This list provides a guide to the most important opera composers, as determined by their presence on a majority of compiled lists of significant opera composers. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto (See the "Lists Consulted" section for full details. ) The composers run from Jacopo Peri, who wrote the first ever opera in late 16th century Italy, to John Adams, one of the leading figures in the contemporary operatic world. Jacopo Peri ( August 20 1561 &ndash August 12 1633) was an Italian Composer and singer of the transitional period between John Coolidge Adams (born February 15 1947 is an American Composer with strong roots in minimalism. The brief accompanying notes offer an explanation as to why each composer has been considered major. Also included is a section about major women opera composers, compiled from the same lists. For an introduction to operatic history, see Opera. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto The organisation of the list is by birthdate.
Jacopo Peri, who composed the first ever opera, Dafne.
- Jacopo Peri (1561-1633). Jacopo Peri ( August 20 1561 &ndash August 12 1633) was an Italian Composer and singer of the transitional period between A Florentine who composed both the first opera ever, Dafne (1598), and the first surviving opera, Euridice (1600). Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Euridice (also Erudice or Eurydice) written October 6 1600, is an Opera written in Florence 
- Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) is generally regarded as the first major opera composer.  In Orfeo (1607) he blended Peri's experiments in opera with the lavish spectacle of the intermedi. L'Orfeo ( L'Orfeo favola in musica, SV 318 or La Favola d'Orfeo, or The Legend of Orpheus) is one of the earliest For the film see Intermedio (film. The intermedio, or intermezzo, in the Italian Renaissance, was a theatrical performance  Later, in Venice in the 1640s, he helped make opera a commercially viable form with Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria and L'incoronazione di Poppea, one of the earliest operas in the present-day operatic repertoire. Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria ( SV 325 The Return of Ulysses to His Country) is an Opera ( dramma per musica) in a prologue and five L'incoronazione di Poppea ( SV 308 The Coronation of Poppea) is an Opera seria in three acts by Claudio Monteverdi to an Italian .
- Francesco Cavalli (1602-1676). Francesco Cavalli ( February 14 1602 &ndash January 14 1676) was an Italian composer of the early Baroque Amongst the most important of Monteverdi's successors, Cavalli was a major force in spreading opera throughout Italy and also helped introduce it to France. His Giasone was " the most popular opera of the 17th century". Giasone ( Jason) is an opera in three acts and a prologue with music by Francesco Cavalli and a Libretto by Giacinto Andrea Cicognini 
- Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687). Jean-Baptiste de Lully ( Giovanni Battista di Lulli) (ʒɑ̃batist də lyˈli in French (November 28 1632 &ndash March 22 1687 was a French Composer of Italian In close collaboration with the librettist Philippe Quinault, Lully founded the tradition of tragédie en musique, combining singing, dance and visual spectacle, which would remain the most prestigious French operatic genre for almost a hundred years. Philippe Quinault ( 3 June 1635 – 26 November 1688) French Dramatist and Librettist, was born in Paris Tragédie en musique (French lyric tragedy also known as tragédie lyrique, is a genre of French opera introduced by Jean-Baptiste Lully and used
- Henry Purcell (1659-1695). Henry Purcell (ˈpɜrsəl 10 September 1659 (? – 21 November 1695 was an English Baroque Composer. Purcell was the first English operatic composer of significance. His masterwork is Dido and Aeneas. Dido and Æneas is an Opera by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell, from a libretto by Nahum Tate. 
- Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725). Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2 1660 &ndash October 24 1725 was an Italian Baroque Composer especially famous for his Operas and chamber Cantatas A key figure in the development of opera seria, Scarlatti claimed to have composed over 100 operas, of which La Griselda is a notable example. Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" 
- Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) was the most important French opera composer of the 18th century. Jean-Philippe Rameau (ʒɑ̃filip ʀaˈmo in French (September 25 1683 – September 12 1764 was one of the most important French Composers and music theorists Following in the genre established by Lully, he endowed his works with a great richness of invention. Jean-Baptiste de Lully ( Giovanni Battista di Lulli) (ʒɑ̃batist də lyˈli in French (November 28 1632 &ndash March 22 1687 was a French Composer of Italian Rameau's musical daring provoked great controversy in his day, but he was an important influence on Gluck.
- John Gay (1685-1732) and Johann Christoph Pepusch (1667-1752). John Gay ( 30 June, 1685 - 4 December, 1732) was an English Poet and Dramatist. Johann Christoph Pepusch ( 1667 - 20 July, 1752) was a German-born Composer, who spent most of his working life in England Creators of the first English ballad opera, the biting political satire, The Beggar's Opera. The term ballad opera is used to refer to a genre of English stage entertainment originating in the 18th century and continuing to develop in the following century The Beggar's Opera is a Ballad opera in three acts written in 1728 by John Gay. 
- George Frideric Handel (1685-1759). Handel's baroque-era opera serias set the standard in his day. Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious"  Despite the often stifling conventions of opera seria, Handel composed a series of over 30 operas that continue to fascinate audiences today. His masterwork is generally thought to be Giulio Cesare. Giulio Cesare in Egitto ( Julius Caesar in Egypt) (HWV 17 is an Italian Opera in three acts by George Frideric Handel.
- Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710-1736). Joseph-Siffred Duplessis ( Carpentras, near Avignon, 22 September 1725 &ndash Versailles, 1 April 1802) was The Kunsthistorisches Museum ( English: "Museum of Art History" in Vienna, housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, crowned Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (January 4 1710 &ndash 16 or March 17 1736 was an Italian Composer, Violinist and organist. Though Pergolesi also composed opera serias, his most influential work was the short opera buffa, La serva padrona. Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" The term Opera buffa (plural Opere buffe) was at first used as an informal description of Italian Comic operas variously classified by their authors as La serva padrona ( The Servant Mistress) is an Opera buffa by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi ( January 4, 1710 &ndash 
- Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787) was a key figure in the transformation of Baroque into Classical opera, paving the way for Mozart, though his influence stretched much further into the 19th century, with both Berlioz and Wagner acknowledging their debt to him. In his reform operas from Orfeo ed Euridice onwards, he sought to throw off the formal conventions of opera seria and write music of "beautiful simplicity" (his own words) which would concentrate on the drama rather than musical virtuosity for its own sake. Orfeo ed Euridice (French version Orphée et Eurydice; English translation Orpheus and Eurydice) is an Opera composed by Christoph Willibald Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious"
- Domenico Cimarosa (1749-1801). Domenico Cimarosa ( 17 December 1749 – 11 January 1801) was an Italian Opera Composer of the Neapolitan Italian composer most famous for the opera buffa, Il matrimonio segreto, which forms a bridge between the comedies of Mozart and Rossini. The term Opera buffa (plural Opere buffe) was at first used as an informal description of Italian Comic operas variously classified by their authors as Il matrimonio segreto ( The Secret Marriage) is an Opera in two acts music by Domenico Cimarosa, on a Libretto by Giovanni Bertati 
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). Drawing heavily on the reforms of Gluck, Mozart's series of comic collaborations (Così fan tutte, Don Giovanni, and The Marriage of Figaro) with Lorenzo da Ponte are among the most popular operas in the repertoire today, along with his Singspiel The Magic Flute. Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti ( Thus Do They All or The School For Lovers) K Don Giovanni ( K527; complete title Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni, literally "The Rake Punish'd or Don Giovanni Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans The Marriage of Figaro or the Day of Madness) K This article is about the librettist Lorenzo da Ponte For the Bishop of the same name see Vittorio Veneto. For the racehorse see Singspiel (horse. Singspiel ("song-play" (plural Singspiele is a form of German-language The Magic Flute (German Die Zauberflöte, K 620 is an Opera in two acts composed in 1791 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
- Luigi Cherubini (1760-1842). Luigi Cherubini ( September 8 or September 14, 1760 &ndash March 15, 1842) was an Italian born composer who spent most of his A follower of Gluck, Cherubini's most famous opera is Médée. Médée (French or Medea (Italian German English is an Opéra-comique by Luigi Cherubini. The title role has proved a challenge to sopranos (including Maria Callas) since its premiere in 1797. 
- Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) wrote one of the major German language operas, Fidelio, a tale of freedom from political oppression. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Fidelio (Op 72 is an Opera in two acts by Ludwig van Beethoven.
- Gaspare Spontini (1774-1851). Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini ( 14 November, 1774 &ndash 24 January, 1851) was an Italian Opera Composer Though Italian, Spontini is best known for his work in France during the Napoleonic era. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. His masterpiece La vestale influenced Bellini and Berlioz. See also Marie Sallé, whose stage name was "La Vestale" Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini ( November 3, 1801 &ndash September 23, 1835) was a Sicilian Opera Composer 
- Daniel-François-Esprit Auber (1782-1871). Daniel François Esprit Auber ( January 29, 1782 – May 13, 1871) was a French Composer. French composer celebrated for high-spirited opéra comiques such as Fra Diavolo and Le domino noir. Opéra comique (plural opéras comiques is a French genre of Opera that contains spoken dialogue Fra Diavolo (lit Brother Devil; April 7, 1771 &ndash November 11, 1806) is the popular name given to Michele Pezza, a His grand opera La muette de Portici attained unexpected political influence when a performance in Brussels in 1830 sparked off a revolution which led to the creation of Belgium. La muette de Portici ( The mute girl of Portici) originally entitled Masaniello ou La muette de Portici, is an Opera in five acts Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those 
- Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826) founded German Romantic opera in order to challenge the dominance of Italian bel canto. Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber ( 18 December 1786 in Eutin, Holstein, Germany - 5 June 1826 in London For the general context see Romanticism. In the Philosophy, Art, and Culture of German -speaking countries German Romanticism Bel canto ( Bel-Canto) ( Italian, "beautiful singing" an Italian musical term refers to the art and science of vocal technique which originated in A master of orchestral colour and atmosphere, Weber was never well served by his librettists, and only one of his works, Der Freischütz, is performed with any frequency. Der Freischütz is an Opera in three acts by Carl Maria von Weber to a Libretto by Friedrich Kind. Though he died young, his influence on later German composers, especially Wagner, was immense.
- Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864). Giacomo Meyerbeer ( September 5, 1791 &ndash May 2, 1864) was a noted German -born Opera Composer, and The archetypal composer of French grand opera, Meyerbeer's huge extravaganzas such as Les Huguenots and Le prophète were immensely popular in their day. Grand Opera is a genre of 19th-century Opera generally in four or five acts characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras and (in their original productions lavish and Les Huguenots is a French Opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer, one of the most popular and spectacular examples of the style of Grand opera. Le prophète ( The Prophet) is an Opera in five acts by Giacomo Meyerbeer. 
- Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868) links bel canto with Grand Opera. Bel canto ( Bel-Canto) ( Italian, "beautiful singing" an Italian musical term refers to the art and science of vocal technique which originated in Grand Opera is a genre of 19th-century Opera generally in four or five acts characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras and (in their original productions lavish and His immortal Barber of Seville was the only one of his operas that was continuously performed into the twentieth century, but his serious operas, such as Semiramide and Ermione, are recognised as masterpieces now that singers with appropriate technique are again available to perform them. The Barber of Seville or The Useless Precaution ( Il barbiere di Siviglia ossia L'inutile precauzione) is an Opera buffa in two acts by Semiramide is an Opera in two acts by Gioacchino Rossini. The Libretto was written by Gaetano Rossi, based on Voltaire 's Ermione is a tragic Opera (azione tragica in two acts by Gioacchino Rossini to an Italian Libretto by Andrea Leone Guillaume Tell, his swan-song, has a vast sweep only equalled in the nineteenth century by the later works of Verdi, Mussorgsky and Wagner. Guillaume Tell ( William Tell) is an Opera in four acts by Gioachino Rossini to a French Libretto by Etienne de Jouy Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский Modest Petrovič Musorgskij) ( March 21 March 9 1839 &ndash March
- Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848). Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 &ndash 8 April 1848 was an Italian composer from Bergamo, Lombardy. Along with Rossini and Bellini, Donizetti is generally acknowledged as one of the masters of the bel canto style. Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini ( November 3, 1801 &ndash September 23, 1835) was a Sicilian Opera Composer His masterwork is generally cited as being Lucia di Lammermoor. Lucia di Lammermoor is a dramma tragico (tragic Opera) in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti. 
- Jacques Fromental Halévy (1799-1862). Jacques-François-Fromental-Élie Halévy ( May 27, 1799 - March 17, 1862) (usually known as Fromental Halévy was a French composer Along with Meyerbeer, the best known composer of French grand opera, Halévy's key work is La Juive, a story of religious intolerance set in 15th century Germany. Giacomo Meyerbeer ( September 5, 1791 &ndash May 2, 1864) was a noted German -born Opera Composer, and Grand Opera is a genre of 19th-century Opera generally in four or five acts characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras and (in their original productions lavish and La Juive ( The Jewess ' is a Grand opera in five acts by Fromental Halévy to an original French Libretto by Eugène 
Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini
, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome). Giovanni Boldini ( December 31, 1842 &ndash July 11, 1931) was an Italian genre and portrait painter belonging to the
- Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835). Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini ( November 3, 1801 &ndash September 23, 1835) was a Sicilian Opera Composer On account of such works as Norma and I puritani, Bellini is now recognised as one of the leading composers of the bel canto style of opera. Norma is a tragedia lirica or Opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini with Libretto by Felice Romani after Norma ossia I puritani ( The Puritans) is an Opera in three acts by Vincenzo Bellini. 
- Hector Berlioz (1803-1869). Berlioz's attempts to carve out an operatic career for himself were thwarted by an unimaginative musical establishment.  Nevertheless, he managed to produce Benvenuto Cellini, Béatrice et Bénédict and his masterpiece, the epic Les Troyens, the only French opera of its era of sufficient magnitude to challenge the music dramas of Wagner. Benvenuto Cellini is an Opera in two acts with music by Hector Berlioz and Libretto by Léon de Wailly and Auguste Barbier Béatrice et Bénédict ( Beatrice and Benedict) is a comic Opera in two acts by Hector Berlioz. Les Troyens (in English The Trojans) is a French Opera in five acts by Hector Berlioz. Berlioz's dramatic legend, La damnation de Faust, has also been staged as an opera in recent years. La damnation de Faust (English The Damnation of Faust) is a work for Orchestra, voices and chorus written by Hector Berlioz (he
- Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) founded the Russian operatic tradition with his historical drama A Life for the Tsar and his fairy tale piece Ruslan and Lyudmila. Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Михаи́л Ива́нович Гли́нка ( –) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country A Life for the Tsar ( Жизнь за царя, Zhizn' za tsarya) as it is known in English although its original name was Ivan Susanin ( Ruslan and Lyudmila: Ruslan and Ludmila (poem — a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin published in 1820 Ruslan and Lyudmila (opera — an 
- Ambroise Thomas (1811-1896). (Charles Louis Ambroise Thomas ( Metz August 5, 1811 - Paris, February 12, 1896) was a French Opera French composer noted for the operas Mignon and Hamlet. Mignon is an Opera in three acts by Ambroise Thomas to a French Libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, based on Hamlet is an Opera in five acts by the French composer Ambroise Thomas, with the Libretto by Michel Carré and Jules Barbier 
- Richard Wagner (1813-1883). Wagner revolutionised opera. In a series of "music dramas" such as Tristan und Isolde, Parsifal, and most of all his epic tetrology Der Ring des Nibelungen, Wagner abolished the traditional distinction between recitative and aria and pioneered a new through-composed style of opera that avoids traditional cadences. Tristan und Isolde ( Tristan and Isolde, or Tristan and Isolda) is an Opera, or Music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner Parsifal is an Opera, or Music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner. Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung) is a cycle of four epic Music dramas by the German composer Recitative /rɛsɪtə'tiv/ (also known by its Italian name "recitativo" (/retʃita'tivo/ is a style of delivery (much used in Operas Oratorios This article is about the musical term "aria" For other meanings or uses of the word see Aria (disambiguation. Famous for their gigantic scale, Wagner's works also initiated a move away from traditional tonality. Tonality is a system of Music in which specific hierarchical pitch relationships are based on a key "center" or tonic. 
- Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) had a long composing career, during which his compositional style kept evolving. Among his most famous works are Rigoletto, Il Trovatore, La traviata, Don Carlos, Aida, and Otello. Rigoletto is an Opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The Italian Libretto was written by Francesco Maria Piave based Il trovatore ( The Troubadour) is an Opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian Libretto by Leone Emanuele Bardare La traviata is an Opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi set to an Italian Libretto by Francesco Maria Piave. This article refers to the opera Don Carlos ( Don Carlo when performed in Italian translation by Giuseppe Verdi This article is about the marketing term AIDA For other uses of the term see Aida (disambiguation. Otello is an Opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian Libretto by Arrigo Boito, based on Shakespeare 's play Mocked by critics during his lifetime and even today as melodramatic, Verdi's operas today dominate the world's stages. 
