Landing craft are boats and seagoing vehicles used to convey a landing force (infantry and vehicles) from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault. A boat is a Watercraft of modest size designed to float or plane on water and provide transport over it Landing is a military operation aimed at a bringing the landing force ( landing troops) to a shore or to land with the purpose of power projection ashore/landside The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. Most renowned are those used to storm the beaches of Normandy, the Mediterranean, and many Pacific islands during WWII. Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20000 to 30000 Islands (the exact number has yet to be precisely determined World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including This was the high point of the landing craft, with a significant number of different designs were produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and United States. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Because of the need to run up onto a suitable beach, WWII landing craft were flat-bottomed, and many designs had a flat front, often with a lowerable ramp, rather than a normal bow. The bow (pronounced &mdashrhymes with how) is a nautical term that refers to the forward part of the hull of a Ship or Boat, This made them difficult to control and very uncomfortable in rough seas. The control point (bridge was far too fancy a description for the facilities of the LCA and DUKW) was normally situated at the extreme rear of the vessel as were the engines. The bridge of a Ship is an area or room from which the ship can be commanded In all cases they tended to be known by an abbreviation derived from the official name rather than by the full title. For the HTML tag see HTML element. An abbreviation (from Latin brevis "short"
In the days of sail, the ship's boats were used as landing craft. These rowing boats were sufficient, if inefficient, in an era when marine corps were effectively light infantry, participating mostly in small-scale campaigns in far-flung colonies against inferiorly-equipped 'native' opponents. Marines (from the English adjective marine, meaning of the sea, from Latin language mare, meaning sea via French adjective Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a Skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of Infantry, harassing This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation.
However during World War I, mass mobilization of troops equipped with rapid-fire weapons quickly rendered such boats obsolete; after the disastrous landing phase of the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915, military powers around the world tended to avoid large-scale amphibious warfare altogether. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
The British produced a landing craft in 1920 that could put their then-current medium tank directly onto a beach. From 1924 it was used with landing boats in annual exercises in amphibious landings. It would later be given the name "Landing Craft, Mechanized" (abbreviated to LCM). In the 1930s the British Army carried out divisional sized amphibious landing exercises. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. A boat for landing infantry, the Landing Craft Assault, was drawn up after research by the Inter-Service Training and Development Centre in 1938. The Landing Craft Assault (LCA was the British and Commonwealth Landing craft of the Second World War. 
In the United States, the interest in amphibious warfare was revived during the late 1930s, when the United States Marine Corps became interested in the military potential of Andrew Higgins's design of a powered, shallow-draught boat. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. Andrew Jackson Higgins ( 28 August 1886 &ndash 1 August 1952) was the founder and owner of Higgins Industries, the New Orleans The draft (or draught) of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the Waterline and the bottom of the hull ( Keel) with the thickness These LCVPs, dubbed the 'Higgins Boats', were developed to a final design with a ramp and were produced in large numbers.
Nine-ton Landing Craft Navigation (LCN) were used by Brtish "Combined Operations Assault Pilotage Parties" (Royal Marine and Special Boat Service crew) for surveying landing sites. The Royal Marines ( RM) are the marine corps and amphibious Infantry of the United Kingdom and along with the Royal Navy The Special Boat Service ( SBS) is the Special forces unit of the British Royal Navy. 
The "Landing Craft Control" (LCC) or were 56-foot U.S. Navy vessels, carrying only the crew (Scouts and Raiders) and newly-developed radar. Their main job was to find and follow the safe routes in to the beach, lanes which had been cleared of obstacles and mines. There were 8 in the entire Normandy invasion (two per beach). After leading in the first wave, they were to head back out and bring in the second wave. After that, they were used as all-purpose command and control assets during the invasion.
