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Laudabiliter was a papal bull issued in 1155 by the English Pope Adrian IV purporting to give the Angevin King Henry II of England lordship over Ireland. The Treaty of Perth, 1266 ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the The Statute of Rhuddlan was enacted on 3 March 1284 after the military conquest in 1282-83 of the Principality of Wales — which had been established by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 (Y Deddfau Uno 1535 a 1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 is an Act of the Parliament of Ireland (33 Hen 8 c The Union of the Crowns was the Accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the throne of England in March 1603 thus uniting Scotland and England The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into Year 1707 ( MDCCVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Acht an Aontais 1800 is used to describe two complementary Acts whose official United Kingdom titles are Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a Treaty Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Passed on April 12, 1927, the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 ( 17 Geo 5 c Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (22 & 23 Geo Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 is an Act of the Oireachtas whose primary provisions were to declare that the state Ireland, is a Republic and that the President Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920, (and sometimes called the Fourth Home Rule Act) was an Act Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar This is about the Act that set up the Welsh Assembly For the newer Government of Wales Act 2006, see that article Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) The Northern Ireland Act 1998 (1998 c 47 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which established a Devolved Legislature Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) The Scotland Act 1998 (1998 c 46 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) The Government of Wales Act 2006 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reforms the National Assembly for Wales and allows further Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The European Communities Act (1972 c 68 is the Act of the United Kingdom Parliament providing for the incorporation of European Community law into the domestic Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Agreement, most often referred to as the Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste Belfast Greeance or the Good Friday Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Pope Adrian IV (or Hadrian IV – c 1100&ndash 1 September, 1159) born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was Pope Angevin (ˈændʒəvɪn ( French, from Old French, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus from Andegavia Anjou, France) is the name applied England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
The bull purported to grant Henry, who requested it from English Pope Adrian, the right to invade Ireland in order to "reform" Church practices in Ireland, which up until that point, while being Christian, had been outside the direct control of the Catholic Church. Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes called the Celtic Church or the British Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
The title of the bull, Laudabiliter, means literally "laudably', "in a praiseworthy manner"; it is believed to refer to Henry's laudable intention "to extend the borders of the Church, to teach the truths of the Christian faith to a rude and unlettered people, and to root out the weeds of vice from the field of the Lord; . . . "
The actual wording which was asserted as giving authority to Henry to take possession of Ireland is as follows:
|“||You have signified to us, our well-beloved son in Christ, that you propose to enter the island of Ireland in order to subdue the people and make them obedient to laws, and to root out from among them the weeds of sin; and that you are willing to yield and pay yearly from every house the pension of one penny to St Peter, and to keep and preserve the rights of the churches in that land whole and inviolate. |
We, therefore, regarding your pious and laudable design with due favour, and graciously assenting to your petition, do hereby declare our will and pleasure, that, for the purpose of enlarging the borders of the Church, setting bounds to the progress of wickedness, reforming evil manners, planting virtue, and increasing the Christian religion, you do enter and take possession of that island, and execute therein whatsoever shall be for God's honour and the welfare of the same.
And, further, we do also strictly charge and require that the people of that land shall accept you with all honour, and dutifully obey you, as their liege lord, saving only the rights of the churches, which we will have inviolably preserved; . . .
A Norman invasion of Ireland took place in 1167 with the main body of nobles arriving in 1169. The Norman invasion of Ireland was a Norman military expedition to Ireland that took place on 1 May 1169 at the behest of Dermot MacMurrough This invasion, as it happened, was at the request of an Irish provincial king, Diarmait Mac Murchada, the King of Leinster, and led by Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (Strongbow), a Cambro-Norman knight assisted by Welsh and Flemish forces. Early Life and Family Mac Murchadha was born in 1110 a son of Donnchadh, King of Leinster and Dublin he was a descendant of Brian Boru. The following is a provisional list of the Kings of Leinster who ruled the Irish province of Leinster up to 1632 with the death of Domhnall Spainnach MacMurrough-Kavanagh Richard de Clare 2nd Earl of Pembroke Lord of Leinster Justiciar of Ireland (1130 &ndash 20 April 1176) known as Strongbow, was a Cambro-Norman is a term used for Norman knights who settled in southern Wales after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands.
Henry II followed in 1171, fearing that the Cambro-Norman warlords would seize control in his absence and, using the papal bull, claimed sovereignty over the island. He arrived with a large army, took Dublin by storm, and then gave hospitality to and accepted fealty from the Gaelic kings in the feudal manner. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. The Treaty of Windsor followed in 1175, with the Irish High King, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, keeping lands outside of Leinster, which had passed through Strongbow to Henry on the unexpected death of both Diarmait and Strongbow, Waterford, the beachhead for the invasion, and Meath, the mediaeval seat of Ireland, and lordship over all Gaelic Irish. The Treaty of Windsor was signed in 1175 in Windsor Berkshire between King Henry II of England and the High King of Ireland, Rory O'Connor A High King of Ireland ( Ard Rí na hÉireann) is a historical or legendary figure who claimed lordship over the whole of Ireland. Ruaidrí mac Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair (often Anglicised Rory O'Connor) (died 1198 was a 12th century King of Connacht and the last High King of Ireland Leinster (ˈlɛnstər Irish: Laighin, lainʲ one of the Provinces of Ireland, lies in the east of Ireland and comprises the counties of Waterford ( or Windy fjord;) is a city in Ireland. It is the primary city of the South East region and the fifth largest in the country Beachhead is a Military term used to describe the line created when a unit (by sea reaches a beach and begins to defend that area of beach while other reinforcements (it In strict legal language, the term seat defines the seat of a Corporation or organisation as a legal entity, indicating where the Headquarters Leinster and Meath then comprised two of Ireland's five provinces.
