A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another The word originates from the Latin loco - "from a place", ablative of locus, "place" + Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", and is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine,. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.  first used in the early 19th century to distinguish between mobile and stationary steam engines. Stationary steam engines are fixed Steam engines used for pumping or driving mills and factories and for power generation
A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. In contrast, some trains have self-propelled payload-carrying vehicles. These are not normally considered locomotives, and may be referred to as multiple units, motor coaches or railcars. The term multiple unit or MU is used to describe a self-propelling train unit capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still A motor coach (in the European use of the word or motor car is a powered rail vehicle able to pull a train and at the same time transport passengers or luggage A railcar (not to be confused with a railway car) is a self-propelled railway Vehicle designed to Transport passengers The use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains, but very rare for freight (see CargoSprinter). A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, The CargoSprinter is a Multiple unit (or Articulated) Freight car;it could also be thought of as a container lorry that runs on rails Vehicles which provide motive power to haul an unpowered train, but are not generally considered locomotives because they have payload space or are rarely detached from their trains, are known as power cars. A power car is a Railroad vehicle that is closely related to the Locomotive.
Traditionally, locomotives pull trains from the front. Increasingly common is push-pull operation, where a locomotive pulls the train in one direction and pushes it in the other, and is optionally controlled from a control cab at the opposite end of the train. Push-pull is a mode of operation for Locomotive -hauled Trains allowing them to be driven from either end
The first successful locomotives were built by Cornish inventor Richard Trevithick. See also Rail transport The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar Richard Trevithick ( April 13, 1771 &ndash April 22, 1833) was a British In 1804 his unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren ironworks, near Merthyr Tydfil in Wales. A steam locomotive is a Locomotive powered by Steam. The term usually refers to its use on Railways but can also refer to a "road locomotive" "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Penydarren was the fourth of the great Ironworks established at Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales. Merthyr Tydfil today Government The current Borough boundaries date back to 1974 when the former county borough of Merthyr Tydfil expanded slightly to cover Although the locomotive hauled a train of 10 tons of iron and 70 passengers in five wagons over nine miles (14 km), it was too heavy for the cast iron rails used at the time. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. The locomotive only ran three trips before it was abandoned. Trevithick built a series of locomotives after the Penydarren experiment, including one which ran at a colliery in Tyneside where it was seen by the young George Stephenson. George Stephenson ( 9 June 1781 &ndash 12 August 1848) was an English Civil engineer and mechanical engineer 
The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's rack locomotive, The Salamanca, built for the narrow gauge Middleton Railway in 1812. Matthew Murray (1765 &mdash 20 February 1826) was a Steam engine and Machine tool manufacturer who designed and built the first commercially A cog railway, rack-and-pinion railway or rack railway is a Railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. The Salamanca was the first commercially successful Steam locomotive, built in 1812 by Matthew Murray of Holbeck, for the edge A narrow gauge railway (or narrow gauge railroad) is a Railway that has a Track gauge narrower than the of Standard gauge railways The Middleton Steam Railway is the world's oldest continuously working railway This was followed in 1813 by the Puffing Billy built by Christopher Blackett and William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery Railway, the first successful locomotive running by adhesion only. Puffing Billy was an early Steam locomotive, constructed in 1813 - 1814 by engineer William Hedley, enginewright Jonathan Forster and William Hedley ( 13 July 1779 &ndash 9 January 1843) was one of the leading industrial engineers of the early 19th century and was very instrumental The term adhesion railway or adhesion traction describes the most common type of Railway, where power is applied by driving some or all of the Wheels Puffing Billy is now on display in the Science Museum in London, the oldest locomotive in existence. For science museums in general check out Science museum. The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. 