The smallest landing craft were amphibians such as the U.S.-designed DUKW, basically an amphibious truck, and the Landing Vehicle Tracked, an amphibious armoured personnel carrier. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The DUKW (popularly pronounced "duck") is a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck that was designed by General Motors Corporation during World War II These were operated by Army personnel, not naval crews. They had a capacity of about three tons. The British introduced their own amphibian the Terrapin into use after the landings. The Terrapin "4-ton amphibian" was a British manufactured amphibious Armoured transport of the Second World
Of the landing craft proper the smallest were the U. S. Landing Craft Personnel, Large (10 tons) and the British Landing Craft Assault (LCA) (13 tons). Landing Craft Personnel (Large was a Landing craft used by the U The Landing Craft Assault (LCA was the British and Commonwealth Landing craft of the Second World War. These were small craft intended to be transported around by larger vessels then lowered into the water off the target beach. Typically they could carry 36 fully armed soldiers. The LCPL sometimes came with an enclosed cockpit and was often used as a command boat. It lacked a loading ramp which the LCA did have.
The U. S. Landing Craft Vehicle/Personnel (LCVP), also known as a Higgins Boat, was a more flexible variant of the LCPL with a wide ramp — it could carry 36 troops or a small vehicle such as a Jeep, or a corresponding amount of cargo.
Landing Craft, Mechanized were larger (36 tons), capable of carrying one small tank or 100 troops. The Landing Craft Mechanized ( LCM) was a Landing craft designed for carrying vehicles A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical
None of the above was capable of making a voyage longer than about 6-12 hours, mainly through fuel limitations.
The Landing Craft Utility (LCU) is used transport equipment and troops to the shore. The Landing Craft Utility (LCU is a type of boat used by amphibious forces to transport equipment and troops to the shore They are capable of transporting tracked or wheeled vehicles and troops from amphibious assault ships to beachheads or piers.
Then came the Landing Craft Infantry (Large) or LCI(L), capable of making serious voyages under its own power (some were sailed directly from the United Kingdom to take part in the Operation Torch landings, and U. The Landing craft, Infantry or LCI was a sea-going Amphibious assault ship of the Second World War for landing large number of Infantry directly The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British - American invasion of French North Africa in World War II S. Navy LCIs island hopped across the Pacific). Island hopping is a term that has several different definitions as it is applied in various fields LCI(L)s were about 158 feet long and 23 feet wide and carried around 200 troops. There were several sub-types of the craft, with the LCI(L) infantry carrier dominating; but LCIs also served as rocket (LCI(R)) and mortar (M), and gunboat (G) platforms, as well as a flotilla flagship (FF). While still intended to run up on the beach, these tended to have a normal type bow with stepped ramps each side for the troops to disembark. The LCI was re-classified Landing Ship Infantry (LSI) by the U. S. in 1949.
Of a similar size was the Landing Craft Tank, which could carry up to 4 Tanks or other vehicles. The Landing Craft, Tank (Landing Craft Tank was an Amphibious assault ship for landing Tanks on beachheads A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical These had a ramp at the front which was dropped for the vehicles to get ashore. Behind the ramp was an open space known as the Tank Deck. There were several different designs and sizes varied.
The next step was the Landing Ship Tank. Landing Ship Tank ( LST) was the military designation for naval vessels created during World War II to support Amphibious operations by carrying significant This carried more vehicles than the LCT (20 in the US-built versions) and had normal looking bows, although the bows were actually formed by doors which were opened for the unloading ramp to drop. Fully loaded, these displaced more than 3,000 tons, rather more than any Royal Navy destroyers of the period. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy
Finally there was the Landing Ship Dock, which had a large open compartment at the back. A Dock landing ship or Landing ship (Dock ( hull classification LSD) is a form of auxiliary warship designed to support amphibious operations Opening a stern door and flooding special compartments allowed this area to be open to the sea and LCI-sized vessels could enter or leave. The stern is the rear or aft part of a Ship or Boat, technically defined as the area built up over the Sternpost, extending upwards from the Counter
Initial British nomenclature used different type names leading to alternate names such as Assault Landing Craft, Infantry Landing Craft and Tank Landing Craft. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Due to their rather small size the majority were not given names and were simply given serial numbers, e. g. , LCT 304. The LSTs were an exception to this being much the same size as a small cruiser. A cruiser is a large type of Warship, which had its prime period from the late 19th century to the end of the Cold War. Three British-built LSTs were named as well, HMS Boxer, Bruiser and Thruster which were somewhat larger than the U. S. design; they also had proper funnels.
