Lorenzo Lotto (c. The Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, known in the Venetian dialect as San Zanipolo, is one of the largest churches of Venice and has the status of a Minor basilica 1480 – 1556) was a Northern Italian painter draughtsman and illustrator, traditionally placed in the Venetian school. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e In music history the Venetian School is a term used to describe the Composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610; it also describes He painted mainly altarpieces, religious subjects and portraits. While he was active during the High Renaissance, he already constitutes, through his nervous and eccentric posings and distortions, a transitional stage to the first Florentine and Roman Mannerists of the 16th century. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520.
Born in Venice, he worked in Treviso (1503-1506), the Marches (1506-1508), in Rome (1508-1510), Bergamo (1513-1525), in Venice (1525-1549), Ancona (1549) and finally as a Franciscan lay brother in Loreto (1549-1556). Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Treviso (Venetian Trevizo, French Trévise, Latin Tarvisium) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Bergamo ( Bèrghem in Lombard, antiquated Wälsch-Bergen in German) is a town in Lombardy, Italy, about Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Ancona (Ankon is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101909 (2005
There is almost no information about his training. As a Venetian he was influenced by Giovanni Bellini as he had a good knowledge of contemporary Venetian painting. Giovanni Bellini (c 1430 – 1516 was an Italian Renaissance painter probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters Though Bellini was doubtless not his teacher, the influence is clear in his early painting Virgin and Child with St. Jerome (1506) (National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh). The National Gallery of Scotland, in Edinburgh, is the national Art gallery of Scotland. However, in his portraits and in his early painting Allegory of Virtue and Vice (1505) (National Gallery of Art, Washington) he shows the influence of Giorgione's Naturalism. This article is about the National Gallery of the United States for other National Galleries see National Gallery. Giorgione (c 1477 &ndash 1510 is the familiar name of Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco, an Italian painter a seminal artist of the High Renaissance As he grew older his style changed, perhaps evolving, from a detached Giorgionesque classicism, to a more vibrant dramatic setpiece, more reminiscent of his contemporary from Parma, Correggio. Giorgione (c 1477 &ndash 1510 is the familiar name of Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco, an Italian painter a seminal artist of the High Renaissance Parma is a City in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna near Modena famous for its Architecture and the fine countryside around it
Lotto soon left Venice. The competition for a young painter would have been too great with established names such as Giorgione, Palma il Vecchio and certainly with Titian. Giorgione (c 1477 &ndash 1510 is the familiar name of Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco, an Italian painter a seminal artist of the High Renaissance Palma il Vecchio (1480 &ndash July 1528 born Jacopo Palma or known as Jacopo Negretti, was an Italian painter of the Venetian school Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Nevertheless, Giorgio Vasari mentions in the third part of his book Vite that Lotto was a friend of Palma il Vecchio. Giorgio Vasari ( 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and Architect, who is today famous The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters Sculptors and Architects, or Le Vite delle più eccellenti pittori scultori ed architettori as it was originally known
In Trevisio, a prospering town within the domain of the republic of Venice, he came under the patronage of bishop Bernardino de'Rossi. The already mentioned painting Allegory of Virtue and Vice was intended as an allegorical cover of his portrait (1505) of the bishop (now in Museo di Capodimonte in Naples), who had survived an assassination attempt. The Palace and Museum of Capodimonte is a grand Bourbon Palazzo in Naples, Italy, formerly the summer residence of the kings The painting St. Jerome in the Desert (1500 or 1506) (Louvre, Paris) shows his youthful inexperience as a draughtsman, however the dramatic rocky landscape is accentuated by the red garment of the saint. The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France At the same time he gives an early impression of his skill as a miniaturist. A portrait miniature is a miniature Portrait painting usually executed in Gouache or watercolor.