In 1814 George Stephenson, inspired by the early locomotives of Trevithick and Hedley persuaded the manager of the Killingworth colliery where he worked to allow him to build a steam-powered machine. George Stephenson ( 9 June 1781 &ndash 12 August 1848) was an English Civil engineer and mechanical engineer Killingworth, formerly Killingworth Township, is a town north of Newcastle Upon Tyne, in North Tyneside, United Kingdom. Coal mining is the extraction or removal of Coal from the Earth by Mining. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. He built the Blücher, one of the first successful flanged-wheel adhesion locomotives. This article is about the locomotive "Blücher" See also " Blücher " Blücher was an early railway Locomotive A flange is an external or internal Rib, or Rim (lip for strength, as the flange of an Iron beam or I-beam Stephenson played a pivotal role in the development and widespread adoption of steam locomotives. His designs improved on the work of the pioneers. In 1825 he built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway which became the first public steam railway. The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR which opened in 1825 was the world's first permanent Steam locomotive hauled public Railway. In 1829 he built The Rocket which was entered in and won the Rainhill Trials. Replica Rocket and coachjpg|thumb|right|A replica coach and Rocket at the Rocket 150 event]] Stephenson's Rocket was an early Steam locomotive of 0-2-2 The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways run in October of 1829 in Rainhill, Merseyside (between Liverpool This success led to Stephenson establishing his company as the pre-eminent builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the United Kingdom, the United States and much of Europe. 
There are many reasons why the motive power for trains has been traditionally isolated in a locomotive, rather than in self-propelled vehicles. "Electric Trains" redirects here For the 1995 Squeeze single see Electric Trains (song. In Railroad terminology, a steeplecab is a style or design of Electric locomotive; the term is rarely if ever used for other forms of power The North Eastern Railway (NER unlike many other of the pre-Grouping companies had a relatively compact territory having the district it covered to itself British Rail Class ES1 was a class of two Electric locomotives commissioned by the North Eastern Railway in 1905 The term multiple unit or MU is used to describe a self-propelling train unit capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still 
There are several advantages of multiple unit (MU) trains compared to locomotives. The term multiple unit or MU is used to describe a self-propelling train unit capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still
Locomotives may generate their power from fuel (wood, coal, petroleum or natural gas), or they may take power from an outside source of electricity. In Physics, power (symbol P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted or the amount of energy required or expended for It is common to classify locomotives by their source of energy. The common ones include:
In the 19th century the first railway locomotives were powered by steam, usually generated by burning coal. The Gare du Nord ("Paris North station" is one of the six large terminus stations of the SNCF 's main line network in Paris. Renfe Operadora is the State-owned company which operates freight and passenger Trains on the 1668-mm " Iberian gauge " and 1435-mm " Miranda de Ebro is a city in the province of Burgos, belonging to the region of the Ebro in Castile and León, Spain. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. Because steam locomotives included one or more steam engine, they are sometimes referred to as "steam engines". The steam locomotive remained by far the most common type of locomotive until after World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 
The first steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick; it first ran on 21 February 1804, although it was some years before steam locomotive design became economically practical. Richard Trevithick ( April 13, 1771 &ndash April 22, 1833) was a British Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a . The first commercial use of a steam locomotive was The Salamanca on the narrow gauge Middleton Railway in Leeds in 1812. The Salamanca was the first commercially successful Steam locomotive, built in 1812 by Matthew Murray of Holbeck, for the edge A narrow gauge railway (or narrow gauge railroad) is a Railway that has a Track gauge narrower than the of Standard gauge railways The Middleton Steam Railway is the world's oldest continuously working railway Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England The locomotive Fairy Queen, built in 1855 runs between New Delhi and Alwar in India and is the oldest steam locomotive in regular (albeit tourist-only) service in the world, and the oldest steam locomotive operating on a mainline. The Fairy Queen, built in 1855 is the world's oldest Steam locomotive in regular operation today plying between New Delhi to Alwar in New Delhi (नई दिल्ली ਨਵੀਂ ਦਿੱਲੀ نئی دلی is the Capital city of India. History "Alwar" was formerly known as "Ulwar" India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 
The all-time speed record for steam trains is held by an LNER Class A4 4-6-2 Pacific locomotive of the LNER in the United Kingdom, number 4468 Mallard, which pulling six carriages (plus a dynamometer car) reached 126 mph (203 km/h) on a slight downhill gradient down Stoke Bank on 3 July 1938. The London and North Eastern Railway Class A4 is a class of streamlined 4-6-2 Steam locomotive, designed by H The Whyte notation for classifying Steam locomotives by Wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte Other classification schemes like Under the Whyte notation for the classification of Steam locomotives, a 4-6-2 Locomotive has four Leading wheels (generally arranged in a The Number 4468 Mallard is a London and North Eastern Railway Class A4 4-6-2 Pacific Steam locomotive built at Doncaster, Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Aerodynamic passenger locomotives in Germany attained speeds very close to this and due to the difficulties of adequately balancing and lubricating the running gear, this is generally thought to be close to the practicable limit for a direct-coupled steam locomotive. 
