Labiaplasty (sometimes spelled labioplasty and sometimes referred to as labia minor reduction or labial reduction) is plastic surgery of the labia majora and/or the labia minora, which are the external folds of skin surrounding the structures of the vulva. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty interested in the correction of form and function The labia majora (singular labium majus) are two prominent Longitudinal Cutaneous folds which extend downward and backward from the Mons pubis The labia minora (singular labium minus) or nymphae are two longitudinal Cutaneous folds on the human Vulva. The skin is the outer covering of living tissue of an animal (or plant The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs The procedure involves reducing elongated labium. When labia are created where there were none, it is usually part of a vaginoplasty. Vaginoplasty is any surgical procedure whose purpose is to treat Vaginal structural defects affect aesthetic considerations or to partially or totally construct or
Labiaplasty reduces the size of one or both sets of labia. It may also be employed to repair the labia following disease or injury, or especially after childbirth. Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a Human Pregnancy or In addition, a hoodectomy may be performed at the same time, which exposes the clitoris in an attempt to increase sexual stimulation. The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in Female Mammals In humans the visible button-like portion is located near the Anterior Sexual stimulation is any stimulus that leads to sexual arousal or Orgasm. Hoodectomy is sometimes used to treat sexual dysfunction such as anorgasmia. Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also Sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the Sexual act (which includes desire, Anorgasmia (often related to Delayed ejaculation in males is a form of Sexual dysfunction sometimes classified as a Psychiatric disorder in which the patient
As recently as 1999, surgeons usually performed labium reduction by straight amputation of the protuberant sections and then by suturing the edges together. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) In Medicine, a surgeon is a person who performs Surgery. Surgery is a broad category of invasive Medical treatment that involves the cutting of a Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or Surgery.  However, this procedure sometimes created a fragile and stiff suture line as well as eliminating the natural contour and pigmentation of the labia minora. For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. Moreover, other procedural and clinical problems existed with amputation that did not ensure a favorable outcome.
Several years later, more surgeons introduced lasers into their armamentarium and began using more refined surgical procedures like one known as inferior wedge resection and superior pedicle flap reconstruction. A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. Medical equipment is designed to aid in the diagnosis monitoring or treatment of medical conditions Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental In one outcome study, surgeons studied the results of 20 patients undergoing labiaplasty via the procedure. A patient is any person who receives medical attention care or treatment. 95. 2 percent of patients at 46 months reported being very satisfied. While five complications cropped up, all but one were handled immediately postoperatively and did not require additional hospital stays or interfere with healing. Complication, in Medicine, is an unfavorable evolution of a Disease, a Health condition or a medical treatment A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for Healing, assessed physically is the process by which the cells in the Body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area 
Labiaplasty is almost always an outpatient procedure performed under anesthesia. A patient is any person who receives medical attention care or treatment. Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek grc αν- an-, "without" and grc αἲσθησις It is debated as to whether a local or short general anesthetic delivers better patient comfort. After surgery, patients may experience some mild discomfort and variable swelling, which usually disappear for the most part after one to two weeks. Recovery times ranging from three days to one or two weeks are often listed on surgeons’ websites.
While statistics on any botched plastic surgery procedures are rare, the comparable rate of satisfaction for other commonly performed cosmetic plastic surgery procedures in the United States is about the same or slightly less than labiaplasty. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Botched is a 2007 film starring Stephen Dorff. Plot Richie Donovan is a professional thief whose luck has just run out The United States of America —commonly referred to as the According to Jeffrey Rawnsley, an assistant professor and director the UCLA Facial Aesthetic Center at the University of California, Los Angeles, about 90 percent of patients report a positive outcome for breast augmentation. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies The University of California Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Westwood Los Angeles, California, United The University of California ( UC) is a Public university system in the state of California. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West A breast implant is a Prosthesis used to enlarge the size of a woman's Breasts (known as breast augmentation, breast enlargement, mammoplasty  Experts report about an 85 percent positive outcome for rhinoplasty (the “nose job”), while liposuction patients in the late 1990s suffered a mortality rate of about 20 per 100,000, according to author Christine Rosen. Rhinoplasty ( Rhinos, "Nose" + el ''Plassein'' "to shape" is a surgical procedure which is usually performed by either an Otolaryngologist Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty ("fat modeling" liposculpture or suction lipectomy ("suction-assisted fat removal" is  While liposuction outcome rates have improved, many breast augmentation and rhinoplasty revisions are performed worldwide, because the procedure was not done correctly the first time.
Labiaplasty—in comparison to other popular rejuvenation surgeries—requires additional treatment in five to seven percent of cases. While the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) listed only about 1000 “vaginal rejuvenations” during 2006, the most current year for which U. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS is the largest Plastic surgery specialty organization in the world Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. S. statistics have been compiled, surgeons in both the U. S. and the U.K.—as well as in other developed nations—report that the procedure seems to be growing exponentially. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors The professional plastic surgery organizations like ASPS, the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS) and the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons do not count labiaplasties among the other yearly statistics of plastic cosmetic procedures. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS is an organization devoted to the advancement of cosmetic surgery
According to plastic surgeons, patients often ask for labiaplasty for functional or aesthetic reasons, or a combination of the two. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called  Many patients complain that elongated labia become painful during exercise, or while sitting for long periods of time. A retrospective study conducted by Dr. John R. Miklos and Dr. Robert D. Moore found that close to two-thirds of women seeking labia reduction do so for reason such as pain or discomfort. 