- Charles Gounod (1818-1893) wrote lyrical operas on literary themes, including Roméo et Juliette and Mireille. Biography Gounod was born in Paris, the son of a pianist mother and a draftsman father Roméo et Juliette ( Romeo and Juliet) is an Opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Mireille is an Opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Michel Carré after Frédéric Mistral 's poem His Faust was one of the most popular operas ever written and still holds the stage today, in spite of criticisms of its "Victorianism". Faust is an opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play
- Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880) was the founder of French operetta and a prolific composer of pieces which achieved tremendous success with Parisian audiences for their catchy melodies and satirical bite such as La vie Parisienne and Orpheus in the Underworld. Jacques Offenbach (born Jacob Offenbach 20 June 1819 in Cologne &ndash 5 October 1880 in Paris) was a German Operetta is a genre of light Opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter La vie parisienne ( Parisian life) is an Opéra bouffe, or Operetta, composed by Jacques Offenbach, with a libretto by Henri Meilhac Orphée aux enfers (Orpheus in the Underworld, Opéra bouffe (or Opéra féerie in its revised version is an Operetta by Jacques  At the time of his death, Offenbach was working on a more serious opera, The Tales of Hoffmann.
- Bedřich Smetana (1824-1884) established Czech national opera with such historical epics as Dalibor. "Smetana" redirects here For the soured cream see Smetana (dairy product. Dalibor (the name of a main character is a Czech Opera in three acts by Bedřich Smetana.  His folk comedy The Bartered Bride has entered the international repertory. The Bartered Bride ( Prodaná nevěsta, The Sold Fiancée) is the second Opera, a comedy in three acts by Bedřich Smetana.
- Aleksandr Borodin (1833-1887). Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Александр Порфирьевич Бородин Aleksandr Porfir'evič Borodin) ( &ndash) was a Russian Composer A "weekend composer" who spent 17 years working on a single opera, Prince Igor, which now forms a key part of the Russian repertory. Prince Igor ( Князь Игорь, Knyaz' Igor) is an Opera by Alexander Borodin, written in four acts with a prologue 
- Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921). Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (/ʃaʁl kamij sɛ̃sɑ̃s/ (9 October 1835 &ndash 16 December 1921 was a French Composer, Organist, conductor, and French composer of around a dozen operas of which one, the Biblical Samson et Delila, has an assured place in the repertoire. Samson et Dalila ( English: Samson and Delilah) is a grand opera in three acts by Camille Saint-Saëns to a French 
- Léo Delibes (1836-1891). (Clément Philibert Léo Delibes (21 February 1836 &ndash 16 January 1891 was a French Composer of Ballets operas, and other works for the stage French composer, whose Lakmé is notable for its Flower duet and as a vehicle for coloratura sopranos. Lakmé is an Opera in three acts by Léo Delibes to a French Libretto by Edmond Gondinet and Philippe Gille, based on the "The Flower Duet" ( Viens Mallika les liens en fleurs Coloratura has several meanings The word derives from the Italian colorare (to Colour; to heighten to enliven or colorazione (colouring coloration This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. 
- Georges Bizet (1838-1875). Georges Bizet (25 October 1838 – 3 June 1875 was a French Composer and Pianist of the Romantic era Bizet's masterwork Carmen is a staple of the repertoire of opera houses the world over. Carmen is a French Opéra comique by Georges Bizet. The Libretto is by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based At the time of its premiere, the controversial plot scandalised both critics and the public. 
- Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881). Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский Modest Petrovič Musorgskij) ( March 21 March 9 1839 &ndash March Mussorgsky only completed one opera, but Boris Godunov proved to be inspiration for generations of Russian composers on account of its uniquely nationalist character. Boris Godunov ( Борис Годунов, original Orthography Борисъ Годуновъ, Borís Godunóv) is an Opera by 
- Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893). Tchaikovsky's international fame as an opera composer mainly rests on two works, Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades. Eugene Onegin ( Russian: Евгений Онегин BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a Novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin  Less interested in cultivating a uniquely Russian style than his contemporary Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky also shows the influence of Mozart, bel canto and Bizet's Carmen in these pieces. Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский Modest Petrovič Musorgskij) ( March 21 March 9 1839 &ndash March Bel canto ( Bel-Canto) ( Italian, "beautiful singing" an Italian musical term refers to the art and science of vocal technique which originated in Carmen is a French Opéra comique by Georges Bizet. The Libretto is by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based 
- Emmanuel Chabrier (1841-1894) had ambitions to write grand operas in the Wagnerian vein, but is now most celebrated for lighter pieces, such as L'étoile, which were greatly admired by Ravel and Poulenc. ( Alexis-) Emmanuel Chabrier ( January 18, 1841 – September 13, 1894) was a French Romantic Composer 
- Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904) was the leading Czech opera composer between Smetana and Janacek. Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( (often pronounced in English as; DVOR-zhahk; September 8 1841 – May 1 1904 was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed "Smetana" redirects here For the soured cream see Smetana (dairy product. Leoš Janáček ( (July 3 1854 &ndash August 12 1928 was a Czech Composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher His Rusalka, based on the Undine legend, is his most popular work internationally. Rusalka is an Opera by Antonín Dvořák. The Czech Libretto was written by the poet Jaroslav Kvapil (1868-1950 Ondines or undines (unda — a wave are Elementals enumerated as the water elementals in works of Alchemy by Paracelsus. 
- Jules Massenet (1842-1912). Jules (Émile Frédéric Massenet ( May 12, 1842 – August 13, 1912) was a French composer best known for his Operas Arguably the most representative French opera composer of his era (the Belle Époque), Massenet was a prolific and versatile writer whose works cover a wide variety of themes. The Belle Époque (bɛːl e'pɔk French for "Beautiful Era" was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until  His popularity faded somewhat after the First World War, but Werther and Manon still make regular appearances in the opera house. Werther is an Opera in four acts by Jules Massenet to a French Libretto by Édouard Blau, Manon is an Opéra comique in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French Libretto by Henri Meilhac and Philippe Gille, based 
- Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908). Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov ( Николай Андреевич Римский-Корсаков, Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov) also Nikolay Russian composer who wrote colourful operas on legendary and historical subjects. 