Before the middle of the 20th century, electric and diesel-electric locomotives began replacing steam locomotives. Steam locomotives are less efficient than their more modern diesel and electric counterparts and require much greater manpower to operate and service.  British Rail figures showed the cost of crewing and fuelling a steam locomotive was some two and a half times that of diesel power, and the daily mileage achievable was far lower. See also Rail transport in Great Britain, National Rail, Network Rail This article is about the defunct entity "British Railways" As labour costs rose, particularly after the second world war, non-steam technologies became much more cost-efficient. By the end of the 1960s-1970s, most western countries had completely replaced steam locomotives in passenger service. Freight locomotives generally were replaced later. Other designs, such as locomotives powered by gas turbines, have been experimented with, but have seen little use.
By the end of the 20th century, almost the only steam power still in regular use in North America and Western European countries was on heritage railways specifically aimed at tourists and/or railroad enthusiasts, known as railfans or train spotters, although some narrow gauge lines in Germany which form part of the public transport system, running to all-year-round timetables retain steam for all or part of their motive power. A heritage railway ( United Kingdom) preserved railway ( United Kingdom) or tourist railroad ( United States and Canada) is a A railfan or rail buff ( American English) railway enthusiast or railway buff ( Australian / British English) or (often A railfan or rail buff ( American English) railway enthusiast or railway buff ( Australian / British English) or (often A narrow gauge railway (or narrow gauge railroad) is a Railway that has a Track gauge narrower than the of Standard gauge railways Steam locomotives remained in commercial use in parts of Mexico into the late 1970s. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Steam locomotives were in regular use until 2004 in the People's Republic of China, where coal is a much more abundant resource than petroleum for diesel fuel. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit India switched over from steam-powered trains to electric and diesel-powered trains in the 1980s, except heritage trains. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country In some mountainous and high altitude rail lines, steam engines remain in use because they are less affected by reduced air pressure than diesel engines.
As of 2006 DLM AG (Switzerland) continues to manufacture new steam locomotives. 
Starting in the 1940s, the diesel-powered locomotive began to displace steam power on American railroads. A Diesel locomotive is a type of Railroad Locomotive in which the prime mover is a Diesel engine. An EMD GP50 is a 4-axle Diesel locomotive built by General Motors Electro-Motive Division (EMD The Burlington Northern Railroad was a United States -based Railroad company operating between 1970 and 1996 A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr Uses A Steam engine uses the expansion of steam in order to drive a Piston or Turbine to perform Mechanical work. Following the end of World War II, diesel power began to appear on railroads in many countries, By the 1960s, few major railroads continued to operate steam locomotive. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including (See Dieselization)
As is the case with any vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, diesel locomotives require some type of power transmission system to couple the output of the prime mover to the driving wheels. Dieselisation or Dieselization (see spelling differences) is generally used for the nowadays increasingly common use of Diesel fuel in vehicles as The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a Power transmission is the movement of Energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to performing useful work. In Locomotives, a prime mover is the primary source of power to run the locomotive In the early days of diesel railroad propulsion development, electric, hydraulic and mechanical power transmission systems were all employed with varying degrees of success. A hydraulic or hydrostatic drive system or hydraulic power transmission is a drive- or transmission system that makes use of a hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive Of the three, electric transmission proved to be most practical, and, except for some diesel-hydraulic locomotives manufactured for lower power applications, nearly all modern Diesel-powered locomotives are diesel-electric.