Other patients explain to physicians that the elongated lips can be painfully drawn inside them during sexual penetration. Sexual penetration is the Penetration of a Bodily orifice, such as the Vagina, Anus or Mouth, with a body part or another object Some models, dancers and actors feel embarrassment when wearing swimsuits and other revealing clothing, because their labia are visible through form-fitting clothing, or because their labia slip out of skimpy garments altogether. A model is a person who is posed or displayed for the purpose of Art, Fashion, or other products and Advertising. Dance (from French danser, perhaps from Frankish) is an Art form that generally refers to movement of the body usually rhythmic An actor, actress, player or thespian (see terminology) is a person who Acts in a Dramatic production and who works Embarrassment is an Emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Labiaplasty patients also report feeling embarrassment with their sex partners. Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display 
Physicians and mainstream mass media report that the widespread use of pornography has increased demand for labiaplasty. Mainstream is generally the common current of Thought of the Majority. "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer  Consequently, many more people have seen pornographic actresses with shortened labium, and come to regard that as an ideal. A pornographic actor/actress or a porn star is somebody who appears in Pornographic films or Photographs, live Sex shows or Those who consider labiaplasty for this reason may not be aware that the actresses have had surgery, but may wish to get the surgery to appear what they believe to be "normal". Trends like thong underwear, bikini waxes or shaved pubic hair add to the noticeability of protruding labia. Origin G-string or thong is probably the earliest form of Clothing known to mankind having originated in the warmer climates of Sub-Saharan Africa where clothing A bikini or two-piece is a type of women's Swimsuit, characterized by two separate parts &mdash one covering the Breasts (optionally in the case of The procedure is often the subject of articles in women's magazines, complete with before-and-after pictures. This is a list of women's magazines, Magazines that have been published primarily for a readership of women. An image (from Latin imago) or picture is an artifact usually two-dimensional that has a similar appearance to some subject &mdashusually
Writing in the May 2007 British Medical Journal, psychologist Lih Mei Liao and gynecologist Sara M. May 2007 is the fifth month of that year It began on a Tuesday and 31 days later ended on a Thursday. Mental health professional A psychologist is a practitioner of Psychology, the systematic investigation of the mind including Behavior, Cognition, Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) refers to the surgical specialty dealing with health of the female reproductive system ( Uterus Creighton, noted that demand for cosmetic genitoplasty is increasing and that the National (U. K. ) Health Service (NHS) has apparently doubled the number of labiaplasty procedures performed in the last five years. Liao and Creighton interviewed healthy adults who had the procedure to learn their motivations for electing for labiaplasty. For the 2008 British film by Noel Clarke see Adulthood (film. Many seemed to be moved by appearance. Wrote the authors:
“Patients consistently wanted their vulvas to be flat with no protrusion beyond the labia majora. . . some women brought along images to illustrate the desired appearance, usually from adverts or pornography that may have been digitally altered. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer ”
A study over nine years on 163 labiaplasty patients who underwent reduction of the labia minora showed a 93 percent rate of satisfaction. 
Labiaplasty is controversial amongst some professionals and non-professionals who raise concerns that the desire for this procedure is driven by marketing, and an unhealthy self-image derived from media images of what the "ideal" female genitalia should look like. The increasing attention this procedure is receiving in various media is believed to be generating a growing market for this surgery. For most women, it is cosmetically unwarranted, and constitutes a needless exposure to the risks inherent in any surgery. Some have likened the procedure to other forms of genital modification and mutilation. The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to Human Genitals. 
Another concern about choosing this surgery for cosmetic reasons is that the ring of scar tissue created at the vaginal opening can later cause pain and complications during childbirth. As this surgery is more and more frequently performed on younger women, a concern is that surgeons are not warning women of the long-term physical risks they may undertake by electing for labiaplasty.
In May 2007, an article published in the British Medical Journal blasted the "designer vagina" craze, citing its popularity being rooted in commercial and media influences. May 2007 is the fifth month of that year It began on a Tuesday and 31 days later ended on a Thursday. 
Recently, the appropriateness of the procedure has come into question among academics, feminists and health care providers, especially in the U. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate S. and the U. K. Because some critics argue that women were reporting to plastic surgeons only to have more "acceptable" genitalia created, six scholars, including the heads of two women’s centers and the chiefs of four departments of obstetrics and gynecology at major U. A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute Scholarly method &mdash or as it is more commonly called scholarship &mdash is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as S. universities gathered for a list serve discussion sponsored by The International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Medicine. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Debate ( American English) or debating ( British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational Argument. The participants took a serious look at elective vulvar plastic surgery, among other topics like female genital cutting in Third World nations, and assigned six experts with special or strong, evidence-based opinions about vulvar health. An "expert" ( is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of technique or Skill whose faculty for judging or deciding rightly justly An opinion is a Person 's Ideas and thoughts towards something which it is either impossible to verify the truth of or the truth of which is thought unimportant to Several noted that variations in the appearance of the vulvar region are normal but that labiaplasty, like any medical treatment, is a woman's right. A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics The group concluded that vulvar plastic surgery may be warranted only after counseling if it is still the patient’s preference, provided the procedure is conducted safely and not solely for the purpose of performing surgery. 
In the case of transwomen, labiaplasty is frequently the second part of a two-stage vaginoplasty, where labia and a clitoral hood are created. Sex reassignment surgery from male to female involves reshaping the Male genitals into a form with the appearance of and as far as possible the function of A transwoman (also spelled trans woman or trans-woman) is a male-to-female transsexual and the term transwoman is preferred by many such Vaginoplasty is any surgical procedure whose purpose is to treat Vaginal structural defects affect aesthetic considerations or to partially or totally construct or In Female Human Anatomy, the clitoral hood, (also called preputium clitoridis and clitoral prepuce) is a fold of Skin This is often performed a few months after the first part of the procedure. In some cases, labiaplasty is an elective procedure to improve appearance after a one-stage vaginoplasty.