|Legio I Germanica|
|Active||48 BC to 70|
|Country||Roman Republic and Roman Empire|
|Type||Roman legion (Marian)|
|Role||Infantry assault (some cavalry support)|
|Size||Varied over unit lifetime. Year 48 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Gaius Julius Caesar, Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman republic. Approx. 3,500 fighting men + support at the time of creation.|
|Garrison/HQ||Hispania Tarraconensis (30 - 16 BC)|
Germania Inferior (beginning 1st century - 69)
|Nickname||Germanica, under Augustus|
|Engagements||Battle of Pharsalus (48 BC)|
Cantabrian Wars (29–19 BC)
Drusus Germanic campaign
Batavian rebellion (70)
|Julius Caesar (campaign)|
Fabius Valens (officer)
Herennius Gallus (officer)
This article is part of the series on:
Military of ancient Rome (portal)
|Roman army (unit types and ranks,|
legions, auxiliaries, generals)
|Roman navy (fleets, admirals)|
|Lists of wars and battles|
|Decorations and punishments|
|Military engineering (castra,|
siege engines, arches, roads)
|Strategy and tactics|
|Frontiers and fortifications (limes,|
Legio I Germanica, (Latin pronunciation: prima germánica), the Germanic first legion, was a Roman legion, possibly levied in 48 BC by Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey. Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. Year 30 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in today's southern and western Netherlands, parts of 69 (sex position & book by Ryu Murakami are -- already linked by "" with other meanings Taurus (it looks like a bull (ˈtɔrəs bull, symbol, Unicode ♉ is one of the Constellations of the Zodiac. The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. Year 48 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Gaius Julius Caesar, The Cantabrian Wars or Astur-Cantabrian Wars ( 29 BC - 19 BC) occurred during the Roman conquest of the ancient provinces of Cantabria Year 29 BC was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Year 19 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus (the date of his name change is unknown and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Nero The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior (S Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus (the date of his name change is unknown and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Commonwealth English! -->The military of ancient Rome relates to the combined military forces of Ancient Rome from the founding of the city The structural history of the Roman military describes the major chronological transformations in the organization and constitution of Ancient Rome 's armed forces, The Roman army was a set of military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion primarily focusing on Principate (early Empire 30BC - 284AD legions for which there exists Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = "supports" formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC&ndash284 AD A Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91 -- Titus The Roman Navy ( Latin: Classis, lit "fleet" comprised the naval forces of the Roman state The Roman Navy ( Latin: Classis, lit "fleet" comprised the naval forces of the Roman state From its origin as a city-state in Italy in 9th century BC the rise as an empire covering much of Eurasia and North The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date The following is a list of Roman Battles fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire, and sometimes the Byzantine Empire As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a "carrot and stick" approach to military with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall The military engineering of Ancient Rome 's armed forces was of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military Roman Siege engines were for the most part adapted from Hellenistic Siege Technology. List of ancient Roman Triumphal arches (By modern country France Carpentras Triumphal Arch The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way Rome's military was always tightly keyed to its political system The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its Grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a Grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. A limes (or the Limes Romanus) was a Border defense or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. Hadrian's Wall ( Latin: perhaps Vallum Aelium, "the Aelian wall" is a stone and turf Fortification built by the Roman For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," Year 48 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation After the Batavian rebellion (70), the remaining men of the Germanica were added to Galba's seventh legion, which became VII Gemina. The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior (S Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Servius Sulpicius Galba ( December 24, 3 BC &ndash January 15, 69) also called Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Legio VII Gemina ( Twin) was a Roman legion; its full name was Legio VII Gemina Felix. The emblem of Legio I is unknown, but it was probably Taurus, like all the other legions levied by Caesar (except the V Alaudae). Taurus (it looks like a bull (ˈtɔrəs bull, symbol, Unicode ♉ is one of the Constellations of the Zodiac. Legio V Alaudae, the Larks ' sometimes known as Gallica, was levied by Julius Caesar in 52 BC from native Gauls
There are two theories about I Germanica recruitment. The most favored is that it was raised by Julius Caesar in 48 BC to fight in the civil war against Pompey. Year 48 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation In that case it would have fought in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. Year 48 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Gaius Julius Caesar,
A second theory attributes its recruitment to Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, a partisan of Caesar, who died in the Battle of Forum Gallorum against Mark Antony in 43 BC. Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (d 43 BC Consul of the Roman Republic in 43 BC The Battle of Forum Gallorum was fought near a village in Northern Italy (perhaps near modern day Castelfranco Emilia) on April 14, 43 BC between Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark Legio I would have been recruited in that year for that campaign.
However recruited, Legio I was inherited by Augustus and therefore ought to have been entitled to the cognomen Augusta after distinguished service under his eyes; however, there was no Legio I Augusta. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was One explanation is that an event happened to prevent or take away that name.
