|Louis I. Kahn|
|Name||Louis I. Kahn|
|Birth date||February 20, 1901|
|Birth place||Kuressaare, Estonia|
|Date of death||March 17, 1974 (aged 73)|
|Place of death||New York City, New York|
|Significant buildings||Yale University Art Gallery|
|Significant projects||Center of Philadelphia,Urban and Traffic Study|
Louis Isadore Kahn (born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky) (February 20, 1901 or 1902 – March 17, 1974) was a world-renowned architect based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Kuressaare (Arensburg is a town and a municipality on Saaremaa island in Estonia. Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The City of New York New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Yale University Art Gallery houses a significant and encyclopedic collection of art in several buildings on the campus of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut The Phillips Exeter Academy Library at Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire is among the renowned masterworks of architect Louis Kahn Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban ( Bengali: জাতীয় সংসদ ভবন Jatio Shôngshod Bhôbon) is the National Assembly Building of Bangladesh, located The Kimbell Art Museum is situated in the Cultural District of Fort Worth, Texas, USA. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə La Jolla (ləˈhɔɪə "luh-HOY-uh") is a wealthy Seaside resort community of up to 42808 residents within the city of San Diego, California Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own firm in 1935. While continuing his private practice he served as a design critic and professor of architecture at Yale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The Yale School of Architecture is one of the constituent professional schools of Yale University. From 1957 until his death he was a professor of architecture at the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania. The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn) is a private University located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Influenced by ancient ruins, Kahn's style tends to the monumental and monolithic, heavy buildings that neither hide their weight, their materials, nor the way they are assembled.
Louis Kahn, whose original name was Itze-Leib (Leiser-Itze) Schmuilowsky (Schmalowski), was born in Kuressaare on the Estonian island of Saaremaa, then part of the Russian Empire. Kuressaare (Arensburg is a town and a municipality on Saaremaa island in Estonia. Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region Saaremaa is the largest Island belonging to Estonia, measuring 2673 km². The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya His actual birth year may have been inaccurately recorded when, in 1906, his Jewish family immigrated to the United States, fearing that his father would be recalled into the military during the Russo-Japanese War. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Russo-Japanese War (日露戦争 Romaji: Nichi-Ro Sensō Русско-японская война Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna;, 10 February 1904 – 5 September Perhaps because of this fear, the family moved seventeen times. As the scarred child of Estonian immigrant Jews, he grew up poor in Philadelphia. According to his son's documentary film in 2003 the family couldn't afford pencils but made their own charcoal sticks from burnt twigs so that Louis could earn a little money from drawings and later by playing piano to accompany silent movies. He became a naturalized citizen on May 15, 1914. Naturalization is the acquisition of Citizenship or Nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year His father changed their name in 1915.
He trained in a rigorous Beaux-Arts tradition, with its emphasis on drawing, at the University of Pennsylvania. Beaux Arts architecture denotes the academic classical Architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn) is a private University located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. After completing his Bachelor of Architecture in 1924, Kahn worked as senior draftsman in the office of City Architect John Molitor. The Bachelor of Architecture (BArch is an undergraduate academic degree designed to satisfy the academic component of professional accreditation bodies to be followed by In this capacity, he worked on the design for the 1926 Sesquicentennial Exposition. Sesqui-Centennial International Exposition of 1926 was a World's fair hosted in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the signing 
In 1928, Kahn made a European tour and took a particular interest in the medieval walled city of Carcassonne, France and the castles of Scotland rather than any of the strongholds of classicism or modernism. Carcassonne (Carcassona is a fortified French town in the Aude département, of which it is the Prefecture, This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. For the works or study of works from classical antiquity see Classics Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century  After returning to the States in 1929, Kahn worked in the offices of Paul Philippe Cret, his former studio critic at Penn, and in the offices of Zantzinger, Borie and Medary in Philadelphia. H2L2 is an architecture firm in Philadelphia founded in 1907 by Paul Philippe Cret as The offices of Paul Philippe Cret. The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn) is a private University located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Zantzinger Borie and Medary was an American architectural firm active from 1910 through 1929 specializing in institutional and civic projects Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə  In 1932, Kahn and Dominique Berninger founded the Architectural Research Group, whose members were interested in the populist social agenda and new aesthetics of the European avant-gardes. Populism is a discourse which supports "the people" versus "the Elites " Populism may involve either a political philosophy urging social and political Cultural Marxism is a form of Marxism that adds an analysis of the role of the media art theatre film and other cultural institutions in a society Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Among the projects Kahn worked on during this collaboration are unbuilt schemes for public housing that had originally been presented to the Public Works Administration. The Public Works Administration (PWA, a New Deal government agency headed by Harold Ickes, was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 
Among the more important of Kahn's early collaborations was with George Howe. George Howe (1886-1955 with William Lescaze, was a partner in the influential modernist firm of Howe & Lescaze in Philadelphia, the architects of the  Kahn worked with Howe in late 1930s on projects for the Philadelphia Housing Authority and again in 1940, along with German born architect Oscar Stonorov for the design of housing developments in other parts of Pennsylvania. The Philadelphia Housing Authority, also known as PHA is the biggest landlord in Pennsylvania Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Oscar Gregory Stonorov ( December 2, 1905 - May 9, 1970) was a Modernist Architect and architectural Writer, The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern 
Louis I. Kahn did not find his distinctive architectural style until he was in his fifties. Initially working in a fairly orthodox version of the International Style, a stay at the American Academy in Rome in the early 1950s marked a turning point in Kahn's career. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The back-to-the-basics approach he adopted after visiting the ruins of ancient buildings in Italy, Greece and Egypt helped him to develop his own style of architecture influenced by earlier modern movements but not limited by their sometimes dogmatic ideologies.