Diesel locomotives require considerably less maintenance than steam, with a corresponding reduction in the number of personnel needed to keep the fleet in service. The best steam locomotives spent an average of three to five days per month in the shop for routine maintenance and running repairs. Heavy overhauls were frequent, often involving removal of the boiler from the frame for major repairs. A boiler is a closed vessel in which Water or other Fluid is heated In contrast, a typical diesel locomotive requires no more than eight to ten hours of maintenance per month. and may run for many years between heavy overhauls.
Diesel units are not as polluting as steam power; modern units produce low levels of exhaust emissions. Diesel-electric locomotives are often fitted with "dynamic brakes" that use the traction motors as generators during braking to assist in controlling the speed of a train on a descending grade. Dynamic braking is the use of the electric Traction motors of a Railroad vehicle as generators when slowing the vehicle
A gas turbine-electric locomotive, or GTEL, is a locomotive that uses a gas turbine to drive an electrical generator or alternator. A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary Engine that extracts energy from a flow of Combustion gas In Electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts Mechanical energy to Electrical energy, generally using Electromagnetic alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to Alternating current electrical energy The electric current thus produced is used to power traction motors. See also Electric vehicle, Electric motor A traction motor is a type of Electric motor used to power the driving wheels of a vehicle such as This type of locomotive was first experimented with in 1920 but reached its peak in the 1950s to 1960s. The turbine (similar to a turboshaft engine) drives an output shaft, which drives the alternator via a system of gears. A turboshaft engine is a form of Gas turbine which is optimized to produce Shaft power, rather than Jet thrust. This is the page for mechanical Gears For other uses see Gear (disambiguation For the gear-like device used to drive a roller chain see Sprocket
A turbine offers some advantages over a piston engine. A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is a Heat engine that uses one or more reciprocating Pistons to convert The number of moving parts is much smaller, and the power to weight ratio is much higher. Power-to-weight ratio (specific power is a calculation commonly applied to Engines and other mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another A turbine of a given power output is also physically smaller than an equally powerful piston engine, allowing a locomotive to be very powerful without being inordinately large. However, a turbine's power output and efficiency both drop dramatically with rotational speed, unlike a piston engine, which has a comparatively flat power curve. Rotational speed (sometimes called speed of revolution) indicates for example how fast a motor is running
Gas turbine locomotives are very powerful, but also tend to be very loud. Union Pacific Railroad operated the largest fleet of gas turbine-electric locomotives in the world, and was the only railroad to use them for hauling freight in regular service. Most other GTELs have been built for small passenger trains, and only a few have seen any real success in that role.
After the 1973 oil crisis and the subsequent rise in fuel costs, gas turbine locomotives became uneconomical to operate, and many were taken out of service. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of This type of locomotive is now rare.
The electric locomotive is supplied externally with electric power, either through an overhead pickup or through a third rail. "Electric Trains" redirects here For the 1995 Squeeze single see Electric Trains (song. Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit Electrical energy to Trams Trolleybuses or Trains at a distance from the A third rail is a method of providing Electricity to power a railway through a continuous rigid conductor alongside the railway track or between the rails While the capital cost of electrifying track is high, electric trains and locomotives are capable of higher performance and in some cases lower operational costs than steam or diesel power. Electric locomotives, because they tend to be less technically complex than diesel-electric locomotives, are both easier and cheaper to maintain and have extremely long working lives -- there are many examples of electric locomotives operating for more than half a century with minimal overhaul, and it is not unusual for electric locomotives to be operating close to their centenary.
