A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Measurement is the process of estimating the magnitude of some attribute of an object such as its length or weight relative to some standard ( unit of measurement) such as The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include:
Scientific laboratories can be found in schools and universities, in industry, in government or military facilities, and even aboard ships and spacecraft. A film laboratory is a commercial service enterprise and technical facility for the Film industry where specialists develop print and conform film material for classical film A darkroom is a workspace usually a separate area in a building or a vehicle made dark to allow Photographers to use Light -sensitive materials to develop film A computer lab also known as a Computer Suite is typically a room which contains many networked Computers for public use A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a Laboratory where tests are done on clinical specimens in order to get information about the Health Clandestine chemistry generally refers to Chemistry carried out in illegal drug Laboratories (known colloquially as labs) but can include any The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils" A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. A laboratory might offer work space for just one to more than thirty researchers depending on its size and purpose.
Labs used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science. Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. A physics lab might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy lab could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. This vacuum means "absence of matter" or "an empty area or space" for the cleaning appliance see Vacuum cleaner. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is (usually poured into a mold which Refining (also called affining) is the process of Purification of a substance. In Materials science, the strength of a material refers to the material's ability to resist an applied force A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist's or economist's lab might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Wet Laboratories are defined as laboratories where Chemicals, Drugs, or other material or biological matter are tested and analyzed requiring water direct ventilation Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. In some laboratories, computers (sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A supercomputer is a Computer that is at the frontline of processing capacity particularly speed of calculation (at the time of its introduction A computer simulation, a computer model or a computational model is a Computer program, or network of computers that attempts to simulate an Data analysis is the process of looking at and summarizing Data with the intent to extract useful Information and develop conclusions Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Despite the great differences among laboratories, some features are common. The use of workbenches or countertops at which the scientist may choose to either sit or stand is a common way to ensure comfortable working conditions for the researcher, who may spend a large portion of his or her working day in the laboratory. A workbench is sturdy table at which manual work is done They range from simple flat surfaces to very complex designs that may be considered tools in themselves Countertop (also counter top, countertopping, or ( British English) worktop) usually refers to a horizontal worksurface in kitchens other food The provision of cabinets for the storage of laboratory equipment is quite common. A cabinet is usually a box-shaped form either standing alone as a piece of furniture or built into or attached to a wall (such as a Medicine cabinet typically made of wood Laboratory equipment refers to the various Tools and Equipment used by Scientists working in a Laboratory. It is traditional for a scientist to record an experiment's progress in a laboratory notebook, but modern labs almost always contain at least one computer workstation for data collection and analysis. A lab notebook is a primary record of Research. Researchers use a lab notebook to document their hypotheses, Experiments and initial analysis or interpretation
In some laboratories, the conditions are no more dangerous than in any other room. In many labs, though, hazards are present. Laboratory hazards are as varied as the subjects of study in laboratories, and might include poisons; infectious agents; flammable, explosive, or radioactive materials; moving machinery; extreme temperatures; strong magnetic fields or high voltage. In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature In Physics, a magnetic field is a Vector field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving Electric charges The term high voltage characterizes electrical circuits in which the voltage used is the cause of particular safety concerns and insulation requirements In laboratories where dangerous conditions might exist, safety precautions are important. Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf) the condition of being protected against physical social spiritual financial political Rules exist to minimize the individual's risk, and safety equipment is used to protect the lab user from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency. An emergency is a situation which poses an immediate risk to Health, Life, Property or environment.