|Primary inflows||Detroit River|
|Primary outflows||Niagara River|
|Basin countries||Canada, United States|
|Max. Leamington is a municipality in Essex County, Ontario and has a population of 28833 The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. In Hydrology, the inflow of a Body of water is the source of the Water in the body of water The Detroit River is a river in the Great Lakes system about 32 miles (51 km long and 0 In Hydrology, the discharge or outflow of a River is the volume of Water transported by it in a certain amount of time The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, length||241 mi (388 km)|
|Max. width||57 mi (92 km)|
|Surface area||9,940 sq mi (25,744 km²)|
|Average depth||62 ft (19 m)|
|Max. depth||210 ft (64 m)|
|Water volume||116 cu mi (480 km³)|
|Residence time (of lake water)||2. Lake retention time (also called the Residence time of lake water or the water age or flushing time) is a calculated quantity expressing the 6 yrs|
|Shore length1||850 mi (1,370 km)|
|Surface elevation||571 ft (174 m)|
|Islands||24+ (see list)|
|Settlements||Buffalo, New York|
|1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure. Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. This article is about the city in Ohio, USA. For Toledo Spain, see that article Monroe is a city in the US state of Michigan. In the 2000 census, the city population was 22076 Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state|
Lake Erie (pronounced /ˈɪəriː/) is the fourth largest (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally  It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes,  and therefore also has the shortest average water residence time. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The volume of any solid plasma vacuum or theoretical object is how much three- Dimensional space it occupies often quantified numerically It is bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario, on the south by the U.S. states of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, and on the west by the state of Michigan. The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The lake is named after the Erie tribe of Native Americans who lived along its southern shore before being exterminated for aiding the Hurons, the enemy of the Iroquois. The Erie (also Erieehronon, Eriechronon, Riquéronon, Erielhonan, Eriez, Nation du Chat) were an Iroquoian pre- Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States "Huron" redirects here For other uses see Huron (disambiguation. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse 
The lake's formerly more extensive lakebed creates a favorable environment for agriculture in the bordering areas of Ontario, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The lake also supports a strong commercial and sport fishery. But since high levels of pollution were discovered in the 1960s and 1970s, there has been continued debate over the desired intensity of commercial fishing. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in
Lake Erie (42. Lake Erie Basin consists of Lake Erie and surrounding watersheds, which are typically named after the river creek or stream that provides drainage into the lake 2° N, 81. 2° W) has a mean elevation of 571 feet (174 m) above sea level. It has a surface area of 9,940 square miles (25,745 km²) with a length of 241 miles (388 km) and breadth of 57 miles (92 km) at its widest points.
It is the shallowest of the Great Lakes with an average depth of 62 feet (19 m) and with a maximum depth of 210 feet (64 m). Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state  The western section, comprising one-fourth of the area, is shallower with an average depth of 42 feet (13 m) and a maximum depth of 62 feet (19 m). For comparison, Lake Superior has an average depth of 483 feet (147 m), a volume of 2,900 cubic miles (12,100 km³) and shoreline of 2,726 miles (4385 km). Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Erie is primarily fed by the Detroit River (from Lake Huron and Lake St. Clair) and drains via the Niagara River and Niagara Falls into Lake Ontario. The Detroit River is a river in the Great Lakes system about 32 miles (51 km long and 0 Lake Huron, bounded on the west by the US state of Michigan, and on the east by the province of Ontario, Canada, is one of the five Great Lake St Clair ( French Lac Sainte-Claire) is a Lake that lies between Ontario, Canada, and Michigan in the The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Niagara Falls are massive Waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border separating the Canadian province of Ontario Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. Navigation downstream is provided by the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The Welland Canal is a Ship canal that runs 42  km (270  Miles from Port Colborne Ontario on Lake Erie to Port The St Lawrence Seaway is the common name for a system of Canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes Other major tributaries of Lake Erie include the Grand River, the Huron River, the Maumee River, the Sandusky River and the Cuyahoga River. For other rivers of the same name please see Grand River. The Grand River is a large The Huron River is the name of three different rivers in the U The Maumee River is a River in northwestern Ohio and northeastern Indiana in the United States. The Sandusky River is a Tributary to Lake Erie in north-central Ohio in the United States. The Cuyahoga River (ˌkaɪəˈhɔgə or kuy-a-HO-ga) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States.
