|Le Monde diplomatique|
|Language||French, editions in translation in English and 25 other languages|
Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed "Le Diplo" by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. The month is a unit of Time, used with Calendars which is approximately as long as some natural period related to the motion of the Moon; Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally Berliner, or " midi " is a Newspaper format with pages normally measuring about 470 mm × 315 mm (18½  in × 12 Serge Halimi is a journalist with the Le Monde diplomatique since 1992 French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Its articles are long, thoughtful, scholarly, and opinionated. First created mainly for a diplomatic audience, as its name implies, it has in recent years taken a critical view on the effects of economic neoliberalism on the world and its population. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism
It thus includes articles both of a neutral, scholarly nature, and more opinionated pieces which qualify as advocacy journalism. Advocacy journalism is a Genre of Journalism that intentionally and transparently adopts a non-objective viewpoint usually for some social However, its analysis and articles, because of their seriousness and accuracy, are still read by scholars and people across the entire political spectrum. Since the 1970s, its editorial line has become decidedly altermondialist and left-wing. Alter-globalisation (or Alter-mondialization from the French altermondialisme) is the name of a Social movement whose political line is close to Anti-globalization Throughout the Cold War, it had a neutralist viewpoint, often critical of US foreign policy. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties The foreign policy of the United States is highly influential on the world stage as it is a Superpower.
As of March 2008 the paper is headed by Serge Halimi. Serge Halimi is a journalist with the Le Monde diplomatique since 1992 The original French edition has a circulation of about 350,000; sixteen editions in other languages bring the total to about 1. 4 million readers worldwide. Jean-Marie Colombani, editor of the daily Le Monde, was attributed by Le Monde diplomatique's director general Bernard Cassen as saying: "Le Monde diplomatique is a journal of opinion; Le Monde is a journal of opinions. Jean-Marie Colombani (born July 7, 1948 in Dakar, Senegal) is a French journalist and was the editor of Le Monde Bernard Cassen is a founder of ATTAC and director general of Le Monde diplomatique newspaper from 1973 to January 2008 " 
Le Monde diplomatique was founded in 1954 by Hubert Beuve-Méry, founder and director of Le Monde, the French newspaper of record. Le Monde (The World is a A newspaper of record is a colloquialism that generally refers to a Newspaper that meets at least one of two criteria high standards of Journalism, the Subtitled the "organ of diplomatic circles and of large international organisations, " 5,000 copies were distributed, comprising eight pages, dedicated to foreign policy and geopolitics. Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American Magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales
Its first editor in chief, François Honti, made the newspaper into a scholarly reference journal. A publication's editor in chief is its Primary editor, having final responsibility for the operations and policies Honti attentively followed the birth of the Non-Aligned Movement, created out of the 1955 Bandung Conference, and the issues of the "Third World". The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc The first large-scale Asian-African or Afro-Asian Conference — also known as the Bandung Conference — was a meeting of Asian and African states most of which Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically
Claude Julien became the newspaper's second editor in January 1973. Claude Julien (May 17 1925 Saint-Rome-de-Cernon ( Aveyron, France) &mdash May 5 2005 was a French journalist editor of French newspaper of record At that time, the circulation of Le Monde diplomatique had jumped from 5,000 to 50,000 copies, and would reach, with Micheline Paulet, 120,000 in less than twenty years . Without renouncing its "Third-worldism" position, it extended the treatment of its subjects, concentrating on international economic and monetary problems, strategic relations, the Middle-East conflict, etc. Third-worldism is a tendency within left wing political thought to regard the division between developed classically liberal nations and developing or " Third world " An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Monetary policy is the process by which the Government, Central bank, or monetary authority of a country controls (i the Supply of Money, There have been many conflicts in the Middle East since the time of the Ancient Near East up until Modern times. Le Monde diplomatique took an independent stance, criticizing the neoliberal ideology and policies of the 1980s, represented by Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925
After the November, 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall and the 1990-1991 Gulf War, the newspaper made an important turn, and criticized the "American crusade" . The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including Ignacio Ramonet was elected director in January 1991. Ignacio Ramonet (born May 5, 1943, Redondela, Spain) is a journalist and writer Le Monde diplomatique analyzed the post-Cold War world, paying specific attention to "ethnic" conflicts – the wars in former Yugoslavia, the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, the conflicts in the Caucasus, etc. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda 's minority Tutsis and the moderates of its Hutu majority The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East – as well as to the new information technology. Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support
