The Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) is assembling a digital library of reproductions of primary source materials to support the study of the history and culture of the United States. A library is a collection of information sources resources and services and the structure in which it is housed it is organized for use and maintained by a public body an institution Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines In Historiography, a primary source (also called original source) is a Document, Recording The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Begun in 1995 after a five-year pilot project, the program began digitizing selected collections of Library of Congress archival materials that chronicle the nation's rich cultural heritage. The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress In order to reproduce collections of books, pamphlets, motion pictures, manuscripts and sound recordings, the Library has created a wide array of digital entities: bitonal document images, grayscale and color pictorial images, digital video and audio, and searchable e-texts. A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together A pamphlet is an unbound Booklet (that is without a hard cover or binding) A manuscript is any Document that is Written by hand as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way In Computing, a grayscale or greyscale Digital image is an image in which the value of each Pixel An image (from Latin imago) or picture is an artifact usually two-dimensional that has a similar appearance to some subject &mdashusually Digital video is a type of Video recording system that works by using a Digital rather than an analog video signal Digital audio uses Digital signals for Sound reproduction. This includes analog-to-digital conversion, digital-to-analog conversion, storage An e-text (from " electronic text " sometimes written as etext) is generally any Text-based information that is available in a digitally To provide access to the reproductions, the project developed a range of descriptive elements: bibliographic records, finding aids, and introductory texts and programs, as well as indexing the full texts for certain types of content. Bibliography (from Greek grc βιβλιογραφία bibliographia, literally "book writing" as a practice is the academic study of Books An index is a list of words or phrases ('headings' and associated pointers ('locators' to where useful material relating to that heading can be found in a document
The reproductions were produced with a variety of tools: scanners, digital cameras, devices that digitize audio and video, and human labor for rekeying and encoding texts. Many compact digital still cameras can record Sound and moving Video as well as still Photograph. American Memory employs national-standard and well established industry-standard formats for many digital reproductions, e. g. , texts encoded with Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and images stored in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) files or compressed with the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) algorithm. The Standard Generalized Markup Language ( ISO 88791986 SGML) is an ISO Standard Metalanguage in which one can define Markup languages The Joint Photographic Experts Group is a joint committee between ISO and ITU-T (formerly CCITT which created the JPEG and JPEG 2000 standards In other cases, the lack of well established standards has led to the use of emerging formats, e. g. , RealAudio (for audio), QuickTime (for moving images), and MrSID (for maps). RealAudio is a proprietary Audio format developed by RealNetworks. QuickTime is a Multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc, capable of handling various formats of Digital video, Media clips sound text Technical information by types of material and by individual collections is also available at this site.
A physical library is more than a catalog that points to volumes on shelves. A digital library is more than a database, and the future National Digital Library will be much more than a universal union catalog. We envision the National Digital Library as a set of distributed repositories of managed content and a set of interfaces (some of which will resemble traditional catalogs) to that content. Some interfaces may offer comprehensive access to the entire resource, while others will be specialized by content, by intended audience, or by primary purpose. Some interfaces will be closely tied to a particular repository, while others will provide access to a selection of content from distributed repositories.
Access to the content in the National Digital Library will not be limited to searching a bibliographic database. Even in traditional libraries, users do not start every visit by searching the catalog. Instead, library patrons browse current issues of favorite journals or lists of new acquisitions, use specialized indexes to journal literature, or consult bibliographies, references from scholarly publications, and lists of readings. The digital library must be usable in equivalent ways. School teachers who use the online collections at the Library of Congress have already communicated their eagerness to find shortcuts to the most valuable materials so that they can quickly illustrate classroom presentations or develop lesson plans.
From the user's point of view, the digital library has the potential, in ways not yet realized and not possible with traditional library resources, to be an extension to every desktop, classroom, and personal library. Patterns of use of the World Wide Web already demonstrate that teachers, scholars, and students will want to refer to items in the digital realm as active links from reading lists, articles, textbooks, and term papers. It is also intended that students will be able to work with these items in their own electronic environments, constructing presentations, reports, and online projects.
On September 27, 2006, the Library of Congress' Geography and Map Division announced the milestone of placing the 10,000th map on its Web site. Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. They started digitizing maps in 1996. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar)
In 1989, to help launch the American Memory pilot project, a consultant surveyed 101 members of the Association of Research Libraries and the 51 state library agencies. The survey disclosed a genuine appetite for on-line collections, especially in research libraries serving higher education. The American Memory pilot (1990-1995) identified multiple audiences for digital collections in a special survey, an end-user evaluation and in thousands of conversations, letters and encounters with visitors.
The most thorough audience appraisal carried out by the Library of Congress consisted of an end-user evaluation conducted in 1992-1993. Forty-four school, college and university, and state and public libraries were provided with a dozen American Memory collections on CD-ROMs and videodisks (these formats are no longer being supported). CD-ROM (an initialism of "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory " is a pre-pressed Compact Disc that contains data accessible to but not writable Participating library staff, teachers, students and the public were polled about which digitized materials they had used and how well the delivery systems worked. The evaluation indicated continued interest by institutions of higher education as well as public libraries. The surprising finding, however, was the strong showing of enthusiasm in schools, especially at the secondary level.
The evaluation team learned that recent reforms in education had created a need for primary-source historical materials such as those in the Library's incomparable collections. Teachers welcomed digitized collections to aid in the development of critical thinking skills; school librarians used the electronic resource to inculcate research skills. These findings have been validated in the educational outreach program initiated by the Library of Congress in 1995 and initially funded by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. The WK Kellogg Foundation was founded in June 1930 as the WK Kellogg Child Welfare Foundation by Breakfast Cereal pioneer Will Keith Kellogg
In 1995, in conjunction with the launch of the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program, the Library brought together leading history and social studies K-12 teachers and librarians to consider how archival on-line resources could best be used in the nation's schools. The participants at this Educator's Forum validated earlier findings: that while the primary sources were in great demand, for teachers to be able to make effective use of them, they needed additional materials to frame the collections and the topics represented in the collections. To this end in 1996, the Library of Congress developed The Learning Page -- a gateway to the digital collections, which provides contextual material, search help and evaluate their materials under development. The Library continued the American Memory Fellows Program in the summer of 1998 with the goal of building champions for their collections in schools across the country.