DUKWs, LCAs and LCMs had no fixed armament, but there were ways for troops on board to use their own weapons.
LCIs and LCTs carried weapons such as the Oerlikon 20 mm cannon each side of the bridge structure. The term " Oerlikon 20 mm cannon " refers to a series of Autocannons based on an original designed by Reinhold Becker during World War I, and LSTs had a somewhat heavier armament.
Some Landing craft were converted for special purposes either to give defence for the other landing craft in the attack or as support weapons during the landing. For Combined Fleet, please see that article For Carrier Striking Task Force, please see that article World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
The LCA(HR) was a conversion of the British LCA which carried 24 spigot mortars, the Royal Navy's Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon instead of personnel. A mortar is a muzzle-loading Indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities short ranges and high-arcing ballistic trajectories For the area denial weapon see Czech hedgehog. The Hedgehog was an Anti-submarine weapon developed by the Royal Navy The mortars were fired as a barrage onto the beach to clear mines and other obstructions. Having discharged its mortars and its duty the LCA(HR) would then leave the beach area. They were towed to the beach by larger craft such as the LCT which would carry the assault teams of the Royal Engineers with their specialist vehicles and equipment to complete the beach clearance. The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers ( RE) and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps Hobart's Funnies were a number of unusually modified Tanks operated during World War II by the United Kingdom 's 79th Armoured Division
The Landing Craft Flak (LCF) was a conversion of the LCT intended to give anti-aircraft support to the landing. Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging hostile military Aircraft in defence of ground objectives, ground or naval forces They were first used in the Dieppe Raid early in 1942. The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe or Operation Jubilee, during the Second World War, was an Allied attack on the The ramp was welded shut, and a deck built on top of the Tank deck. They were equipped with several light anti-aircraft guns—a typical fitting was eight 20 mm Oerlikons and four QF 2 pdr "pom-poms" and had a crew of 60. The term " Oerlikon 20 mm cannon " refers to a series of Autocannons based on an original designed by Reinhold Becker during World War I, and The 2-pounder gun, officially designated the QF 2-pounder ( QF denoting "quick firing" and universally known as the pom-pom, was a 1 Royal Navy examples had mixed crews, with the operation of the craft being the responsibility of RN crew and the manning of the guns being done by Royal Marines. The Royal Marines ( RM) are the marine corps and amphibious Infantry of the United Kingdom and along with the Royal Navy They carried two naval officers and two marine officers.
The Landing Craft Gun (LCG) was similar and was intended to give supporting fire to the landing. Apart from the Oerlikons as per a normal LCT they had two 4. 7 inch destroyer guns. Crewing was similar to the LCF. LCGs played a very important part in the Walcheren operation in October 1944. Walcheren is a former Island in the Province of Zeeland in the Netherlands at the mouth of the Scheldt Estuary
Finally there was the Landing Craft Rocket, known as the Landing Craft Tank (Rocket) (LCT(R)) to denote that it was a modified LCT.
This had a large set of launchers for the British RP-3 60 lb (27 kg), 3 in (76 mm) rockets mounted on the covered-over tank deck. The RP-3 (from Rocket Projectile 3 inch) was a British air to ground Rocket used in the Second World War. The full set of launchers was "in excess of" 1,000 and reloads totaling 5,000 rockets were kept below. The firepower was claimed to be equivalent to 80 light cruisers or 200 destroyers. A light cruiser is a Warship. The term is a shortening of the phrase "light Armoured cruiser " describing a small ship that carried armour in the same way
The method of operation was to anchor off the target beach, pointing towards the shore. The distance to the shore was then measured by radar and the elevation of the launchers set accordingly. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships The crew then vanished below (apart from the commanding officer who retreated to a special cubby hole to control things) and the launch was then set off electrically. The launch could comprise the entire set or individual ranks of rockets.