The world speed record for a wheeled train was set in February 2007 by a French TGV which reached a speed of 575 km/h (357 mph). Determination of the fastest railed vehicle in the world varies depending on the definition of " rail " 
Some electric locomotives can also operate off battery power to enable short journeys or shunting on non-electrified lines or yards. In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy Battery-powered locomotives are used in mines and other underground locations where diesel fumes or smoke would endanger crews, and where external electricity supplies cannot be used due to the danger of sparks igniting flammable gas. Battery locomotives are also used on many underground railways for maintenance operations, as they are required when operating in areas where the electricity supply has been temporarily disconnected. However, the cost and weight of batteries prohibit using battery-powered locomotives on extended runs.
The newest technology in trains is magnetic levitation (maglev). MAGLEV, or magnetic levitation, is a system of transportation that suspends guides and (usually propels vehicles predominantly trains using magnetic forces These electrically powered trains have an open motor which floats the train above the rail without wheels. This greatly reduces friction. Very few systems are in service and the cost is very high. The experimental Japanese magnetic levitation train JR-Maglev MLX01 has reached 581 km/h (361 mph). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. JR-Maglev is a Magnetic levitation train system developed by the Central Japan Railway Company and Railway Technical Research Institute (association of
The transrapid maglev train connects Shanghai's airport with the city. Transrapid is a German high-speed monorail train using magnetic levitation. Shanghai Pudong International Airport ( ( is a major Aviation hub in Asia, particularly in the East Asian region and is the primary international
The first commercial maglev trains ran in the 1980s in Birmingham, United Kingdom, providing a low-speed shuttle service between the airport and the railway station. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Despite the interest and excitement, the system was shut down due to a lack of spare parts and replaced by wheeled cablecars a few years later.
A hybrid locomotive is a Locomotive that uses an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fuelled power source for propulsion. Hybrid Locomotive is a Locomotive or Multiple unit train that uses an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS (battery or Ultracapacitors A rechargeable energy storage system or RESS is a system that stores Energy for delivery of electric energy and which is rechargeable generally in
Hybrid trains typically are powered either by Fuel Cell technology or the diesel-electric hybrid which reduces fuel consumption through regenerative braking and switching off the hydrocarbon engine when idling or stationary (as used in automobiles such as the Toyota Prius). A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device It produces electricity from Fuel (on the Anode side and an oxidant (on the A regenerative brake is a mechanism that reduces Vehicle speed by converting some of its Kinetic energy into another useful form of energy The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric Mid-size car developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation
There are other forms of motive power in experimental use. A Locomotive or Train can play many roles in art for example As a work of art in itself in addition to most functional considerations especially in streamlined Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder
Parry People Movers make an experimental light rail railcar powered by energy stored in a flywheel. Parry People Movers (PPM is a British company manufacturing lightweight railbuses that use Flywheel energy storage (FES to store energy for traction For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. A flywheel is a mechanical device with significant Moment of inertia used as a storage device for Rotational energy. The flywheel is powered from an onboard battery-driven motor or internal combustion engine and is also recharged through regenerative braking. A regenerative brake is a mechanism that reduces Vehicle speed by converting some of its Kinetic energy into another useful form of energy A proposed alternative is to recharge the flywheel from external electric motors installed at station stops. Although this would increase installation costs it would substantially reduce the weight of the vehicles. It would cost less than providing a continuous electrical supply.
