Lipan Apache are Southern Athabascan (Apachean) people who have been located in present-day Texas as early as the 17th century. Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken primarily in the North American Southwest (including Arizona Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Present-day Lipans mostly live throughout the U. S. Southwest, in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, as well as with the Mescalero on the Mescalero Reservation in New Mexico; others live in in urban and rural areas throughout North America (Mexico, United States and Canada). Mescalero (or Mescalero Apache) is a Native American tribe of Southern Athabaskan heritage currently living on the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America.
The Lipan are also known as Nde buffalo hunters, Eastern Apache, Apache de los Llanos, Lipan, Ipande, Ypandes, Ipandes, Ipandi, Lipanes, Lipanos, Lipanis, Lipaines, Lapane, Lapanne, Lapanas, Lipau, Lipaw, Apaches Lipan, Apacheria Lipana, and Lipanes Llaneros. The first recorded name is Ypandis (in 1732).
The Lipan are first mentioned in Spanish record in 1718 when they attacked San Antonio. It seems likely that the Lipan became established in Texas during the latter half of the 17th century. They moved southward during the 18th century where one Spanish mission was built in Coahuila in 1754 and another on the San Sabá River in 1757. The Spanish Missions in Texas comprise a series of Religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans Jesuits and Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of Mexico 's 31 component states. The San Saba River ( San Sabá) is a river in the US state of Texas. Both missions were burned and deserted. Their territory ranged from the Colorado River to the Rio Grande. The Colorado River (' Aha Kwahwat in Mojave) is a River in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately Two Lipan local group chiefs had a total of 700 people in 1762. Since there were at least 12 other local groups, Morris Opler estimates that the population was approximately 3,000-4,000. Morris Edward Opler ( May 3, 1907 &ndash May 13, 1996) American Anthropologist and advocate of Japanese-American He estimates a total of 6,000 in 1700.
The Spanish and Lipan frequently were in conflict as Spain tried to invade and colonize the Texas territory. The Spanish tried to thwart the Lipan through alcohol, provoking conflict between the Lipan and Mescalero, making them economically dependent on Spanish trade goods, and through missionaries. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. It is not certain if the Lipan actually lived on the Spanish missions, but by 1767 all Lipan had completely deserted them. In the same year, Marqués de Rubí started a policy of Lipan extermination since in 1764 a smallpox epidemic had decimated the tribe. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. However, a little afterwards the Lipan entered an uneasy alliance with Spain in order to war against the Mescalero. The alliance fell apart before 1800.
Another serious enemy of the Lipan was the Comanche, who incidentally was also an enemy of Spain. The Comanche are a Native American ethnic group whose range (the Comancheria) consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado Many historians cite Comanche aggression as a factor leading to the Lipan's southernly migration. Although this is perhaps partly true, Apachean peoples were already on southern migration patterns before significant Comanche conflict in Texas and New Mexico. At the beginning of the 19th century the Lipan formed an alliance with the Comanche to attack the Spanish. Following the murder of Comanche men in 1822, the alliance was dissolved, and the Lipan fled south of the Mexico border. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
Lipan Apache is a Southern Athabaskan language still spoken by some on the Mescalero Apache Reservation, as well as by members living off reservation throughout North America who strive to keep the language and culture alive. Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken primarily in the North American Southwest (including Arizona The general consensus of the Lipan Apache Committee on the reservation is that linguistic and anthropological considerations of their cultural extinction are mistaken and incorrect.