In 1961 he received a grant from the Graham Foundation to study traffic movement in Philadelphia and create a proposal for a viaduct system. The Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, based in Chicago, supports the arts architecture and institutions through public programs and grants for projects The Mathematical or Engineering study of traffic flow, and in particular vehicular Traffic Flow, is done with the aim of achieving a better understanding Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə A viaduct is a Bridge composed of several small spans The term viaduct is derived from the Latin via for road and ducere to He describes this proposal at a lecture given in 1962 at the International Design Conference in Aspen, Colorado:
In the center of town the streets should become buildings. This should be interplayed with a sense of movement which does not tax local streets for non-local traffic. There should be a system of viaducts which encase an area which can reclaim the local streets for their own use, and it should be made so this viaduct has a ground floor of shops and usable area. A model which I did for the Graham Foundation recently, and which I presented to Mr. Entenza, showed the scheme. 
Kahn's teaching career started at Yale in 1947 and he was eventually named Albert F. Bemis Professor of Architecture and Planning at MIT in 1962 and Paul Philippe Cret Professor of Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania in 1966 and was also a Visiting Lecturer at Princeton University from 1961 to 1967. The MIT School of Architecture and Planning is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts Paul Philippe Cret ( October 24 1876, Lyon France &ndash September 8 1945, Philadelphia Pennsylvania) was a French-American The University of Pennsylvania School of Design (PennDesign is the design school of the University of Pennsylvania. The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn) is a private University located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. Kahn was elected a Fellow in the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in 1953. Fellow of the American Institute of Architects ( FAIA) is an Postnomial, designating an individual who has been named a Fellow of the American Institute The American Institute of Architects (AIA is a professional organization for Architects in the United States. He was made a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1964, He was made a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1968 and awarded the AIA Gold Medal, the highest award given by the AIA, in 1971 and the Royal Gold Medal by the RIBA in 1972. The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS is an organization dedicated to scholarship and the advancement of learning The AIA Gold Medal is awarded by the American Institute of Architects conferred "by the national AIA Board of Directors in recognition of a significant body of work of lasting The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA is a Professional body for Architects in the United Kingdom.
Kahn had three different families with three different women: his wife, Esther, whom he married in 1930; Anne Tyng, who began her working collaboration and personal relationship with Kahn in 1945; and Harriet Pattison. Anne Griswold Tyng (born July 14 1920) is an Architect and professor His obituary in the New York Times, written by Paul Goldberger, famously mentions only Esther and his daughter by her as survivors. Paul Goldberger (born in 1950 in Passaic New Jersey) is an American Pulitzer Prize -winning architecture critic But in 2003, Kahn's son with Pattison, Nathaniel Kahn, released an Oscar-nominated biographical documentary about his father, titled My Architect: A Son's Journey, which gives glimpses of the architecture while focusing on talking to the people who knew him: family, friends, and colleagues. Nathaniel Kahn ( November 9, 1962 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA is an American filmmaker "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. My Architect A Son's Journey is a 2003 documentary film about the American architect Louis Kahn. It includes interviews with renowned architect contemporaries such as B. V. Doshi, Frank Gehry, Ed Bacon, Philip Johnson, I. M. Pei, and Robert A. M. Stern, but also an insider's view of Kahn's unusual family arrangements. Balkrishna Vithaldas Doshi (b 26 August 1927 in Pune, India) is an Indian Architect. Frank Owen Gehry CC (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize -winning Architect Edmund Norwood Bacon ( May 2, 1910 – October 14, 2005) was a noted American Urban planner, Architect, Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8 1906&ndash January 25 2005 was an influential American Architect. Ieoh Ming Pei ( (b April 26, 1917) commonly known by his initials I Robert Arthur Morton Stern, usually credited as Robert A M Stern, (born May 23 1939) is an American Architect and Dean of the The unusual manner of his death is used as a point of departure and a metaphor for Kahn's "nomadic" life in the film.
