Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. There are currently five Italian orders of merit (Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana that recognise contributions to the Italian Republic. Events 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus the commander of the Danube armies loyal to Vespasian, defeat Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance He is noted for his experimental work (in particular his 1968 composition Sinfonia for voices and orchestra) and also for his pioneering work in electronic music. Experimental music is a term introduced by composer John Cage in 1955 Events January 4 - Guitarist Jimi Hendrix is jailed by Stockholm police after trashing a hotel room during a drunken fist fight with Musical composition is an original piece of Music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new Sinfonia is a composition by the Italian composer Luciano Berio that was commissioned by the New York Philharmonic for its 125th anniversary An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production
Berio was born in Oneglia (now Borgo d'Oneglia, a small village 3 km N of Imperia). Oneglia was a town in northern Italy on the Ligurian seaside that was joined to Porto Maurizio to form the Commune of Imperia in 1923 Imperia is a coastal city and Comune in the region of Liguria, Italy. He was taught the piano by his father and grandfather who were both organists. The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each During World War II he was conscripted into the army, but on his first day he injured his hand while learning how a gun worked. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A gun is a particular Weapon that propels Projectiles The projectile is generally fired through a hollow tube known as the gun's barrel. He spent time in a military hospital, before fleeing to fight in anti-Nazi groups. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German
Following the war, Berio studied at the Milan Conservatory under Giulio Cesare Paribeni and Giorgio Federico Ghedini. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Giorgio Federico Ghedini ( July 11, 1892, in Cuneo – March 25, 1965, in Nervi) was an Italian Composer He was unable to continue studying the piano because of his injured hand, so instead concentrated on composition. In 1947 came the first public performance of one of his works, a suite for piano. In Music, a suite is an ordered set of Instrumental or Orchestral pieces normally performed in a Concert The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers
Berio made a living at this time accompanying singing classes, and it was in doing this that he met American mezzo-soprano Cathy Berberian, whom he married shortly after graduating (they divorced in 1964). This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. Catherine Anahid Berberian ( Attleboro, Massachusetts, July 4 1925 - Rome, Italy, March 6 1983) was Berio would write many pieces exploiting her versatile and unique voice.
In 1951, Berio went to the United States to study with Luigi Dallapiccola at Tanglewood, from whom he gained an interest in serialism. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Luigi Dallapiccola ( February 3, 1904 &ndash February 19, 1975) was an Italian Composer known for his lyrical twelve-tone Tanglewood is an estate and Music venue in Lenox and Stockbridge Massachusetts and is the home of the annual summer Tanglewood Music Festival In Music, serialism is a technique for composition that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the manipulation of those He later attended the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik at Darmstadt, meeting Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, György Ligeti and Mauricio Kagel there. Initiated in 1946 by Wolfgang Steinecke, the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik Darmstadt ( Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music held annually Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Pierre Boulez (pjɛʁ buˈlɛz (b Mauricio Kagel ( December 24, 1931 – September 18, 2008) was a German - Argentine Composer who was notable He became interested in electronic music, co-founding the Studio di Fonologia, an electronic music studio in Milan, with Bruno Maderna in 1955. Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production Bruno Maderna ( 21 April 1920 &ndash 13 November 1973) was an Italian - German conductor and Composer He invited a number of significant composers to work there, among them Henri Pousseur and John Cage. Henri Pousseur (born 23 June 1929, Malmedy) is a Belgian Composer. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Milton Cage Jr He also produced an electronic music periodical, Incontri Musicali.
In 1960, Berio returned to Tanglewood, this time as Composer in Residence, and in 1962, on an invitation from Darius Milhaud, took a teaching post at Mills College in Oakland, California. Darius Milhaud (darjys mijo (September 4 1892 &ndash June 22 1974 was a French Composer and teacher Mills College is an independent liberal arts women's college founded in 1852 that offers Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U In 1965 he began to teach at the Juilliard School, and there he founded the Juilliard Ensemble, a group dedicated to performances of contemporary music. The Juilliard School, located in New York City, is a world renowned Performing arts conservatory. In the broadest and popular sense Contemporary music is any music being written in the present day In 1966, he again married, this time to the noted philosopher of science Susan Oyama (they divorced in 1972). His students include Louis Andriessen, Steve Reich, Luca Francesconi and, perhaps most surprisingly, Phil Lesh of the Grateful Dead. Louis Andriessen ( June 6, 1939) is a Dutch Composer and pianist based in Amsterdam. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3 Phillip Chapman Lesh (born March 15, 1940 in Berkeley California) is a Musician and a founding member of the Grateful Dead. The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in the San Francisco Bay Area.
All this time Berio had been steadily composing and building a reputation, winning the Italian Prize in 1966 for Laborintus II. His reputation was cemented when his Sinfonia was premiered in 1968.