Parry People Movers have been tested on several railways, including the Ffestiniog Railway, the Welsh Highland Railway and the Welshpool and Llanfair Light Railway. The Ffestiniog Railway (Rheilffordd Ffestiniog is a narrow gauge Heritage railway, located in North West Wales. The Welsh Highland Railway (WHR is a Narrow gauge railway in Wales, which originally ran from Dinas near Caernarfon to Porthmadog History The W&LLR was one of the few narrow gauge branch lines to be built under the provisions of the 1896 Light Railways Act. The first mainstream timetable service for the flywheel railcar was launched in February 2006 providing the Sunday service on the short link between Stourbridge junction and Stourbridge Town in the United Kingdom. Stourbridge Junction railway station is a Railway station on the Birmingham Worcester and Kidderminster Line in West Midlands, England. Stourbridge Town is a Railway station near the centre of Stourbridge, West Midlands, England. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The three main categories of locomotives are often subdivided in their usage in rail transport operations. A railway can be broken down into two major components Basically these are the items which "move" the Rolling stock, that is the locomotives passenger carrying vehicles (coaches There are passenger locomotives, freight locomotives and switcher (or shunting) locomotives. This article is about passengers in commercial transportation for other uses see Passenger (disambiguation A passenger is a term broadly used Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, A switcher or shunter ( Great Britain: shunter; Australia: shunter or yard pilot; USA: switcher (or These categories mainly describe the locomotive's combination of physical size, starting tractive effort and maximum permitted speed. Tractive Effort (abbr TE is the pulling force exerted normally by a Locomotive, though the term could also be used for anything else that pulls a load Freight locomotives are normally designed to deliver high starting tractive effort—needed to start trains that may weigh as much as 15,000 tons—and deliver sustained high power, at the sacrifice of maximum speed. Tractive Effort (abbr TE is the pulling force exerted normally by a Locomotive, though the term could also be used for anything else that pulls a load Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United Passenger locomotives develop less starting tractive effort but are able to operate at the high speeds demanded by passenger schedules. Mixed traffic locomotives (US English: general purpose or road switcher locomotives) are built to provide elements of both requirements. A mixed-traffic locomotive is one designed to be capable of hauling both Passenger trains and Freight trains The term is mostly used in the United Kingdom They do not develop as much starting tractive effort as a freight unit but are able to haul heavier trains than a passenger engine.
Most steam locomotives are reciprocating units, in which the pistons are coupled to the drivers (driving wheels) by means of connecting rods. Therefore, the combination of starting tractive effort and maximum speed is greatly influenced by the diameter of the drivers. Steam locomotives intended for freight service generally have relatively small diameter drivers, whereas passenger models have large diameter drivers (as large as 84 inches in some cases).
With diesel-electric and electric locomotives, the gear ratio between the traction motors and axles is what adapts the unit to freight or passenger service, although a passenger unit may include other features, such as head end power (aka hotel power) or a steam generator. A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric Powertrain for providing locomotion. See also Electric vehicle, Electric motor A traction motor is a type of Electric motor used to power the driving wheels of a vehicle such as An axle is a central shaft for a rotating Wheel or Gear. In some cases the axle may be fixed in position with a bearing or Bushing Head end power (HEP or Electric train supply ( ETS) in the United Kingdom is a Rail transport term for the electrical power distribution system Steam generator is the term used to describe a type of boiler used to produce Steam for climate control and Potable water heating in Railroad
Some locomotives are designed specifically to work mountain railways, and feature extensive additional braking mechanisms and sometimes rack and pinion. Steam locomotives built for steep rack and pinion railways frequently have the boiler tilted relative to the wheels, so that the boiler remains roughly level on steep grades.
Wheel Arrangement classification is a common type of classification. Locomotive wheel arrangement is how the wheels of the locomotive are arranged by type position and connections Common methods include the AAR wheel arrangement,UIC classification, and Whyte notation systems. The AAR wheel arrangement system is a method of classifying locomotive (or unit Wheel arrangements that was developed by the Association of American Railroads. The UIC classification is a comprehensive system for describing the Wheel arrangement of Locomotives Multiple units and Trams It is The Whyte notation for classifying Steam locomotives by Wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte Other classification schemes like
Locomotives has been the main motive for collectors' coins and medals. Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special Euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone. One of the most famous and recent ones is the 25 euro 150 Years Semmering Alpine Railway commemorative coin. Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special Euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone. The obverse shows two locomotives: a historical and a modern one. This represents the technical development in locomotive construction between the years 1854 and 2004. The upper half depicts the “Taurus”, a high performance locomotive. Below is shown the first functional Alpine locomotive, the Engerth; constructed by Wilhelm Freiherr von Engerth. The Engerth locomotive was a type of early articulated Steam locomotive designed by Wilhelm Frieherr von Engerth for use on the Semmering Railway
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