The career of Legio I subsequent to the civil wars remains unknown for sure. It is believed to be identical to the Legio I that took part in the Spanish campaign against the Cantabrians conducted for Augustus by Marcus Agrippa and was disgraced there. The Cantabri were an ancient confederacy of eleven tribes either Celtic or pre-Indo European, that inhabited the north coast of Hispania in the whole Agrippa redirects here For other uses of the name see Agrippa (disambiguation. Inscriptions on Spanish coins indicate that between 30 and 16 BC, some Legio I was stationed in Hispania Terraconensis, where they would have fought in the war against the Cantabrians. Year 30 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. The Cantabrian Wars or Astur-Cantabrian Wars ( 29 BC - 19 BC) occurred during the Roman conquest of the ancient provinces of Cantabria Dio Cassius (54.11.5) says that one legion was stripped of its title, Augusta, after suffering reverses in that campaign. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was The two references are believed to be to the same legion, accounting for its early missing title and emblem.
Around the turn of the century, Legio I appears on the Rhine frontier. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge The Annales of Tacitus state (1.42.6) that they received standards from Tiberius, but when that was is not clear. The Annals, or in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the four Roman Emperors succeeding Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman This statement is problematic because only new or reconstituted legions received standards. The legion could have been reconstituted after Spain, but more likely it kept its aquila (which was only taken away on disbandment) and received new vexillae, or manipular standards, which would indicate a reorganization with perhaps replacements. The signa militaria were the Roman military Ensigns or standards The most ancient standard employed by the Romans is said to have been a handful ( maniple
The legion soon redeemed itself by winning the title Germanica, for its distinguished service in Germania. Germania was the Latin Exonym for Exactly when they won it is not known. They were initially stationed at Oppidum Ubiorum (Cologne) in the jurisdiction that was to become Germania Inferior. Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in today's southern and western Netherlands, parts of For the time being, the province contained five legions and was under Publius Quinctilius Varus.
In AD 9, Varus and three legions were lured away to the north to suffer extinction in the Battle of Teutoburg forest. Year 9 ( IX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place in the year 9 A Fortunately for Legio I he had not taken his entire command but left two legions in camp under legati or junior officers, Legio I being commanded by a nephew of Varus, Lucius Asprenas.
Most likely, the title Germanica was granted for service in Drusus' subsequent punitive and exploratory campaigns against the Germanic tribes. Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus (the date of his name change is unknown and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus was extremely popular. It was an honor to be in his service and he made sure that his men were honored properly.
After the defeat of Varus, Augustus' adoptive son Tiberius (brother of Drusus) assumed command of the army on the Rhine, which was reinforced to eight legions. Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman When Tiberius returned to Italy in 13 AD, Augustus appointed Drusus' son, Germanicus, commander of the eight legions on the Rhine. Germanicus Julius Caesar ( 24 May 16 BC or 15 BC&ndash October 10, 19) In the following year Augustus died, Tiberius being his successor.
Subsequently Junius Blaesus, commander of three legions in summer camp in Pannonia, gave the men a holiday. Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, A soldier who had been a comic actor, Percennius, addressed the men on that occasion on the subject of soldier's rights. They needed a fixed contract, he said, a term of service of 16 seasons instead of 25 or 30, and a pay raise. The speech was far from comic. The men as he spoke began raise a dais of earth around him and brought the standards and that attracted the attention of the Praetor, Blaesus. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Unable to dissuade the men, he agreed to send his son, a tribune, to Tiberius with the demands. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the The men settled down to await the reply.
Word of the mutiny spread to construction crews of the legions in nearby Nauportus. Nauportus (Navport Navportus, ancient Roman town in Pannonia Superior (later 10th Italian region on road from Aquileia to Emona Arresting their commander, Aufidienus Rufus, they forced him to march at the head of the return column carrying heavy baggage and asking him all the while how he liked it. They plundered vici as they went. Arriving in camp they raised a riot. Attempting to quell it, Blaesus had loyal troops throw the rioters in the guardhouse, but they were set free, the tribunes were ejected from camp, and a harsh centurion murdered.
The soldiers were on the point of killing each other when Tiberius' own son, Julius Caesar Drusus arrived in camp with some troops, sealed the gates and proceeded to investigate and settle the mutiny in tribunal. Nero Claudius Drusus, later Drusus Julius Caesar (his adoptive name (13 BC- September 14 23) was the only child of Roman Emperor Tiberius The men rejecting his proposals, he sent them to their tents and sent men to speak to them personally. Gradually the men were recalled to duty. Drusus had the leaders executed and returned to Rome. No action yet was taken on the issues.
The XXI Rapax, V Alaudae, I Germanica and XX Valeria Victrix of the army of Germania Inferior heard of the mutiny at their summer camp among the Ubii. Legio XXI Rapax, the predator, was a Roman legion levied in 31 BC by Augustus, probably from men previously enlisted in other legions Legio V Alaudae, the Larks ' sometimes known as Gallica, was levied by Julius Caesar in 52 BC from native Gauls Legio XX Valeria Victrix was a Roman legion, probably raised by Augustus some time after 31 BC. The Ubii were a Germanic tribe first encountered dwelling on the right bank of the Rhine in the time of Julius Caesar, who formed an alliance with them Aroused by new recruits from the city of Rome, the men attacked the centurions by surprise, beating many to death and throwing the bodies into the Rhine. The main command was isolated and the men ran the camp. Hearing of the mutiny, Germanicus left his tax-collecting duties in Gaul and hastened to the camp with a small retinue. He was just as popular as his father had been.
After mingling with the men and hearing their complaints, Germanicus persuaded them into formation, had the standards brought out and began a dialogue with them. At one point they bared their backs to show Germanicus the scars from lashing. At another Germanicus drew his sword and offered to commit suicide, but was restrained. Another soldier offered him a sharper sword. He withdrew to his tent.
There he received word that the mutiny was about to become a state issue. Mutinous envoys were being sent to Cologne, there were plans to burn the city and sack Gaul. The enemy on the other side of the border was watching with interest, waiting to intervene. In realization of the common danger the men settled for immunity, double pay (which Germanicus gladly paid from his own funds on the spot) and an enlistment of sixteen years. I Germanica and the XX Valeria Victrix retired to Cologne, while Germanicus went to seek senatorial confirmation and approval by Tiberius.
Germanicus returned to Cologne with envoys from the Senate, arriving at night, which was misinterpreted by the men as signifying the agreement was off. They dragged Germanicus from his bed, but the matter was clarified next day. Upset, Germanicus tried to send his pregnant wife and young son off to safety, but the soldiers heard them weeping and came out to detain them. Aroused, Germanicus delivered one of the great orations in history, upholding the tradition of his family's ability in that area, saying, for example:
Moved and stung to the quick, the soldiers settled the mutiny on the spot by general court martial conducted by the tribunes. The leaders were put in chains and brought to the dais, where they went before the troops one by one. The soldiers voted for guilt or innocence by voice. The guilty were thrown off the dais to be executed by the men. Each centurion then passed before the tribunal to be approved or disapproved. The approved kept their rank. The disapproved were discharged from the service. The terms of the agreement were faithfully kept. Germanicus returned to Rome.
I Germanica went back to duty, but not exactly with honor. It remained in Germania Inferior fighting in all the major campaigns along the Rhine and the Danube. Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in today's southern and western Netherlands, parts of
Finally the death of Nero and the year 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, arrived. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( December 15, 37 – June 9, 68) born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called 69 (sex position & book by Ryu Murakami are -- already linked by "" with other meanings The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, AD 69 in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession The Senatus populusque Romanus could not decide on a suitable replacement for Nero. The various candidates fought for the distinction, introducing confusion on the Rhine frontier. The result was a general breakaway of the Celtic and Germanic tribes along the Rhine. They were categorically known as the Belgae at that time. The Belgae were a group of tribes living in northern Gaul in the 1st century BC and later also attested in Britain. Historians styled it the Batavian rebellion of 70. The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior (S Year 70 was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar.
In essence the tribes along the Rhine believed that the Roman empire was finished and decided to set up a rump state in Gaul ruled from Triers by Gaius Julius Civilis. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Trier (Trèves Luxembourgish: Tréier; Augusta Treverorum is a City in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69. They managed to convince four legions and most of Gaul to swear allegiance to it. I Germanica was one of them, a fatal move for them. Units that tried to hold out against changing allegiance were attacked.
The victor of that infamous year of contention was Emperor Vespasian. Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Vespasian ( November 17 9 &ndash June 23 79) was a Roman Emperor who He sent eight legions under Quintus Petillius Cerialis to the Rhine to clarify matters. Quintus Petilius Cerialis Caesius Rufus (born ca 30 was a Roman general On his approach, the four renegade legions repented and sought refuge in the future Alsace-Lorraine region on the left bank of the Rhine. Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen generally Elsass - Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 Gaul repudiated the government at Triers, which begged finally for terms. Cerealis was lenient and forgave everyone.
Legio I did not return to station. After the pacification was complete, Vespasian himself came to the Rhine and disbanded two legions, one of which was I Germanica. Enthusiasts of the Roman army would like to think that the men of the disbanded legions went into two new legions formed by Vespasian at that time. Disbandment, however, was a severe punishment, which would not have much point if the discharged men went right back into the army in some other legion. Perhaps some men were allowed to reenlist on the basis of individual merit. There is no evidence of any reconstitution of legions involving extensive elements of the disbanded ones. Vespasian simply replaced the discarded legions with newly recruited ones.