In 1972, Berio returned to Italy. From 1974–80 he acted as director of the electro-acoustic division of IRCAM in Paris, and in 1977 he married for the third time with musicologist Talia Pecker. IRCAM ( Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique) is a European institute for Science about music and sound and avant garde electro-acoustical Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city In 1987 he opened Tempo Reale in Florence, a centre similar in intent to IRCAM. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany IRCAM ( Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique) is a European institute for Science about music and sound and avant garde electro-acoustical
In 1994 he became Distinguished Composer in Residence at Harvard University, remaining there until 2000. He was also active as a conductor and continued to compose to the end of his life. In 2000, he became Presidente and Sovrintendente at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. The Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia ( English: National Academy of St Cecilia is one of the oldest musical institutions in the world Luciano Berio died in 2003 in a hospital in Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
Berio's electronic work dates for the most part from his time at Milan's Studio di Fonologia. A list of works by the Italian Composer Luciano Berio. 1930 Pastorale for Piano (1937 Toccata One of the most influential works he produced there was Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) (1958), based on Cathy Berberian reading from James Joyce's Ulysses. Catherine Anahid Berberian ( Attleboro, Massachusetts, July 4 1925 - Rome, Italy, March 6 1983) was James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 A later work, Visage (1961) sees Berio creating a wordless emotional language by cutting up and rearranging a recording of Cathy Berberian's voice. Catherine Anahid Berberian ( Attleboro, Massachusetts, July 4 1925 - Rome, Italy, March 6 1983) was
In 1968, Berio completed O King a work which exists in two versions: one for voice, flute, clarinet, violin, cello and piano, the other for eight voices and orchestra. The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member The violoncello (abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural cellos or celli —the c is tʃ The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well The piece is in memory of Martin Luther King, who had been assassinated shortly before its composition. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader In it, the voice(s) intones first the vowels, and then the consonants which make up his name, only stringing them together to give his name in full in the final bars.
The orchestral version of O King was, shortly after its completion, integrated into what is perhaps Berio's most famous work, Sinfonia (1967–69), for orchestra and eight amplified voices. Sinfonia is a composition by the Italian composer Luciano Berio that was commissioned by the New York Philharmonic for its 125th anniversary The voices are not used in a traditional classical way; they frequently do not sing at all, but speak, whisper and shout. The third movement is a collage of musical and literary quotations.
A-Ronne (1974) is similarly collaged, but with the focus more squarely on the voice. It was originally written as a radio program for five actors, and reworked in 1975 for eight vocalists and an optional keyboard part. The work is one of a number of collaborations with the poet Edoardo Sanguineti, who for this piece provided a text full of quotations from sources including the Bible, T. S. Eliot and Karl Marx. Edoardo Sanguineti (born December 9, 1930) is an Italian writer born in Genoa. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic.
Another example of the influence of Sanguineti is the large work Coro, scored for orchestra, solo voices, and a large choir, whose members are paired with instruments of the orchestra. The work extends over roughly an hour, and explores a number of themes within a framework of folk music from a variety of regions; Chile, North America, Africa. Recurrent themes are the expression of love and passion; the pain of being parted from loved ones; death of a wife or husband. A line repeated often is "come and see the blood on the streets", a reference to a poem by Pablo Neruda, written in the context of savage events in Latin America under various military regimes. Pablo Neruda ( July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the pen name and later legal name of the Chilean writer and politician
Berio also produced work which does not quote the work of others at all. Perhaps best known among these is his series of works for solo instruments under the name Sequenza. Sequenza is the name borne by fourteen compositions for solo instruments or voice by Luciano Berio. The first, Sequenza I came in 1958 and is for flute; the last, Sequenza XIV (2002) is for cello. Sequenza I is a composition written in 1958 by Luciano Berio for the flutist Severino Gazzelloni. The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its The violoncello (abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural cellos or celli —the c is tʃ These works explore the possibilities of each instrument to the full, often calling for extended techniques.
The various Sequenza are as follows;
Berio is known for adapting and transforming the music of others, but he also adapted his own compositions: the series of Sequenze gave rise to a series of works called Chemins each based on one of the Sequenze. Un re in ascolto ( A King Listens) is an opera by Luciano Berio, who also wrote the Libretto. Zaide is an unfinished Opera, K 344 written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1780 Zaide is an unfinished Opera, K 344 written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1780 Turandot is an Opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, set to a Libretto in Italian by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni Chemins II (1967), for instance, takes the original Sequenza VI (1967) for viola and adapts it for solo viola and nine other instruments. The viola is a bowed String instrument. It is the middle voice of the Violin family, The viola is a bowed String instrument. It is the middle voice of the Violin family, Chemins II was itself transformed into Chemins III (1968) by the addition of an orchestra, and there also exists Chemins IIb, a version of Chemins II without the solo viola but with a larger ensemble, and Chemins IIc, which is Chemins IIb with an added solo bass clarinet. The bass clarinet is a Musical instrument of the Clarinet family The Sequenze were also shaped into new works under titles other than Chemins; Corale (1981), for example, is based on Sequenza VIII.
