Comic book artist In 1984 he founded Antarctic Press, an American comic book company specializing in Manga Ninja High School (also known as NHS) is a comic series created written and illustrated by Ben Dunn, and currently published by Antarctic Press Stan Sakai ( Japanese: 坂井 スタン Sakai Sutan; born May 25 1953) is a third-generation Japanese American who became known is a Comic book series created by Stan Sakai. Set primarily at the beginning of Edo period Japan (early 17th century with anthropomorphic 
By the 21st Century, several U. S. manga publishers began to produce work by U. S. artists under the broad marketing label of manga.  In 2002, I. C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business, launched a series of manga by U. Studio Ironcat was a small publishing company based in Fredericksburg Virginia, dedicated to publication of Manga and later Amerimanga. S. artists called Amerimanga. Original English-language manga or OEL manga is the term commonly used to describe Comic books or Graphic novels in the "international manga" genre  Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga. Original English-language manga or OEL manga is the term commonly used to describe Comic books or Graphic novels in the "international manga" genre  Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga. Original English-language manga or OEL manga is the term commonly used to describe Comic books or Graphic novels in the "international manga" genre  TokyoPop is currently the largest U. S. publisher of original English language manga. 
Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga, like Frédéric Boilet's la nouvelle manga. Frédéric Boilet (born January 16 1960, in Épinal, France) is a French Cartoonist and a Mangaka. Nouvelle Manga is an artistic movement which gathers Franco-Belgian and Japanese Comic creators together  Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.  A Francophone Canadian example is the Montréal, Québec based artists' group MUSEBasement, which draws manga-style artwork. 
The Japanese manga industry has a large number of awards, most sponsored by publishers with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher. Examples of these awards include the Akatsuka Award for humorous manga, the Dengeki Comic Grand Prix for one-shot manga, the Kodansha Manga Award (multiple genre awards), the Seiun Award for best science fiction comic of the year, the Shogakukan Manga Award (multiple genres), the Tezuka Award for best new serial manga, and the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize (multiple genres). The Akatsuka Award is the name of a semi-annual award presented to humorous Manga cartoonists by the Japanese publisher Shueisha (集英社 The is an award handed out annually (since 2001 by the Japanese publisher ASCII Media Works (formally MediaWorks) for original one-shot Manga is an annual award for serialized Manga published in the previous year sponsored by the publisher Kodansha. The Seiun Award is a famous Japanese Science fiction award It is voted on by the attendees of the Japanese National Science Fiction Convention The Shogakukan Manga Award is one of Japan's major Manga awards sponsored by Shogakukan Publishing. The (since 1971) is a semi-annual Manga award offered by the Japanese publisher Shueisha (集英社 under the auspices of its Weekly Shonen Named after Osamu Tezuka, the is a yearly Comic book prize awarded to Manga artists or their works that follow The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs also awards the International Manga Award annually since May 2007. The is a Japanese government ministry The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the Cabinet member in charge International Manga Award is an award established to encourage non-Japanese Mangaka in 2007