He painted his first altarpieces for the parish church S Cristina al Tiverone (1505) and the baptistery of the Cathedral of Asolo (1506), both still on display in those churches. Asolo is a town in the Veneto Region of Northern Italy. It is known as "The Pearl of Province of Treviso " and also as "The City of
In 1508 he began the Recanati polyptych altarpiece for the church of S Domenico. Recanati is a town and commune in the Province of Macerata, Marche region of Italy. A polyptych (from the Greek polu- "many" + ptychē "fold" generally refers to a Painting (usually Panel painting This two-tiered, rather conventional painted polyptych consists of six panels. His portrait Young Man against a White Curtain (1508) is a famous painting from this period (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). The Kunsthistorisches Museum ( English: "Museum of Art History" in Vienna, housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, crowned
As he became a respected painter, he came to the attention of Bramante, the papal architect, who was passing through Loreto (a pilgrimage site near Recanati). Donato Bramante (1444 – March 11, 1514) was an Italian Architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance Lorenzo Lotto was invited to Rome to decorate to papal apartments. Nothing however survives of his work, as they were destroyed a few years later. This was problably because he had imitated the style of Raphael, a rapidly rising star in the papal court. Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and He had done this before in the Transfiguration in the Recanati polyptych.
In 1511 he was at work for the confraternity of the Buon Gesù in Jesi, painting an Entombment (Pïn. Jesi aka Iesi is a town and Comune of the Province of Ancona in the Marche, Italy. Civ. , Jesi). Soon after, he was painting altarpieces in Recanati, a Transfiguration (1512?) (now in the Pinacoteca Comunale, Recanati) and a fresco St Vincent Ferrer for the church San Domenico.
His work in Bergamo, the westernmost town of the Venetian republic, and surrounding areas was to prove his best and most productive artistic period. He received many commissions from wealthy merchants, well-educated professionals and local aristocrats. He had become a rich colourist and an experienced draughtsman. He developed the concept of the psychological portrait, revealing the thoughts and emotions of his subjects. In this he was continuing the tradition started by Antonello da Messina. Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio (c A good example is his Portrait of a Young Man with a Book (now in the Accademia, Venice). The Accademia is best known now as a museum gallery of pre-1800s art in Venice, Italy.
He started in 1513 with a monumental altarpiece Pala Martinengo in the Dominican church of S Stefano in Bergamo. This altarpiece was commissioned by Count Alessandro Martinengo-Coleoni, grandson of the famous condottiere Bartolomeo Colleoni. Condottieri (singular condottiero, rarely condottiero) were Mercenary leaders employed by the Italian City-states from the Late Middle Bartolomeo Colleoni (c 1395/1400 &ndash November 2, 1475) was an Italian Condottiero. It would be finished in 1516. This altarpiece shows us the influence of Bramante and Giorgione. Donato Bramante (1444 – March 11, 1514) was an Italian Architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance Giorgione (c 1477 &ndash 1510 is the familiar name of Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco, an Italian painter a seminal artist of the High Renaissance His next assignment was the decoration of the churches S Bernardino and S Alessandro in Colonna with frescoes and distemper paintings. He would finish five more altarpieces between 1521 and 1523.
In 1523 he went for a brief stay in the Marches, obtaining several commissions for altarpieces. He would paint these during his stay in Venice.
His next paintings are mostly wall paintings. In 1524 he painted a series of frescoes with the lives of saints (such as St. Clare) in the Suardi chapel in Trescore (near Bergamo). In the details he depicts scenes of every life, such as in the fresco Martyrdom of St. Claire. In the same fresco he portrays Christ with vines sprouting from his hands, illustrating the words of the New Testament: "I am the vine, you are the branches" (John 15-5).
In 1524 he also painted the cartoons with Old Testament stories as models for the intarsia panels for the choir stalls of S Maria Maggiore in Bergamo. Intarsia is a form of wood Inlaying that is similar to Marquetry.
More than twenty private paintings date from the same period. They are mostly of religious and pious subjects such as Madonnas or a Deposition, used for worship at home. They are painted in the Classical tradition, but Lotto adds a personal touch to the intense emotions. Using contrasting poses and opposing movement, he breaks the traditional symmetry of the Virgin surrounded by angels and saints.
