The Lorenz SZ 40 and SZ 42 (Schlüsselzusatz, meaning "cipher attachment") were German cipher machines used during World War II for teleprinter circuits. In Cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an Algorithm for performing Encryption and Decryption &mdash a series of well-defined steps World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A teleprinter ( British codebreakers, who referred to encrypted German teleprinter traffic as "Fish", termed the machine and its traffic "Tunny". For the (Fibonacci Shrinking Stream cipher published in 1993, see FISH (cipher. While the well-known Enigma machine was generally used by field units, the Lorenz machine was used for high-level communications which could support the heavy machine, teletypewriter and attendant fixed circuits. The Enigma machine is any one of a family of related electro-mechanical Rotor machines used to generate Ciphers for the Encryption and decryption of An electrical network is an interconnection of Electrical elements such as Resistors Inductors Capacitors Transmission lines Voltage The machine itself measured 51cm × 46cm × 46cm (20in × 18in × 18in), and served as an attachment to a standard Lorenz teleprinter. The machines implemented a stream cipher. In Cryptography, a stream cipher is a symmetric key Cipher where plaintext bits are combined with a Pseudorandom cipher bit stream ( Keystream
The teleprinters of the day output each character as five parallel bits on five lines, typically encoded in the Baudot code or something similar. A bit is a binary digit, taking a value of either 0 or 1 Binary digits are a basic unit of Information storage and communication The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII, and the root predecessor to International Telegraph The Lorenz machine output groups of five pseudorandom bits to be XORed with the plaintext. A pseudorandom number generator ( PRNG) is an Algorithm for generating a sequence of numbers that approximates the properties of random numbers In Cryptography, plaintext is the information which the sender wishes to transmit to the receiver(s The pseudorandom bits were generated by ten pinwheels, five of which stepped regularly, termed the χ ("chi") wheels, and five of which were stepped irregularly, termed the ψ ("psi") wheels. In Cryptography, a pinwheel was a device for producing a short pseudorandom sequence of Bits (determined by the machine's initial settings as a component Chi ( Uppercase Χ, Lowercase χ; Χι He is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, pronounced as in English The stepping of the ψ wheels was determined by two more pinwheels, termed the "motor wheels". Apart from the stepping of the five irregular pinwheels (which either all stepped together, or all stayed together), the Lorenz machine is actually five parallel pseudorandom generators; there is no other interaction between the five lines. The numbers of pins on all the wheels were relatively prime. In Mathematics, the Integers a and b are said to be coprime or relatively prime if they have no common factor other than
Colonel Parker Hitt of the US Army first proposed a very similar device in 1914. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. . He explained its use in his Manual for Military Ciphers published in 1916. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year But Col. Hitt's design was without the feature that allowed the stepping of five wheels to be irregular. 
British cryptographers at Bletchley Park had deduced the operation of the machine by January 1942 without ever having seen a Lorenz machine. Bletchley Park, also known as Station X, is an estate located in the town of Bletchley, in Buckinghamshire, and (since 1967 part of Milton Keynes Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This was made possible because of a mistake made by a German operator. On 30 August 1941, a 4,000 character message was transmitted; however, the message was not received correctly at the other end, so (after the recipient sent an unencoded request for retransmission, which let the codebreakers know what was happening) the message was retransmitted with the same key settings (HQIBPEXEZMUG); a forbidden practice. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Moreover, the second time the operator made a number of small alterations to the message, such as using abbreviations. From these two related ciphertexts, John Tiltman was able to recover both the plaintext and the keystream. Brigadier John Hessell Tiltman ( 25 May 1894 &ndash 10 August 1982) was a British Army officer who worked in intelligence In Cryptography, a keystream is a stream of random or pseudorandom characters that are combined with a Plaintext message to produce From the keystream, the entire structure of the machine was reconstructed by W. T. Tutte. William Thomas Tutte ( May 14 1917 &ndash May 2 2002) was a British, later Canadian codebreaker
Tunny traffic was intercepted at Knockholt in Kent, before being sent to Bletchley Park. Knockholt is a village and Civil parish in Kent, England lying approximately 5 miles south of Orpington and 3 miles northwest of KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format
Several complex machines were built by the British to attack Tunny. The first was a family of machines known as "Heath Robinsons", which used several high-speed paper tapes, along with electronic logic circuitry, to help break into Tunny. Heath Robinson was a machine used by British Codebreakers at Bletchley Park during World War II to solve messages in a German Teleprinter cipher Punched tape or paper tape is a largely obsolete form of Data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data
The next was the Colossus, the world's first electronic digital computer. The Colossus machines were electronic Computing devices used by British codebreakers to read Encrypted German messages during A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. This was developed by the British engineer Tommy Flowers at Bletchley Park. Thomas (Tommy Harold Flowers MBE ( 22 December 1905 &ndash 28 October 1998) was an English engineer Bletchley Park, also known as Station X, is an estate located in the town of Bletchley, in Buckinghamshire, and (since 1967 part of Milton Keynes Like ENIAC, it did not have a stored program, and was programmed through plugboards and jumper cables. ENIAC, short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer, was the first general-purpose electronic Computer. The von Neumann architecture is a design model for a stored-program Digital computer that uses a processing unit and a single separate storage structure It was both faster and more reliable than the Heath Robinsons; using it, the British were able to read a large proportion of Tunny traffic.
The Swedish cryptanalytic service, the FRA (Försvarets Radioanstalt), also broke into an early version of the Lorenz system; their break occurred in April, 1943. The Swedish National Defence Radio Establishment (Försvarets radioanstalt FRA) is a Government agency in Sweden responsible for Signals intelligence Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. They tapped cables carrying traffic between Germany and Norway. The work was led by mathematician Arne Beurling. Arne Carl-August Beurling ( February 3, 1905 - November 20, 1986) was a Mathematician and Professor of Mathematics