Luis de Molina (September 1535, Cuenca, Spain - October 12, 1600, Madrid, Spain), was a Spanish Jesuit priest and a staunch defender of 'human liberty' in the Divine grace and human liberty controversy of the Renaissance (Molinism). Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. Not to be confused with the quietist doctrine of Miguel de Molinos.
Having at the age of eighteen become a member of the Society of Jesus, he studied theology at Coimbra, and afterward became professor in the university of Évora, Portugal. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Coimbra (kuˈĩbɾɐ is a city and a municipality in Portugal, former capital of the country during the first dynasty period and home to the University of Coimbra Évora (ˈɛvuɾɐ is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The city proper has 41159 inhabitants and the municipality has a total area of 1307 Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. From this post he was called, at the end of twenty years, to the chair of moral theology in Madrid, where he died. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain.
Besides other works he wrote De liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, divina praescientia, praedestinatione et reprobatione concordia (4 vo. , Lisbon, 1588); a commentary on the first part of the Summa Theologiae of Thomas Aquinas (2 vols. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. , fol. , Cuenca, 1593); and a treatise De jure et justitia (6 vols. , 1593-1609).
It is to the first of these that his fame is principally due. It was an attempt to reconcile, in words at least, the Augustinian doctrines of predestination and efficacious grace with the new ideals of the Renaissance concerning human's free will. The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430) are several Catholic Monastic orders and congregations Predestination (also linked with Foreknowledge) is a religious concept which involves the relationship between God and His creation Irresistible Grace (or efficacious grace) is a Doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere The question of free will Assuming that man is free to perform or not to perform any act whatever, Molina maintains that this circumstance renders the grace of God neither unnecessary nor impossible: not impossible, for God never fails to bestow grace upon those who ask it with sincerity; and not unnecessary, for grace, although not an efficient, is still a sufficient cause of salvation (gratia mere sufficiens). Irresistible Grace (or efficacious grace) is a Doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the Nor, in Molina's view, does his doctrine of free will exclude predestination. The question of free will The omniscient God, by means of His scientia media (the phrase is Molina's invention, though the idea is also to be found in his older contemporary Fonseca), or power of knowing future contingent events, foresees how we shall employ our own free-will and treat his proffered grace, and upon this foreknowledge he can found his predestinating decrees. The problem of future contingents is a Logical Paradox first posed by Diodorus Cronus from the Megarian school of philosophy, under the name
These doctrines, which opposed both traditional understanding of Augustinism and Thomism concerning the respective roles of free-will and efficacious grace, and the teachings of Martin Luther and John Calvin, excited violent controversy in some quarters, especially on the part of the Dominican order and of the Jansenists, and at last rendered it necessary for the pope (Clement VIII) to interfere. Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is Jansenism was a branch of Catholic Gallican thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent Not to be confused with Antipope Clement VIII. Pope Clement VIII ( February 24, 1536 &ndash March 3, 1605 At first (1594) he simply enjoined silence on both parties so far as Spain was concerned; but ultimately, in 1598, he appointed the Congregatio de auxiliis Gratiae for the settlement of the dispute, which became more and more a party one. The Congregatio de Auxiliis, Latin for 'Congregation on help (by Divine Grace' was a commission established by Pope Clement VIII to settle the theological controversy regarding After holding very numerous sessions, the congregation was able to decide nothing, and in 1607 its meetings were suspended by Paul V, who in 1611 prohibited all further discussion of the question de auxiliis and of discussions about efficacious grace, and studious efforts were made to control the publication even of commentaries on Aquinas. For Napoleon's brother-in-law see Camillo Filippo Ludovico Borghese. The Molinist subsequently passed into the Jansenist controversy. Jansenism was a branch of Catholic Gallican thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent
A full account of Molina's theology will be found in Gerhard Schneeman's Entstehung der thomistisch-molinistischen Controverse, published in the Appendices (Nos. Gerhard Schneemann (born at Wesel, Lower Rhine, 12 February[[ 829]] d 9, 13, 14) to the Jesuit periodical, Stimmen aus Maria-Laach. To the lay reader may be recommended Ernest Renan's article, Les congregations de auxiliis in his Nouvelles etudes d'histoire religieuse. Ernest Renan ( February 28, 1823 &ndash October 12, 1892) was a French Philosopher and writer deeply attached to his native