- Leoš Janáček (1854-1928). Leoš Janáček ( (July 3 1854 &ndash August 12 1928 was a Czech Composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher Janáček's first mature opera (Jenufa) blended folksong-like melodies and an emphasis on natural speech-rhythms à la Mussorgsky with a character-driven plot of some intensity; his later works became increasingly terse, with recurrent melodic fragments, lyrical outbursts and unconventional orchestration serving a diverse collection of source-material - just a few bars of these operas can instantly be identified as his. Jenůfa ( Její pastorkyňa, "Her Stepdaughter" in Czech) is an Opera in three acts by Leoš Janáček to a Czech Libretto Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский Modest Petrovič Musorgskij) ( March 21 March 9 1839 &ndash March
- Ruggero Leoncavallo (1857-1919) Italian composer associated with verismo. Ruggero (Ruggiero Leoncavallo (23 April 1857- 9 August 1919 was an Italian Opera Composer. Verismo (meaning "realism" from Italian vero, meaning "truth" was an Italian literary movement born approximately between 1875 and 1895 His I pagliacci is a staple of the operatic repertoire and is usually given alongside Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana. Pagliacci ( Players, or Clowns) is an Opera consisting of a prologue and two acts written and composed by Ruggero Leoncavallo. Cavalleria rusticana ( Rustic Chivalry) is an Opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to an Italian Libretto by Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti 
- Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924). WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini ( December 22, 1858 The only true successor to Giuseppe Verdi in Italian opera, Puccini's Tosca, La Bohème and Madama Butterfly are among the most popular and well-recognised in the repertoire today. Tosca is an Opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian Libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on
- Gustave Charpentier (1860-1956). Gustave Charpentier ( June 25, 1860 – February 18, 1956) was a French Composer, best known for his Opera French composer famous for a single opera, Louise, set in a working class district of Paris. Louise is an Opera in four acts by Gustave Charpentier to an original French Libretto by the composer 
- Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945). WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Pietro Mascagni ( December 7, 1863 &ndash August 2, Italian composer, famous above all for Cavalleria rusticana, usually given in a double-bill with Leoncavallo's I pagliacci. Cavalleria rusticana ( Rustic Chivalry) is an Opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to an Italian Libretto by Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti Pagliacci ( Players, or Clowns) is an Opera consisting of a prologue and two acts written and composed by Ruggero Leoncavallo. 
- Richard Strauss (1864-1949). Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted Strauss was one of very few opera composers in the early years of the 20th century to accept and conquer the challenge laid down by the scale and radical nature of Wagner's innovative works.  He composed several operas that remain extremely popular today, including Salome, Elektra, and Der Rosenkavalier. Salome is an Opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German Libretto by the composer based on Hedwig Lachmann ’s German See Mourning Becomes Electra for a reference to the 1967 opera based on the 1931 Eugene O'Neill play Der Rosenkavalier ( op 59 ( The Knight of the Rose) is a comic Opera in three acts by Richard Strauss to an original 
- Claude Debussy (1862-1918). Achille-Claude Debussy (aʃil klod dəbysi (August 22 1862 &ndash March 25 1918 was a French Composer. Like Beethoven, Debussy finished only one opera, but his setting of Maeterlinck's Symbolist play Pelléas et Mélisande is a key work in twentieth century music drama. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Count Maeterlinck ( August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian Poet, Playwright,  In many ways an "anti-opera", Pelléas contained little of the conventional singing or action audiences at the première had come to expect, but Debussy used his subtle orchestration to create an elusive, dream-like atmosphere, which still has the power to fascinate (or repel) listeners today.
- Hans Pfitzner (1869-1949). WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Hans Erich Pfitzner ( May 5, 1869 &ndash May 22, A follower of Wagner, Pfitzner is best known for the opera Palestrina which explores the debate between tradition and innovation in music. Palestrina is an opera (called by him a Musikalische Legende) by the German composer Hans Pfitzner. 
- Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951). Arnold Schoenberg ( pronounced ˈʃøːnbɛrk (13 September 1874 &ndash 13 July 1951 was an Austrian and later American Composer, associated with A leading Modernist composer and the deviser of the twelve-tone system, Schoenberg began his operatic career with the Expressionist monodrama Erwartung. Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an Emotional effect it is a subjective art form Erwartung (translation Expectation) is a one-act Opera, with music by Arnold Schoenberg, composed in 1909 to a libretto by Marie Pappenheim His major opera Moses und Aron was left unfinished at his death. Moses und Aron (Moses and Aaron is a two-act Opera by Arnold Schoenberg with a third act unfinished 
- Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) wrote two short, but innovative, operas: L'enfant et les sortilèges, set in the world of childhood, and the Spanish-flavoured L'heure espagnole. L'enfant et les sortilèges Fantaisie lyrique en deux parties ( The Child and the Spells A Lyric Fantasy in Two Parts) is an Opera in one act with music L'heure espagnole is a one-act Opera, described as a comédie musicale, with music by Maurice Ravel to a French Libretto by Franc-Nohain 
- Franz Schreker (1878-1934). Franz Schreker ( March 23, 1878 &ndash March 21, 1934) was an Austrian Composer and conductor. An Austrian composer associated with Expressionism, Schreker once rivalled Richard Strauss in popularity but, as a Jew, he fell foul of the Nazis. Expressionism as a musical genre is notoriously difficult to exactly define Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted His operas include Der ferne Klang and Die Gezeichneten. Der ferne Klang ( The Distant Sound) is an Opera by Franz Schreker first performed in Frankfurt am Main on 18 August, 
- Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971). Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to After composing the Rimsky-Korsakov-inspired The Nightingale and the near-operas Renard and The Soldier's Tale, Stravinsky bucked 20th century trends by composing a "number" opera, The Rake's Progress, using diatonicism. Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov ( Николай Андреевич Римский-Корсаков, Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov) also Nikolay The Nightingale (Solovyei is a Russian conte lyrique in three acts by Igor Stravinsky. Renard, Histoire burlesque chantée et jouée (The Fox Burlesque tale sung and played is a one-act chamber opera-ballet by Igor Stravinsky, written in Histoire du soldat (sometimes written L'histoire du soldat; translated as The Soldier's Tale or A Soldier's Tale The Rake's Progress is an Opera in three acts and an epilogue by Igor Stravinsky. 
- Alban Berg (1885-1935). Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9 1885 &ndash December 24 1935 was an Austrian Composer. Because of their atonal music which uses tonal conventions harkening back to late romanticism and tragic libretti, Berg's masterworks Wozzeck and Lulu have stayed in the repertory and assumed increased popularity after his death. Atonality in its broadest sense describes Music that lacks a tonal center, or key. Wozzeck is the first Opera by the Austrian composer Alban Berg. Lulu is an Opera by the Composer Alban Berg. The Libretto was adapted by Berg himself from Frank Wedekind 's plays 
- Béla Bartók (1881-1945) wrote only one opera, Duke Bluebeard's Castle, a key piece in twentieth century music theatre and the only Hungarian work with a secure place in the international operatic repertoire. Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25 1881&ndashSeptember 26 1945 was a Hungarian Composer and Pianist, considered to be one of the greatest Duke Bluebeard's Castle (A kékszakállú herceg vára literally The Castle of the Blue-Bearded Prince) is a one-act opera by Hungarian composer 
- Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953). Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев Sergéj Sergéjevič Prokófjev) ( - 5 March 1953 was a Russian composer who A major modern composer in the Russian tradition, Prokofiev produced operas on a wide variety of subjects, from the comic fairy-tale The Love for Three Oranges, to the dark and occult The Fiery Angel and the epic War and Peace. The Love for Three Oranges ( Russian: Любовь к трём апельсинам, or Lyubov k Tryom Apelsinam in Transliteration The Fiery Angel ( Russian: Огненный ангел — Ognenny angel in Transliteration) is an Opera in five acts War and Peace ( Op 91) ( Война и мир in Russian, Voyna i mir in Transliteration) is an Opera in two Like Shostakovich, Prokofiev suffered under the Soviet artistic regime, but his work has recently been championed by conductors such as Valery Gergiev. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ( Russian: ru Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович ( &ndash 9 August 1975 was a Russian Composer WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Valery Abisalovich Gergiev (Гергиты Абисалы фырт Валери
- Paul Hindemith (1895-1963). Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 &ndash 28 December 1963 was a German Composer, Violist, violinist teacher music theorist and conductor. A German composer who came to prominence in the years following World War I. His key opera Mathis der Maler, dealing with the problems of an artist in a time of crisis, has been seen as an allegory of Hindemith's situation during the Third Reich. This article is about the opera For the symphony see Mathis der Maler (symphony. 
- George Gershwin (1898-1937) owes his place in the standard operatic repertoire to Porgy and Bess. George Gershwin (September 26 1898 &ndash July 11 1937 was an American Composer. Porgy and Bess is an Opera, first performed in 1935, with music by George Gershwin, Libretto by DuBose Heyward, and 
- William Walton (1902-1983). Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ( Russian: ru Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович ( &ndash 9 August 1975 was a Russian Composer Sir William Turner Walton, OM ( March 29, 1902 &ndash March 8, 1983) was a British Composer and Walton's major opera is Troilus and Cressida. Troilus and Cressida is the first of the two Operas by William Walton. 
- Michael Tippett (1905-1998). Sir Michael Kemp Tippett, OM (2 January 1905 &ndash 8 January 1998 was one of the foremost English Composers of the 20th century Probably the most famous British composer to follow in the wake of Benjamin Britten, Tippett wrote operas exploring metaphysical and social themes. Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, They include The Midsummer Marriage and The Knot Garden. The Midsummer Marriage is an opera in three acts with music and libretto by Michael Tippett. The Knot Garden is an Opera in three acts by Michael Tippett to an original English Libretto by the composer 
- Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975). Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ( Russian: ru Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович ( &ndash 9 August 1975 was a Russian Composer Shostakovich's most famous opera, Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, a violent love story set in provincial Russia, scandalised Soviet authorities. Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (Леди Макбет Мценского уезда in Russian Ledi Makbet Mtsenskogo Uyezda in Transliteration) He later produced a censored version, Katerina Ismailova. Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (Леди Макбет Мценского уезда in Russian Ledi Makbet Mtsenskogo Uyezda in Transliteration) Nevertheless, the original became one of the most performed operatic works of the twentieth century. 
- Samuel Barber (1910-1981). Samuel Osborne Barber II ( March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American Composer of Orchestral, Opera, An American who composed two major operas, Vanessa and Antony and Cleopatra. Vanessa is an Opera in three (originally four acts by Samuel Barber with an original English Libretto by Gian-Carlo Menotti. Antony and Cleopatra is an Opera in three acts by American composer Samuel Barber. 
- Gian Carlo Menotti (1911-2007). American composer, particularly famous for the Christmas piece Amahl and the Night Visitors, the first opera to be written specifically for television. Amahl and the Night Visitors is an Opera in one act by Gian Carlo Menotti with an original English Libretto by the Composer. 
- Benjamin Britten (1913-1976). Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, One of the handful of British opera composers to reach international acclaim, and one of the extremely few composers of 20th century operas that stayed in the standard repertory after their premieres. These operas include his masterworks Peter Grimes, A Midsummer Night's Dream, and The Turn of the Screw. Peter Grimes is an Opera by Benjamin Britten, with a Libretto adapted by Montagu Slater from the Peter Grimes section of A Midsummer Night's Dream is a romantic comedy by William Shakespeare, suggested by " The Knight's Tale " from The Turn of the Screw is a 20th century English Chamber opera composed by Benjamin Britten with a libretto by Myfanwy Piper, based 
- Hans Werner Henze (born 1926). Hans Werner Henze (born July 1 1926 Gütersloh, Germany is a German composer well known for his left-wing political convictions One of the most widely performed post-World War II opera composers, Henze's works include The Bassarids and Elegy for Young Lovers. The Bassarids (in German, Die Bassariden) is an Opera in one act and an Intermezzo, with music Hans Werner Henze to an Elegy for Young Lovers (in German, Elegie für junge Liebende) is an Opera in three acts by Hans Werner Henze to an English 
- Peter Maxwell Davies (born 1934). Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b 8 September 1934 is an English Composer and conductor. A British modernist of the "Manchester school", Davies has written many stage works, including Taverner and The Martyrdom of Saint Magnus. Taverner is an Opera with music and libretto by Peter Maxwell Davies. 
- Philip Glass (born 1937). WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Philip Glass (born January 31 A leading American composer of the minimalist school, Glass first came to fame with the opera Einstein on the Beach, a collaboration with the theatre director Robert Wilson. Minimalist music is an originally American genre of experimental or Downtown music named in the 1960s based mostly in consonant harmony, steady Einstein on the Beach is an Opera scored and written by Philip Glass and designed and directed by theatrical producer Robert Wilson. Robert Wilson may refer to Bob Wilson (US politician (1916–1999 American politician U Many stage works (including Akhnaten and The Voyage) followed. Akhnaten is an Opera in three acts based on the life and religious convictions of the Pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV written by the American The Voyage is an Opera in three acts (plus a prologue and an epilogue by the American composer Philip Glass (born 1937 
- John Adams (born 1947). John Coolidge Adams (born February 15 1947 is an American Composer with strong roots in minimalism. Like Glass, Adams started as a minimalist. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Philip Glass (born January 31 Minimalist music is an originally American genre of experimental or Downtown music named in the 1960s based mostly in consonant harmony, steady His operas dealing with contemporary subjects, Nixon in China and The Death of Klinghoffer, have gained critical acclaim as well as provoking political controversy. Nixon in China (1985-87 is an Opera with music by the American composer John Adams and a Libretto by Alice Goodman, about the The Death of Klinghoffer is an Opera by the contemporary American composer John Adams to an English Libretto by the poet Alice 
Major female opera composers
Opera, with its high cost of production and high status, has historically been very difficult for women to break into, and no woman composer met the criteria for inclusion above. John Singer Sargent (January 12 1856 &ndash April 14 1925 was the most successful portrait painter of his era During his career he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than However, some experts in our sample disagreed, and named one or both of the women below as comparable to those already listed:
- Dame Ethel Smyth (1858-1944) is perhaps most famous for her work for the suffragettes; however, she also wrote several operas of note, including The Wreckers. Dame Ethel Mary Smyth, DBE ( 23 April 1858 &ndash 8 May 1944) was an English composer and a leader of the Women's Suffragette is a term originally coined by the Daily Mail newspaper as a derogatory label for the more radical and Militant members of the The Wreckers is an American Country pop duo formed in 2004 by Singer-songwriters Michelle Branch and Jessica Harp, both of whom had
- Judith Weir (born 1954) began composing full-length operas in 1987 with A Night at the Chinese Opera. Judith Weir CBE, (born 11 May 1954 in Cambridge England of Scottish parents is a British composer currently resident A Night at the Chinese Opera is an Opera by Judith Weir. Aside from an earlier opera for children this was Weir's first full-scale opera written on commission
- ^ Viking Opera Guidep. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list provides a guide to the The following is an annotated list of Operas listed along with their composers that are based on the myth of Orpheus. 768
- ^ Orrey p. 18
- ^ Professor Tim Carter in Viking Opera Guide (p. 678) writes: "Monteverdi's recitative owes much to Peri. Jacopo Peri ( August 20 1561 &ndash August 12 1633) was an Italian Composer and singer of the transitional period between . . However "Orfeo" has much broader roots. There are many references to the tradition of the Florentine intermedi: the spectacular stage effects, the mythological subject matter, the allegorical figures, the number and scoring of the instruments and the extended choruses". See also Carter, writing about the intermedi in The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera (p. 4): "rich display and erudite symbolism made the intermedi an ideal projection of princely magnificence".
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 189
- ^ Orrey p. 35
- ^ Orrey p. 55
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 942
- ^ Orrey p. 40
- ^ Orrey p. 40
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 343
- ^ Orrey p. 59
- ^ Orrey p. 59
- ^ Oxford Companion to Music, p. 783
- ^ Orrey p. 85
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 216-218
- ^ Orrey p. 101
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 210
- ^ Orrey p. 139
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 1002
- ^ Viking Opera Guide pp. 37-38
- ^ Orrey p. 140
- ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera p. 146-150
- ^ Britannica p. 631 C. 2
- ^ Britannica p. 631 C. 2
- ^ Orrey p. 134
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 412
- ^ Orrey p. 129-133
- ^ Orrey p. 153
- ^ Orrey p. 154
- ^ Orrey p. 180
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 1098.
- ^ Orrey p. 168-169
- ^ Orrey p. 137-147
- ^ Orrey p. 154
- ^ Britannica p. 633 C. 1
- ^ Orrey p. 177
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 134
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 929. Viking says Saint-Saëns wrote 13 operas, including his part in an unfinished work by Guiraud and two opéra comiques. Ernest Guiraud ( June 26, 1837 &ndash May 6, 1892) was a French Composer and music teacher born in New Orleans Louisiana
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 253.