Anarchy quickly followed, with Ruaidrí losing authority in his three provinces by 1186, and the old title of High King of Ireland had become ineffective. Wanting to avoid anarchy, Henry awarded all of Ireland to his younger son John with the title Dominus Hiberniae (Lord of Ireland) in 1185. John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death The Lordship of Ireland ( 1171 - 1541) was the nominally all-island Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-71 When John unexpectedly succeeded his brother as King of England, the Lordship of Ireland fell directly under the English Crown, the title of Lord of Ireland and King of England falling into personal union. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during The Lordship of Ireland ( 1171 - 1541) was the nominally all-island Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-71 A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct
Henry's invasion was met with jubilation in Rome, and Pope Alexander III declared that when he heard that Henry, "instigated by divine inspiration," had successfully brought the Irish people within the control of the Roman Church, he had "returned thanks to [God] who had conferred so great a victory. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Pope Alexander III (c 1100/1105 &ndash August 30, 1181) born Rolando (or Orlando) Bandinelli, was Pope from 1159 " Alexander's legate, Vivianus, at the synod of Dublin in 1172 "made a public declaration of the right of the king of England to Ireland" and threatened excommunication against all "who presumed to forfeit their allegiance. "
However within a century-and-a-half, Norman misrule in Ireland became so apparent that Laudabiliter was to be invoked again in the aid of the rights of the Gaelic Irish clans. In 1315-18, in alliance with the Scottish (and the Welsh), who were also fighting the Normans, they proclaimed Edward Bruce as King of Ireland. Edward Bruce ( medieval Gaelic: Edubard a Briuis; Modern Scottish Gaelic: Eideard Bruis / Iomhair Bruis) (c Pope John XXII writing to Edward II of England in 1311 had reminded him of the responsibility that Laudabiliter put upon England to execute government in Ireland for the welfare of the Irish. Pope John (numbering Pope John XXII (1249 &ndash December 4, 1334) born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse) was Pope from 1316 to 1334 For the play see Edward II (play. For the film see Edward II (film. He warned Edward II that:
|“||. . . the kings of England . . . have in direct violation of [Laudabiliter], for a long period past kept down that people [of Ireland] in a state of intolerable bondage, accompanied with unheard-of hardships and grievances. Nor was there found during all that time, any person to redress the grievances they endured or be moved with a pitiful compassion for their distress; although recourse was had to you . . . and the loud cry of the oppressed fell, at times at least, upon your own ear. In consequence whereof, unable to support such a state of things any longer, they have been compelled to withdraw themselves from your jurisdiction and to invite another to come and be ruler over them . . .||”|
The Bruce invasion failed, and Ireland remained in English control, in part using the authority claimed to derive from Laudabiliter, until 1542, when Henry VIII's split from the Catholic Church (1529–1535) had, incidentally, put England's authority in Ireland, insofar as it was based on Laudabiliter, in legal jeopardy. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of To rectify this King Henry's English Parliament, using authority delegated to it in 1494 by the Irish Parliament (Poyning's Law), passed the Crown of Ireland Act, which declared that the proper title of Lord of Ireland should really be that of King of Ireland, owing to the authority it commanded in Ireland being as great as that of a king:
|“||Forasmuch as the . Poynings' Law is a parliamentary act initiated by Sir Edward Poynings in the Irish Parliament at Drogheda in 1494. The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 is an Act of the Parliament of Ireland (33 Hen 8 c The designation King of Ireland (Rí na hÉireann and Queen (regnant of Ireland was used during three periods of Irish history. A king is a male Monarch, or a Head of state, who may or may not depending on the style of government of a nation exercise monarchal powers over a territory usually . . Kings of England, have bin Lords of this land of Ireland, having all manner kingly jurisdiction, power, pre-eminences, and authoritie royall, belonging or appertayning to the royall estate and majestie of a King, by the name of Lords of Ireland, where the King's majestie and his most noble progenitors justly and rightfully were, and of right ought to be, Kings of Ireland according to their said true and just title, stile, and name therein, . . .||”|
Thus the Henrician Parliament had established the principle that the Crown of Ireland was in personal union with the Crown of England. Though this declaration was not recognised by the Papacy nor by the Catholic countries of Europe, it transpired that Henry's Catholic daughter, Mary, would become Queen of England in 1553, thus becoming Queen of Ireland in both English and Irish law. Mary I (18 February 1516 &ndash 17 November 1558 was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during The designation King of Ireland (Rí na hÉireann and Queen (regnant of Ireland was used during three periods of Irish history. In response to this development, at Mary's request, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull in 1555 declaring Mary and her consort, Philip, Prince of the Asturias (who was shortly to become King Philip II of Spain), to be the joint monarchs of Ireland. Pope Paul IV ( June 28, 1476 &ndash August 18, 1559) né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from May 23 A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. King consort is a title given in some Monarchies to the husband of a Queen regnant. Philip II (Felipe II de España Filipe I ( May 21, 1527 &ndash September 13 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598 
Philip made no claim to the Crown of Ireland on Mary's death in November 1558. Between 1559 and 1561 the New Parliament of the new Protestant Queen of England, Elizabeth I, repealed all English and Irish legislation that had restored the ecclesiastical union with Rome and re-established the Churches of England and of Ireland with Queen Elizabeth as their "Supreme Governor". The English Parliament ignored then and has ever since continued to ignore as irrelevant all Papal acts, bulls or other decrees since the English Reformation had begun.