Lotto first stayed at the Dominican monastery of SS Giovanni e Paolo. But he to leave after a few months after a conflict with friar Damiano Zambelli, the intaglia artist (See : Basilica of San Domenico). The Basilica of San Domenico is one of the major churches in Bologna, Italy To cope with the many commissions, he founded a workshop. He shipped five altarpieces for churches in the Marches and another one for the church S Maria Assunta in Celano (near Bergamo). Another altarpiece was for the Venetian church of S Maria dei Carmini, portraying St. Nicholas of Bari in Glory.
As Venice was a city of great wealth and as popularity increased, he received many orders for private paintings, including ten portraits, including Portrait of a Young Man (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin). The collection The Gemäldegalerie prides itself on its scientific methodology in collecting and displaying art His portrait of Andrea Odoni (Royal Art Collection, Hampton Court) (1527) would later influence the portrait of Jacopo Strada by Titian (1568) (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). But in Venice he was overshadowed by his rival Titian, who dominated the artistic scene. Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Lorenzo Lotto left Venice in 1532 to Treviso.
In this last period of his life, Lorenzo Lotto would frequently move from town to town, searching for patrons and commissions. In 1532 he went to Treviso. Next he spent about seven years in the Marches (Ancona, Macerata en Jesi), returning to Venice in 1540. He moved again to Treviso in 1542 and back to Venice in 1545. Finally he went back to Ancona in 1549.
This was a productive period in his life, during which he painted several altarpieces and portraits :
At the end of his life it was becoming increasingly difficult for him to earn a living. Furthermore, in 1550 one of his works had an unsuccessful auction in Ancona. As recorded in his personal account book, this deeply disillusioned him. As he had always been a deeply religious man, he entered in 1552 the Holy Sanctuary at Loreto, becoming a lay brother. Loreto is a hilltown and Comune of the Italian Province of Ancona, in the Marche. In the most common usage lay brothers are those members of Catholic Religious orders particularly of monastic orders occupied primarily with manual labor and with During that time he decorated the basilica of S Maria and painted a Presentation in the Temple for the Palazzo Apostolico in Loreto. He died in 1556 and was buried, at his request, in a Dominican habit.
Giorgio Vasari included Lotto's biography in the third volume of his book Vite. Giorgio Vasari ( 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and Architect, who is today famous The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters Sculptors and Architects, or Le Vite delle più eccellenti pittori scultori ed architettori as it was originally known Lorenzo Lotto himself left many letters and a detailed notebook (Libro di spese diverse, 1538-1556), giving a certain insight in his life and work. Among the many painters he influenced are likely Giovanni Busi
During his lifetime, Lorenzo Lotto was a well-respected painter and certainly popular in Northern Italy. Giovanni Cariani also known as Giovanni Busi or Il Cariani (c He is traditionally included in the Venetian School, but his independent career actually places him outside the Venetian art scene. He was certainly not as highly regarded in Venice as in the other towns were he worked. He had an own stylistic individuality, even an idiosyncratic style. Idiosyncrasy, from Greek ιδιοσυγκρασία idiosunkrasia, "a peculiar temperament" "habit of body" ( idios "one's own" After his death, he gradually became neglected and then almost forgotten. This could be attributed to the fact that his oeuvre now remains in lesser known churches or in provincial musea. Even the top musea of the world possess each only a few of his paintings. Thanks to the work of the art historian Bernard Berenson, he was rediscovered and acclaimed as a master at the end of the 19th century. Bernard Berenson (born June 26, 1865 Butrimonys (now in Alytus district of Lithuania) &ndash October 6, 1959 Florence Since then, many monographs and several exhibitions have been dedicated to Lorenzo Lotto, such as the exhibition in Venice in 1953 and recently Lorenzo Lotto: Rediscovered Master of the Renaissance in the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC (November 1997-March 1998).