- ^ Orrey p. 156-157
- ^ Britannica p. 637 C. 2
- ^ Orrey p. 182
- ^ David Brown (author of the four-volume Tchaikovsky: A Biographical and Critical Study, Gollancz, 1978-91) in Viking Opera Guide, pp. 1083-1095
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 197
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 302
- ^ Orrey p. 156
- ^ Graham Dixon in Viking Opera Guide, p. 622
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 864
- ^ Britannica p. 638 C. 2
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 563
- ^ Orrey p. 225
- ^ Viking Opera Guide pp. 202-204
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 617
- ^ Orrey p. 213
- ^ Britannica p. 637 C. 2
- ^ Orrey p. 216
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 772
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 952
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 848
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 958
- ^ Orrey p. 220
- ^ ALBAN BERG. Composers online. W. W. Norton & Company. Retrieved on 2006-09-10. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde.
- ^ Orrey p. 225
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 55
- ^ Britannica p. 637 C. 1
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 467
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 348
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 1207
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 1102
- ^ Orrey p. 232
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 51
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 648
- ^ Orrey p. 234
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 461
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 243
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 360
- ^ Viking Opera Guide p. 17
- ^ See, e. g. Katherine Kolb's review of Women Writing Opera: Creativity and Controversy in the Age of the French Revolution.
- ^ See #Lists consulted
This list was compiled by consulting ten lists of great opera composers, created by recognized authorities in the field of opera, and selecting all of the composers who appeared on at least six of these (i. e. all composers on a majority of the lists). Judith Weir appears on four of the ten lists consulted, more than any other female composer in the sample. Judith Weir CBE, (born 11 May 1954 in Cambridge England of Scottish parents is a British composer currently resident The lists used were:
- Graeme Kay's Guide to Opera, produced for the BBC.
- The "Opera" Encyclopaedia Britannica article.
- The "Opera" Columbia University Press Encyclopedia article.
- Composers mentioned in Nicholas Kenyon's introduction to the Viking Opera Guide (1993 edition) ISBN 0-670-81292-7. Sir Nicholas Roger Kenyon CBE (born February 23, 1951 in Cheshire) is an English music administrator editor and writer on music
- "The Standard Repertoire of Grand Opera 1607-1969", a list included in Norman Davies's Europe: a History (OUP, 1996; paperback edition Pimlico, 1997) ISBN 0-7126-6633-8. Ivor Norman Richard Davies Fellow of the British Academy (born 8 June 1939 to Richard and Elizabeth Davies
- Composers mentioned in the chronology by Mary Ann Smart in The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera (OUP, 1994) ISBN 0-19-816282-0.
- "A Bird's Eye View of the World's Chief Opera Composers" in The Oxford Companion to Music by Percy Scholes (10th edition revised by John Owen Ward, 1970). Percy Alfred Scholes (1877&ndash1958 was an English musician journalist and prolific writer whose best-known achievement was his compilation of the first edition of ISBN 0-19-311306-6.
- Composers with recordings included in The Penguin Guide to Opera on Compact Discs ed. Greenfield, March and Layton (1993 edition) ISBN 0-14-046957-5.
- The New Kobbe's Opera Book, ed. Lord Harewood (1997 edition) ISBN 0-399-14332-7. George Henry Hubert Lascelles 7th Earl of Harewood KBE (born 7 February 1923) styled The Hon
- Table of Contents of The Rough Guide to Opera. by Matthew Boyden. (2002 edition) ISBN 1-85828-749-9.
- The composers included in all 10 lists cited are: Berg, Britten, Donizetti, Gluck, Handel, Monteverdi, Mozart, Puccini, Rameau, Rossini, Richard Strauss, Verdi, and Wagner.
- The composers included in nine of the lists are: Bellini, Berlioz, Bizet, Glinka, Gounod, Lully, Massenet, Mussorgsky, and Tchaikovsky
- The composers included in eight of the lists are: Adams, Debussy, Glass, Henze, Janacek, Leoncavallo, Menotti, Meyerbeer, Pergolesi, Purcell, Rimsky-Korsakov, Schoenberg, Smetana, Thomas (Ambroise), Tippett, and Weber
- The composers included in seven of the lists are: Auber, Beethoven, Borodin, Cavalli, Cherubini, Cimarosa, Delibes, Hindemith, Mascagni, Offenbach, Prokofiev, Ravel, Saint-Saens, Shostakovich, and Gustave Charpentier
- The composers included in six of the lists are: Barber, Bartók, Chabrier, Peter Maxwell Davies, Dvořák, Gay and Pepusch, Gershwin, Halévy, Peri, Pfitzner, Scarlatti, Schreker, Spontini, Stravinsky, Walton.
- Judith Weir was included in four lists; Dame Ethel Smyth in two.
- Sadie, Stanley (ed) (1992). Stanley Sadie CBE ( October 30 1930 - March 21 2005) was a leading British musicologist, music critic and editor The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera is an Encyclopedia of Opera, considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject ISBN 0-333-73432-7 and ISBN 1-56159-228-5. , at 5,448 pages, the largest general reference concerning opera in the English language.
- The Viking Opera Guide (1993) ISBN 0-670-81292-7 Contributions are by noted specialists in their fields.
- Warrack, John; West, Ewan (1992). The Oxford Dictionary of Opera. ISBN 0-19-869164-5.
- Boyden, Matthew, et al. (1997). Opera, the Rough Guide. ISBN 1-85828-138-5.
- Orrey, Leslie and Milne, Rodney. Opera: A Concise History. World of Art, Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500202176.
- Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropedia Volume 24, 15th edition. "Opera" in "Musical forms and genres". ISBN 0-85229-434-4
- Parker, Roger (ed) (1994). The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816282-0.
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