He died of a heart attack in a men's restroom in Pennsylvania Station in New York City. Pennsylvania Station (commonly known as “Penn Station”) is the major intercity rail station and a major Commuter rail hub in New York City The City of New York He was not identified for three days, as he had crossed out the home address on his passport. He had just returned from a work trip to India, and despite his long career, he was deeply in debt when he died. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
Louis Kahn's work infused the International style with a fastidious, highly personal taste, a poetry of light. The International style was a major Architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s His few projects reflect his deep personal involvement with each. Isamu Noguchi called him "a philosopher among architects. was a prominent Japanese American Artist and landscape architect whose artistic career spanned six decades from the 1920s onward " He was known for his ability to create monumental architecture that responded to the human scale. He was also concerned with creating strong formal distinctions between served spaces and servant spaces. What he meant by servant spaces was not spaces for servants, but rather spaces that serve other spaces, such as stairwells, corridors, restrooms, or any other back-of-house function like storage space or mechanical rooms. His palette of materials tended toward heavily textured brick and bare concrete, the textures often reinforced by juxtaposition to highly refined surfaces such as travertine marble.
While widely known for his spaces' poetic sensibilities, Kahn also worked closely with engineers and contractors on his buildings. The results were often technically innovative and highly refined. In addition to the influence Kahn's more well-known work has on contemporary architects (such as Tadao Ando), some of his work (especially the unbuilt City Tower Project) became very influential among the high-tech architects of the late 20th century (such as Renzo Piano, who worked in Kahn's office, and Norman Foster). is a Japanese Architect whose approach to Architecture was once categorised as Critical regionalism. High-tech architecture, or Late Modernism, is an Architectural style that emerged in the 1970s incorporating elements of high-tech industry and technology into Renzo Piano (born September 14 1937) is a world renowned Italian Norman Robert Foster Baron Foster of Thames Bank, OM, FRIBA, RDI, (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company His prominent apprentices include Moshe Safdie, Robert Venturi and Jack Diamond. Moshe Safdie, CC, BArch LLD, FRAIC FAIA (b July 14, 1938) is an Architect and Urban designer Robert Charles Venturi Jr (born June 25, 1925 in Philadelphia) is an award-winning American Architect and founding principal of the firm Venturi Jack Diamond may refer to Jack Diamond (architect Jack Diamond (Canadian businessman Jack Diamond (gangster
Many years after his death, Kahn continues to inspire controversy. Interest is growing in a plan to build a Kahn-designed Franklin D. Roosevelt Memorial, Four Freedoms Park at the southern tip of Roosevelt Island. Roosevelt Island, formerly known as Welfare Island, and before that Blackwell's Island, is a narrow island in the East River of New York  A modest New York Times editorial opined:
There's a magic to the project. That the task is daunting makes it worthy of the man it honors, who guided the nation through the Depression, the New Deal and a world war. As for Mr. Kahn, he died in 1974, as he passed alone through New York's Penn Station. In his briefcase were renderings of the memorial, his last completed plan. 
The editorial describes Kahn's plan as:
. . . simple and elegant. Drawing inspiration from Roosevelt's defense of the Four Freedoms -- of speech and religion, and from want and fear – he designed an open 'room and a garden' at the bottom of the island. Trees on either side form a 'V' defining a green space, and leading to a two-walled stone room at the water's edge that frames the United Nations and the rest of the skyline.
Critics note that the panoramic view of Manhattan and the UN are actually blocked by the walls of that room and by the trees.  Other as-yet-unanswered critics have argued more broadly that not enough thought has been given to what visitors to the memorial would actually be able to do at the site.  The proposed project is opposed by a majority of island residents who were surveyed by the Trust for Public Land. The Trust for Public Land (TPL is a land conservation nonprofit founded in 1972 and based in San Francisco, California in the United States 
The movement for the memorial, which was conceived by Kahn's firm almost 35 years ago, needs to raise $40 million by the end of the year (2007); as of July 20, it had collected $5. 1 million. ...Click link for New York Times photographs of project site There is a merest hint in Architectural Record about the often-heard argument that it must be built because it was literally Kahn's last project;  and this is rebutted by those who've said the plans aren't enough like Kahn's other work for it to be touted as a memorial to Kahn as well as FDR. Architectural Record is an American monthly Magazine dedicated to Architecture and Interior design, published by McGraw-Hill 
In this context, Roosevelt himself had something to say: "There are many ways of going forward, but only one way of standing still. "
All dates refer to the year work commenced