Point Pelee National Park, the southernmost point of the Canadian mainland, is located on a peninsula extending into the lake. Point Pelee National Park (in French Parc National de la Pointe-Pelée extends from the mainland of Essex County in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Several islands are found in the western end of the lake; these belong to Ohio except for Pelee Island and 8 neighboring islands, which are part of Ontario. Pelee Island, Ontario, Canada, is an Island in the western half of Lake Erie. The cities of Buffalo, New York; Erie, Pennsylvania; Toledo, Ohio; Port Stanley, Ontario; Monroe, Michigan; and Cleveland, Ohio are located on the shores of Lake Erie. Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. This article is about the city in Ohio, USA. For Toledo Spain, see that article Port Stanley is a community in the Municipality of Central Elgin Ontario, Elgin County, located on the north shore of Lake Erie at the mouth of Kettle Monroe is a city in the US state of Michigan. In the 2000 census, the city population was 22076 Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state It was the last of the Great Lakes discovered by the French explorers, who had followed rivers out of Lake Ontario and portaged into Lake Huron. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Before European contact, there were several tribes which lived along the shores of Lake Erie. Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on September 10, 1813 in Lake Erie off the coast Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (August 20 1785 &ndash August 23 1819 was an officer in the United States Navy. The Erie tribe (from whom the lake takes its name) lived along the southern edge while the Neutrals (also known as Attawandaron) lived along the northern shore. The Erie (also Erieehronon, Eriechronon, Riquéronon, Erielhonan, Eriez, Nation du Chat) were an Iroquoian pre- The Neutrals, also known as the Attawandaron, were an Iroquoian nation of North American native people who lived near the shores of Lake Ontario Both tribes were conquered and exterminated during the Beaver Wars in 1655 by the Iroquois confederacy. The French and Iroquois Wars, also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars, commonly refer to a brutal series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century in eastern The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse
For many years after that war, the land around Lake Erie remained uninhabited and was used by the Iroquois as a hunting ground, until the waning of the their power around 1700. About that time, several other Native American tribes moved into the empty land, namely the Ottawa, Ojibwe, Wyandot, and Mingo tribes.
In 1669, the Frenchman Louis Jolliet was the first documented European to sight Lake Erie, although there is speculation that Etienne Brule may have come across it in 1615. Louis Jolliet, also known as Louis Joliet with only one L ( September 21, 1645 &ndash 1700 was a French Canadian explorer Étienne Brûlé ( c 1592 ( Champigny-sur-Marne, France) &ndash c Lake Erie was the last of the Great Lakes to be explored by Europeans, since the Iroquois who occupied the Niagara river area were in conflict with the French, and they did not allow explorers or traders to pass through. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse
Lake Erie infamously became very polluted in the 1960s and 1970s. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Urban legend has described it as a dead lake, but both sport and commercial fishing have continued without interruption to the present day. Pollution in the lake did not get much attention until the great Cuyahoga River Fire in June of 1969. The Cuyahoga River (ˌkaɪəˈhɔgə or kuy-a-HO-ga) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. Pollution from Cleveland and other Ohio cities had so contaminated this tributary of Lake Erie with petrochemicals that it actually caught on fire. Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads A tributary is a Stream or River which flows into a mainstem (or parent river Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin The fire embarrassed state officials and prompted the U. S. Congress to pass the Clean Water Act of 1972. The Clean Water Act is the primary Federal law in the United States governing Water pollution.