A full reload was a very labor-intensive operation and at least one LCT(R) went alongside a cruiser and got a working party from the larger ship to assist in the process.
The mechanized utility and landing craft, more commonly known as an amphibious landing craft or boat. This was the kind used during the second world war, and while the mechanized landing crafts of today are similar in construction, a lot of improvements have been made. Normally using diesel engines, the best amphibious landing boats (such as the LCM 8 of the US Navy) are capable of a military lift of 183 metric tons at a speed of 22 km/h, carrying even heavy equipment like M1 Abrams tanks with little trouble. The M1 Abrams is a main battle tank produced in the United States. Amphibious landing craft normally mount several machine guns or similar weapons for the defense of troops and/or vehicle crews inside. For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation.
Inflatable boats were often used to transport amphibious troops from high speed transports and submarines. An inflatable boat is a lightweight boat constructed with its sides and bow made of flexible tubes containing pressurised gas High Speed Transports were converted Destroyers used to support amphibious operations in World War II and afterward A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability The United States used a 7 man Landing Craft, Rubber (Small) (LCR-S) and a 10 man Landing Craft, Rubber (Large) (LCR-L. )
The air cushioned landing craft is based on small to mid sized multi-purpose hovercraft, Also known as "over the beach" ("OTB") craft, they allow troops and material to access more than 70 percent of the world's coastline, while only approximately 15 percent of that coastline is available to conventional landing craft. An air cushioned landing craft, also called an LCAC ( Landing craft air cushioned is a modern variation on the amphibious landing boat A hovercraft, or air-cushion vehicle (ACV is an Amphibious vehicle or craft, designed to travel over any sufficiently smooth surface supported by Like the mechanized landing craft, they are usually equipped with mounted machine guns, although they also support grenade launchers and heavy weapons. For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. A grenade launcher is a Weapon that launches a Grenade with more accuracy higher velocity and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand These vehicles are commonly used in the United States Navy, the United Kingdom's Royal Navy, the Russian Navy, and the Hellenic Navy. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The Russian Navy or VMF ( Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ России- Voyenno-Morskoy Flot Rossii (VMF or literally Military Maritime The Hellenic Navy ( HN) ( Πολεμικό Ναυτικό, Polemikó Naftikó, abbreviated ΠΝ) is the naval force of Greece
Landing barges were adaptations of British Thames barges and lighters as landing craft. For other uses see Lighter (disambiguation. A lighter is a type of flat-bottomed Barge used to transfer goods to and from moored In size they came between the landing craft and landing ships. They were used at all beaches during the landings at Normandy manned by British crews.
Some were fitted with engines while others were towed to the beach. They were used for defence, transportation, supply (food, water and oil) and repair (fitted out with workshops).
Those fitted for vehicle carrying had a ramp fitted in place at the rear and they had to back onto beaches. They would work from ships and coasters to the shore and back.
Two flotillas were made up of "flak barges" to provide defence of the beaches. Like landing craft, flak barges carried A/A guns: two 40 mm Bofors and two 20 mm Oerlikon, with army gunners and naval crew. The Bofors 40 mm gun is a famous Anti-aircraft Autocannon designed by the Swedish firm of Bofors. The term " Oerlikon 20 mm cannon " refers to a series of Autocannons based on an original designed by Reinhold Becker during World War I, and
The "Landing Barge Kitchen" (LBK) was fitted with a large superstructure containing the galley. With a crew of 20 plus they could carry food for 900 for a week and provide 1,600 hot and 800 cold meals a day, including freshly baked bread.