As well as original works, Berio made a number of arrangements of works by other composers, among them Claudio Monteverdi, Henry Purcell, Johannes Brahms, Gustav Mahler and Kurt Weill. In Music, an arrangement refers either to a rewriting of a piece of existing Music with additional new material or to a fleshing-out of a compositional sketch such Henry Purcell (ˈpɜrsəl 10 September 1659 (? – 21 November 1695 was an English Baroque Composer. Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Kurt Julian Weill ( March 2, 1900 &ndash April 3, For Berberian he wrote Folk Songs (1964; a set of arrangements of folk songs). Folk Songs is a Song cycle by the Italian Composer Luciano Berio composed in 1964. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous He also wrote an ending for Giacomo Puccini's opera Turandot (premiered in Las Palmas on 24th January 2002  and in the same year in Los Angeles, Amsterdam and Salzburg) and in Rendering (1989) took the few sketches Franz Schubert made for his Symphony No. 10, and completed them by adding music derived from other Schubert works. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini ( December 22, 1858 Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Turandot is an Opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, set to a Libretto in Italian by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni Schubert 's Symphony No 10 in D major D 936A is an unfinished work that survives in a partly fragmentary piano sketch
In fact, transcription is a vital part of even Berio's "creative" works. In "Two Interviews," Berio mused about what a college course in transcription would look like, looking not only at Liszt, Busoni, Stravinsky, Bach, himself, and others, but to what extent composition is always self-transcription. Ferruccio Dante Michelangiolo Benvenuto Busoni (April 1 1866 &ndash July 27 1924 was an Italian Composer, Pianist, musical educator and conductor. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" In this respect, Berio rejected and distanced himself from notions of "collage," preferring instead the position of "transcriber," arguing that "collage" implies a certain arbitrary abandon that runs counter to the careful control of his highly intellectual play, especially within Sinfonia but throughout his "deconstructive" works. Sinfonia is a composition by the Italian composer Luciano Berio that was commissioned by the New York Philharmonic for its 125th anniversary Rather, each quotation carefully evokes the context of its original work, creating an open web, but an open web with highly specific referents and a vigorously defined, if self-proliferating, signifier-signified relationship. "I'm not interested in collages, and they amuse me only when I'm doing them with my children: then they become an exercise in relativizing and 'decontextualizing' images, an elementary exercise whose healthy cynicism won't do anyone any harm," Berio told interviewer Rossana Dalmonte.
Perhaps Berio's most notable contribution to the world of post-WWII non-serial experimental music, running throughout most of his works, is his engagement with the broader world of critical theory (epitomized by his life-long friendship with linguist and critical theorist Umberto Eco) through his compositions. Umberto Eco (born 5 January 1932 is an Italian Medievalist, semiotician, Philosopher, literary critic and Novelist, best Berio's works are often analytic acts: deliberately analyzing myths, stories, the components of words themselves, his own compositions, or preexisting musical works. In other words, it is not only the composition of the "collage" that conveys meaning; it is the particular composition of the component "sound-image" that conveys meaning, even extra-musical meaning. The technique of the "collage," that he is associated with, is, then, less a neutral process than a conscious, Joycean process of analysis-by-composition, a form of analytic transcription of which Sinfonia and The Chemins are the most prurient examples. Berio often offers his compositions as forms of academic or cultural discourse themselves rather than as "mere" fodder for them.
Among Berio's other compositions are Circles (1960), Sequenza III (1966), and Recital I (for Cathy) (1972), all written for Berberian, and a number of stage works, with Un re in ascolto, a collaboration with Italo Calvino, the best known. Recital I (for Cathy is a stage work by the Italian Composer Luciano Berio. Un re in ascolto ( A King Listens) is an opera by Luciano Berio, who also wrote the Libretto. Italo Calvino ( October 15, 1923 &ndash September 19, 1985) (ˈiːtalo kalˈviːno was an Italian journalist and writer of short
Berio's "central instrumental focus", if such a thing exists, is probably with the voice, the piano, the flute, and the strings. He wrote many remarkable pieces for piano which vary from solo pieces to essentially concerto pieces (points on the curve to find, concerto for two pianos, and Coro, which has a strong backbone of harmonic and melodic material entirely based on the piano part).
Lesser known works make use of a very distinguishable polyphony unique to Berio that develops in a variety of ways. This occurs in several works, but most recognisably in compositions for small instrumental combinations. Examples are Differences, for flute, harp, clarinet, cello, violin and electronic sounds, Agnus, for three clarinets and voices, Tempi concertanti for flute and four instrumental groups, Linea, for marimba, Vibraphone, and two pianos, and Chemins IV, for eleven strings and oboe.