Like the other Great Lakes, Erie produces lake effect snow when the first cold winds of winter pass over the warm waters, leading to Buffalo, New York becoming the eleventh snowiest place in the entire United States. This article is about the Cherry berry also classified as fruit for the ornamental tree See Cherry Blossom. An orchard is an intentional planting of Trees or Shrubs maintained for Food production. Lake-effect snow is produced in the winter when cold Arctic winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water providing energy and picking up Water vapor which freezes Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  The lake effect ends or its effect is reduced, however, when the lake freezes over. Being the shallowest of the Great Lakes, it is the most likely to freeze and frequently does. 
The lake is also responsible for microclimates that are important to agriculture. A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the Climate differs from the surrounding area Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Along its north shore is one of the richest areas of Canada's fruit and vegetable production, and along the southeastern shore in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York is an important grape growing region, as are the islands in the lake. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is
During the 1960s and 1970s, Lake Erie experienced changes in water quality associated with increasing levels of the nutrient phosphorus in the water and bottom sediments. The result was eutrophication of the system which resulted in major changes in productivity. Eutrophication is an increase in chemical Nutrients -- typically compounds containing Nitrogen or Phosphorus -- in an Ecosystem, and may occur Algal blooms formed by the high nitrogen levels in the water. An algal bloom is a rapid increase in the population of Algae in an aquatic system The decomposition of algae led to extensive seasonal anoxic areas in the lake (the so-called dead zone), that were expanding rapidly in the early 1970s. Anoxic sea water is sea water depleted of Oxygen. It is generally found in areas with restricted water exchange This page is about the oceanic phenomenon see Dead Zone for other uses The decomposing algal masses and associated fish kills fouled shorelines, contributing to the widespread impression of Lake Erie as a dead lake.
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the dumping and runoff of phosphorus into the lake significantly. A dead zone persists in the central Lake Erie basin during the late summer. This page is about the oceanic phenomenon see Dead Zone for other uses The United States Environmental Protection Agency is currently studying this cyclic phenomenon. 
Since the 1970s environmental regulation has led to a great increase in water quality and the return of economically important fish species such as walleye and other biological life. Environmental law is a complex and interlocking body of Statutes, Common law, Treaties, conventions Regulations and policies which very Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two The walleye (common US name or yellow pickerel (Canada ( Sander vitreus vitreus, formerly Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) is a freshwater Perciform Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles 
However, the lake ecosystem is much changed from its original state, with a long list of invasive species well established. Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions Common fish species such as rainbow smelt, alewife, white perch and common carp have all been introduced from outside the Great Lakes. Rainbow Smelt ( Osmerus mordax) is an Anadromous Species of Fish inhabiting rivers and coastal areas of North America from The alewife ( Alosa pseudoharengus) is a species of Herring. There are anadromous and landlocked forms The white perch, Morone americana, is not a true perch but is rather a fish of the temperate bass family Moronidae, notable as a food and game fish in The Common carp or European carp ( Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater Fish related to the common Goldfish ( Carassius auratus Non-native sportfish such as rainbow trout and brown trout continue to be stocked for anglers to catch. The rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a species of Salmonid native to tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America The brown trout ( Salmo trutta morpha fario and S trutta morpha lacustris) and the sea trout ( S Attempts to stock the lake with coho salmon were made, but failed, and that species is once again nearly absent from the lake. The Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, (from the Russian кижуч kizhuch) is a Species of Anadromous Fish Recent invaders, zebra and quagga mussels have populated the entire Lake Erie ecosystem, altering energy flow through the food web away from the pelagic zone and into the benthic zone. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a Species of small freshwater Mussel, an Aquatic Bivalve Mollusk. The quagga mussel ( Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) is one of seven Dreissena species The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of Clams or Bivalve Molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Any water in the sea that is not close to the bottom is in the pelagic zone. The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a Body of water such as an Ocean or a Lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface
Other invasive species, such as the goby (recently arrived) and the grass carp (on the doorstep), have increased public debate about the risks of non-native invaders to Great Lakes ecosystems. The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, is a freshwater bottom-dwelling goby of the family Gobiidae, native to central Eurasia including The Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a Herbivorous, Freshwater Fish.
The effects of zebra mussels and gobies have been credited with the increased population and size of smallmouth bass in Lake Erie. The smallmouth bass ( Micropterus dolomieui) is a Species of Freshwater Fish in the sunfish family ( Centrarchidae) 
Lake Erie is home to one of the world's largest freshwater commercial fisheries. Once a mainstay of communities around the lake, commercial fishing is now predominantly based in Canadian communities, with a much smaller fishery, largely restricted to yellow perch, in Ohio. Commercial fishing, also known as industrial fishing, is the activity of capturing Fish and other Seafood for commercial Profit, mostly The Ontario fishery is one of the most intensively managed in the world. It was one of the first fisheries in the world managed on individual transferable quotas (ITQs) and features mandatory daily catch reporting and intensive auditing of the catch reporting system. Still, the commercial fishery is the target of critics who would like to see the lake managed for the exclusive benefit of sport fishing and the various industries serving the sport fishery. Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is Fishing for Pleasure or Competition.
Commercial landings are dominated by yellow perch and walleye, with substantial quantities of rainbow smelt and white bass also taken. The yellow perch ( Perca flavescens) is a species of Perch found in the United States and Canada, where it is often referred to by the shortform The walleye (common US name or yellow pickerel (Canada ( Sander vitreus vitreus, formerly Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) is a freshwater Perciform The white bass or sand bass ( Morone chrysops) is a Freshwater fish of the temperate bass family Moronidae. Anglers target walleye and yellow perch, with some effort directed on rainbow trout. A variety of other species are taken in smaller quantities by both commercial and sport fleets.
Although management of the fishery is by consensus of all management agencies with an interest in the resource (the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan and the province of Ontario) under the mandate of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, and driven by comprehensive fisheries assessment programs and sophisticated mathematical modeling systems, it remains the source of considerable recrimination, primarily from United States based angler and charter fishing groups with a historical antipathy to the commercial fishery. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec This conflict is complex, dating from the 1960s and changes in U. S. fisheries management that led to elimination of commercial fishing in most U. S. Great Lakes states. The process began in the state of Michigan, and its evolution is well documented in Szylvian (2004), using Lake Michigan as a case study. The underlying issues are universal, wherever sport and commercial fishing coexist, but their persistence in the Lake Erie context, one of the most intensively scrutinized and managed fisheries anywhere, suggests that these conflicts are cultural, not scientific, and therefore not resolvable by reference to ecological data. These debates are largely driven by social, political and economic issues, not ecology.
Lake Erie has a lake retention time of 2. Lake retention time (also called the Residence time of lake water or the water age or flushing time) is a calculated quantity expressing the 6 years, which is the shortest of all the Great Lakes. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. 
Like the rest of the Great Lakes, Erie's levels fluctuate with the season of the year, with the lowest levels in January and February, and the highest in June or July. Its average yearly levels also vary depending on long-term precipitation variations, with levels falling during droughts and rising during periods of extended above-average precipitation.
Lake Erie's short-term level changes are often subject to weather, since its shallowness and the southwest-to-northeast alignment of its longitudinal axis make it particularly prone to seiches, especially during high southwesterly winds, when the lake water tends to pile up at one end of the lake. Seiche is also a French term for a type of Cuttlefish (Sepiida This can lead to large storm surges, potentially causing damage onshore. Storm surge or tidal surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system typically a Tropical cyclone. During one storm in November 2003, the water level at Buffalo rose by 7 feet (2. 1 m) with waves of 10-15 feet (3-4. 5 m) on top of that, for a cumulative rise of as much as 22 feet (6. 7 m). Meanwhile, Toledo at the western end of the lake will measure similar drops in water level. This article is about the city in Ohio, USA. For Toledo Spain, see that article After the storm event, the water will slowly slosh back and forth, similar to the effect in a bath tub, until equilibrium is re-established.
13. http://www.cedarpoint.com Cedar Point - The Roller Coaster Capital of the World. Located in Sandusky, Ohio, on a Lake Erie peninsula.
Howard Farms Beach and Cooley Canal on Lake Erie near Toledo, Ohio
Lake Erie from space, looking from the west
The shore of Lake Erie as seen from Long Point