In 1570 relations between England, Ireland and the Catholic Church were in turmoil following the publication on 25 February of Pope Pius V’s Bull ‘Regnans in Excelsis’. This Bull had declared Queen Elizabeth to be illegitimate and a usurper and thus incapable of having legitimately inherited her English crown. It also proclaimed her to be a heretic, declared her deposed and strictly forbade all Catholics anywhere to obey her or her laws or to acknowledge, respect or obey any persons in authority appointed by her. . It made no mention at all of her “pretending” to the Throne of Ireland, which significant omission appeared to infer that the Bull of 1555 had, in accordance with Laudabiliter, granted the Crown of Ireland only to Queen Mary and her legitimate heirs and it thus appeared to endorse the English view that Philip of Spain’s mention in the Bull of 1555 had been merely as a mention of his then status as Queen Mary’s Consort and not as an intentional conferral of the status of King of Ireland in his own right.
The Irish Archbishop of Cashel acted as envoy for some Irish nobles who proposed to rectify this omission by offering the Kingship of Ireland to King Philip directly. The project was communicated to Pope Pius V through Cardinal Francesco Alciati (who enjoyed the curious status of "Protector of Spain and Ireland before the Holy See"), who wrote to the Archbishop of Cashel (9 June, 1570): “His Holiness was astonished that anything of the kind should be attempted without his authority since it was easy to remember that the Kingdom of Ireland belonged to the dominion of the Church, was held as a fief under it, and could not therefore, unless by the Pope, be subjected to any new ruler. And the Pope, that the right of the Church may be preserved as it should be, says he will not give the letters you ask for the King of Spain. But if the King of Spain himself were to ask for the fief of that Kingdom in my opinion the Pope would not refuse. ” (Spicil. Ossor. , ed. Card. Moran, I, 69).
No further official reference to the Bull of 1555 nor to Laudabiliter was ever made again — neither by the Papacy nor by the Governments of England, Ireland nor Spain. It must be presumed that the low-level Papal diplomatic recognition of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1914 and the establishment of full diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the Irish Free State in 1922 both entailed the implicit final consignment of Laudabiliter to the dusty archives.
Evidence for the bull came from John of Salisbury, who was sent to Rome as an envoy to request it and by Geraldus Cambrensis, a Cambro-Norman chronicler, and the authenticity of its text became the subject of academic dispute in the nineteenth century. John of Salisbury (c 1120 &ndash 1180 English author diplomat and Bishop of Chartres, was born at Salisbury. Gerald of Wales (c 1146 &ndash c 1223 also known as Gerallt Gymro in Welsh or Giraldus Cambrensis in Latin,  As with many Church documents, the original document is no longer in existence.  When Cardinal Baronius published it as ex codice Vaticano the codex in question was a transcription of the chronicle of Matthew Paris, an English chronicler, and it is noted that "in form and wording it differs from other papal bulls of the time. Venerable Cesare Baronio (also known as Caesar Baronius; August 30, 1538 &ndash June 30, 1607) was an Italian Matthew Paris (c 1200 &ndash 1259 was a Benedictine monk English chronicler, artist in Illuminated manuscripts and Cartographer English historians in the Middle Ages is an overview of the history of English historians and their works in the Middle Ages. " But there is no record that the bull's authenticity was questioned at the time.
Adrian's successor, Pope Alexander III, reconfirmed the grant of Ireland to Henry in 1172, and the Irish bishops at the Synod of Cashel, in the same year, accepted that bull. Pope Alexander III (c 1100/1105 &ndash August 30, 1181) born Rolando (or Orlando) Bandinelli, was Pope from 1159 Cashel (Caiseal Mumhan meaning Stone Fortress of Munster) is a Town in County Tipperary, in the southern midlands of Ireland, which is also
In 1317 the remaining Gaelic kings were driven to remonstrate to Pope John XXII that Laudabiliter should be revoked, following decades of English misrule. Gaelic Ireland was the political order that existed in Ireland prior to the Norman invasion and that ran in parallel to the subsequent nominal Lordship Pope John (numbering Pope John XXII (1249 &ndash December 4, 1334) born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse) was Pope from 1316 to 1334