After having published a famous editorial in January 1995 where Ramonet coined the term "pensée unique" ("single thought") to describe the supremacy of the neoliberal ideology , the newspaper supported the November-December 1995 general strike in France against Prime minister Alain Juppé's (RPR) plan to cut pensions. The expression " pensée unique " ( French for "single thought" describes the claimed supremacy of Neoliberalism as an Ideology. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics The 1995 strikes in France were a series of General strikes in France, mostly in the Public sector in late 1995 Alain Marie Juppé (born 15 August 1945 is a French right-wing politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 1995 to 1997 under President Jacques Chirac The Rally for the Republic ( French: Rassemblement pour la République, RPR) was a French Right-wing Political party A pension is a steady income given to a person upon Retirement, typically in the form of a guaranteed annuity. Three years later, after a proposal in a 1997 editorial by Ignacio Ramonet, Le Monde diplomatique took a founding role in the creation of ATTAC, an alter-globalization NGO, which was originally founded for advocacy of the Tobin tax, and which has since spread throughout the world. Attac1jpg|thumb|200px|An ATTAC Banner in front of the Kölner Dom, Germany, 2004]]%attac aus stand Alter-globalisation (or Alter-mondialization from the French altermondialisme) is the name of a Social movement whose political line is close to Anti-globalization A Tobin tax is the suggested Tax on all Trade of Currency across borders
It now supports a variety of left-wing causes. The newspaper also takes an important role in the organisation of the 2001 Porto Alegre World Social Forum. Porto Alegre ( is the 10th largest city in Brazil, and the capital city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The World Social Forum (WSF is an annual meeting held by members of the Anti-globalization (using the term Globalization in a Doctrinal sense not After the September 11, 2001 attacks and the Second Gulf War starting in 2003 under the George W. Bush administration, Le Monde diplomatique continues its position of criticizing the US policy of violent intervention in the Middle East and the neoconservative' project to reshape the so-called "Greater Middle East" region. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign The Presidency of George W Bush began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America Neoconservatism (or Neocon is a Right-wing political philosophy that emerged in the United States from the rejection of the Social liberalism, Moral relativism The Greater Middle East (also known as " The New Middle East " is a political term coined by the Bush administration to englobe together various
The Norwegian version of the July 2006 Le Monde diplomatique sparked interest when the editors ran, on their own initiative, a three page main story on the 9/11 attacks and summarized the various types of 9/11 conspiracy theories (which were not specifically endorsed by the newspaper, only reviewed)  . Norwegian ( norsk) is a North Germanic Language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language A variety of conspiracy theories question the mainstream account of the September 11 attacks in the United States. The Voltaire Network, which has somehow changed position since the September 11 attacks and whose director, Thierry Meyssan, became a leading proponent of 9/11 conspiracy theory, explained that although the Norwegian version of Le Monde diplomatique had allowed it to translate and publish this article on its website, the mother-house, in France, categorically refused it this right, thus displaying an open debate between various national editions . The Réseau Voltaire (Voltaire Network is an international non-profit organisation based in Paris. Thierry Meyssan is a French Journalist, Political activist and Conspiracy theorist. In December 2006, the French version published an article by Alexander Cockburn, co-editor of CounterPunch, which strongly criticized the endorsement of conspiracy theories by the US left-wing, alleging that it was a sign of "theoretical emptiness. Alexander Claud Cockburn (ˈkoʊbɚn koh-burn born 6 June 1941 is an Irish-American political Journalist. CounterPunch is a biweekly Newsletter published in the United States that covers politics in a manner its editors describe as "muckraking with a radical "  The Norwegian Le Monde diplomatique, did again however mark its difference from the mother edition by allowing David Ray Griffin's response to Cockburn to be published in their March 2007 issue .
The monthly became a subsidiary company of Le Monde SA in 1996, which grants its complete editorial autonomy from Le Monde. A subsidiary, in business matters is an entity that is controlled by a bigger and more powerful entity For the art organization see Société Anonyme (art SA generally designates Corporations in various countries mostly those employing André Fontaine, the director of Le Monde, had already signed a 1989 convention with Claude Julien which guaranteed the monthly's autonomy, but it gained complete statutory, economic and financial independence in 1996 with the creation of Le Monde diplomatique SA. André Fontaine is a French Historian and Journalist (March 30 1921 With a donation from Günter Holzmann, a German antifascist exiled before World War II to Bolivia, the monthly's employees acquired approximately one-quarter of the capital, while Les Amis du Monde diplomatique, a 1901 Law association of readers, bought another quarter. Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies organizations governments and people World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In Economics, capital or capital Goods or real capital refers to items of extensive value Thus, since the end of 2000, the newspaper's employees and readers retain 49% of Le Monde diplomatique SA's capital, largely above the control stock  necessary to control the direction and editorial line of the Monde diplo. The remaining 51% is owned by Le Monde .
In 2007, the original French edition has a circulation of about 350,000. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Worldwide there are seventy-one editions in twenty-six other languages (including thirty-eight in print for a total of about 2. 2 million copies and thirty-three electronic editions).
Although Le Monde diplomatique publishes few advertisements in order to retain its editorial independence, it has sometimes been criticized for the quantity and nature of the published advertisements. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand In November and December 2003, two-page advertisements by IBM and a car manufacturer were placed. International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology The issues of February and March 2004 contained advertisements by Microsoft in a 'social' atmosphere with a picture of children, which led to agitation from free software activists. Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified