|Also known as||Israeli Krav Maga, Krav|
|Country of origin||Israel and Czechoslovakia|
|Creator||Imi Lichtenfeld (1910–1998)|
|Famous practitioners||Imi Lichtenfeld, Haim Gidon, Raffi Liven, Eyal Yanilov, Darren Levine,Ran Nakash Kobi Lichtenstein,|
Krav Maga (Hebrew קרב מגע: "close combat") is an eclectic self-defense and military hand-to-hand combat system developed in Israel, which assumes no quarter will be given, and emphasizes maximum threat neutralization in a "real life" context. For the combat sport see Mixed martial arts. Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to Martial arts A strike is an attack with an inanimate object such as a Weapon, or with a part of the human body intended to cause an effect upon an opponent or to simply cause harm to Grappling refers to the gripping handling and controlling of an opponent without the use of striking, typically through the application of various Grappling holds For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Imrich ("Emerich" Lichtenfeld (1910 – January 9 1998 is the founder of the self-defence system Krav Maga. Imrich ("Emerich" Lichtenfeld (1910 – January 9 1998 is the founder of the self-defence system Krav Maga. Imrich ("Emerich" Lichtenfeld (1910 – January 9 1998 is the founder of the self-defence system Krav Maga. Haim Gidon is a world renowned teacher of Krav Maga ( Hebrew קרב מגע "contact combat" an Israeli originated Self-defense and Eyal Yanilov (1959-) is the Chief Instructor of the International Krav Maga Federation Darren Levine is a martial artist entrepreneur and prosecutor for the Los Angeles County District Attorney 's office Kobi Lichtenstein (1964-) is the Chief Instructor of the South American Federation of Krav Maga Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single Paradigm or set of assumptions but instead draws upon multiple theories styles or ideas to Self-defense (or self-defence &mdash see spelling differences) is the act of defending oneself one's property or the well-being of another from physical harm Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H is a generic term for Close quarters fighting, particularly when the outcome is potentially fatal as in Melee For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. A victor gives no quarter when the victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life in return for the Surrender at discretion (unconditional surrender of a vanquished  It came to prominence following its adoption by various Israeli Security Forces. Security forces in Israel include a variety of organizations including law enforcement, Military, Paramilitary, governmental
The generic name in Hebrew means "close combat. Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H is a generic term for Close quarters fighting, particularly when the outcome is potentially fatal as in Melee " The word maga (מגע) means "contact" and the word krav (קרב) means "combat", but the literal translation "contact fighting" could be confused with "full contact" martial arts, such as "full contact karate. Full contact karate is a term used to differentiate between schools that spar full contact and those that use light contact point sparring "
In Krav Maga, there are no hard-and-fast rules, and no distinction in training for men and women . It is not a sport, and there are no specific uniforms, attire or competitions, although some organizations recognise progress through training with rank badges and different levels. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources All the techniques focus on maximum efficiency in real-life conditions. Krav Maga generally assumes that the individual attacking will give no quarter; therefore, as a response the attacks and defenses are intended only for use in potentially lethal threat situations with the aim to neutralize and escape as rapidly and safely as possible. A victor gives no quarter when the victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life in return for the Surrender at discretion (unconditional surrender of a vanquished Crippling attacks to vulnerable body parts, including groin and eye strikes, headbutts, and other efficient and potentially brutal attacks, improvised use of any objects available, and maximizing personal safety in a fight, are emphasized. However, it must be stressed that instructors can and do demonstrate how to moderate the techniques to fit the circumstances. While no limits are placed on techniques to be used in life-threatening situations, the legal need to inflict the appropriate minimal damage in other circumstances is recognized and stressed.
The guiding principles for those performing Krav Maga techniques are:
According to a description written for the self-publication media site Associated Content, the basic premises of Krav Maga are:
Again, this must be read in the context of a life-threatening situation. Instructors will constantly stress the need, in less extreme circumstances, to match the response to the danger or risk.
The basic idea is to deal first with the immediate threat (being choked, for example), prevent the attacker from re-attacking, and then neutralize the attacker, proceeding through all steps in a methodical manner, despite the rush of adrenaline that occurs in such an attack. The emphasis is put on taking the initiative from the attacker as soon as possible. Indeed, some circumstances may require pre-emptive action, which may or may not be violent. Options here could range from "get your retaliation in first" to situational awareness (also part of the training) that might avoid a dangerous situation developing.
Although Krav Maga shares many techniques with other martial arts, the training is often quite different. Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for Combat. It stresses fighting under worst-case conditions or from disadvantaged positions, for example: against several opponents, when protecting someone else, with one arm unusable, when dizzy or against armed opponents. Krav Maga emphasizes rapid learning and the retzef ("continuous combat motion"), with the imperative being effectiveness, for either attack or defensive situations.
Instructors emphasize two training rules: (1) there are no rules in a fight and (2) one must not injure oneself or one's partner when training.  Training is an intense mixed aerobic and anaerobic workout, relying heavily on the use of pads in order to experience both delivery and defense of strikes at full force. Aerobic exercise refers to Exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body This is important because it allows the student to practice the technique at full strength, and the student holding the pad learns a little of the impact they would feel when they get hit. It can be almost as taxing to hold a pad as to practice against one. Students will also wear head guards, gum shields, groin protectors, shin and forearm guards, etc during practice of attack/defence techniques, so that a realistic level of violence may be used without injury. Some schools incorporate "Strike and Fight," which consists of full-contact sparring intended to familiarize the student with the stresses of a violent situation. Sparring is a form of Training common to many Martial arts. Although the precise form varies it is essentially relatively 'free-form' fighting with enough rules
Training may employ a speaker system blasting loud music, stroboscope and/or fog machine, meant to train the student to ignore peripheral distractions and focus on the needs of the situation. A stroboscope, also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving or stationary A fog machine (also called a smoke machine) is a device which emits a dense vapor that appears similar to Fog or Smoke. Other training methods to increase realism might include exercising the student to near exhaustion before having to defend, training outdoors on a variety of surfaces and restrictive situations, wearing a blindfold before being attacked, etc. The emphasis is on attempting to simulate real fight/attack situations as realistically as possible within the safety limitations of training.
Training will usually also cover situational awareness, to develop an understanding of one's surroundings and potentially threatening circumstances before an attack is launched. It may also cover "Self Protection": ways to deal with situations which could end in fights, and physical and verbal methods to avoid violence whenever possible.
A typical session in a civilian school is about an hour long and mixes conditioning with self-defense teaching. Self-defense (or self-defence &mdash see spelling differences) is the act of defending oneself one's property or the well-being of another from physical harm As levels increase, the instructors focus a little more on complicated and less common types of attacks, such as knife attacks, hostage situations and defense under extreme duress. First, the instructor will run a very intense drill to get the class's heart rates up. Then, after stretching, the instructor will teach two or three self-defense techniques. In the beginning the techniques will either be combatives (punches, hammer-fists, elbows, and knees) or grappling (breaking out of chokes or wrist-grabs, getting out from under an opponent while on one's back). Grappling refers to the gripping handling and controlling of an opponent without the use of striking, typically through the application of various Grappling holds After that, the class usually moves to a drill that combines the techniques just taught with an aerobic technique. Finally, there is the final drill intended to burn out the students. Depending on the class - and on the instructor's mood - this drill may be at the very beginning or at the end of the class.
Krav Maga was developed in Hungary and Czechoslovakia in the 1930s by Imi Lichtenfeld, also known as Imi Sde-Or. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. Imrich ("Emerich" Lichtenfeld (1910 – January 9 1998 is the founder of the self-defence system Krav Maga. (Sde-Or - "Light Field" - is a calque of his surname into Hebrew. In Linguistics, a calque (kælk or loan translation is a Word or Phrase borrowed from another Language by Literal, word-for-word ) He first taught his fighting system in Bratislava in order to help protect the Jewish community from Nazi militias. ARTICLE TEXT BEGINS AFTER THESE COMMENTS - PLEASE READ 1 Please do not edit the lead without reading PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Upon arriving in the British Mandate of Palestine prior to the establishment of the Jewish state, Imi began teaching hand-to-hand combat to the Haganah, the Jewish underground army. The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement The terms " Jewish state " and " homeland of the Jewish people " are used to describe the State of Israel and refer to its status as a Nation-state Haganah ( Hebrew: "The Defense" ההגנה was a Jewish Paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ With the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Imi became the Chief Instructor of Physical Fitness and Krav Maga at the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) School of Combat Fitness. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit He served in the IDF for about 20 years, during which time he continued to develop and refine his hand-to-hand combat method. He died in January 1998 in Netanya, Israel. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. 
Prior to 1980, all experts in Krav Maga lived in Israel and trained under the Israeli Krav Maga Association. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) That year marks the beginning of contact between Israeli Krav Maga experts and interested students in the United States. In 1981, a group of six Krav Maga instructors traveled to the US to offer demonstrations of the system, primarily at local Jewish Community Centers. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 A Jewish Community Center ( JCC) is a general recreational social and fraternal organization serving the Jewish community in a number of This, in turn, led to demonstrations at the New York Field Office of the FBI and the FBI's Main Training Center at Quantico, Virginia. The FBI Academy, located in Quantico Virginia, is the training grounds for new Special Agents of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation The result was a visit by 22 people from the US to Israel in the summer of 1981 to attend a basic Krav Maga instructor course. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 The graduates from this course returned to the US and began to establish training facilities in their local areas. Additional students traveled to Israel in 1984 and again in 1986 to become instructors. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) At the same time, instructors from Israel continued to visit the US. Law Enforcement training in the US began in 1985. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar)  Instructor certification courses are offered every year in Netanya, Israel for qualified individuals. 
In 1964, Imi Lichtenfeld finished his military service and adapted Krav Maga to civilian frameworks. In Israel, Krav Maga is taught by Haim Gideon at the Wingate Institute, which is one of the world's leading physical fitness centers. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics.
Tactical Krav Maga is an interpretation of Krav Maga by Itay Gil, the former Chief close-quarter combat instructor for the YAMAM special forces. The Yamam (ימ"מ is the acronym for Special Police Unit (יחידת משטרה מיוחדת Yeḥidat Mishtara Meyuḥedet) Israel 's elite civilian
The International Krav Maga Federation is an organisation dedicated to the spreading of Krav Maga around the globe and is headed by Eyal Yanilov, the highest graded instructor under the founder, Imi.
The History Channel show Human Weapon, the Discovery Channel show Fight Quest and the National Geographic Show Fight Science have all showcased Krav Maga. History, formerly known as The History Channel, is a Satellite and Cable TV channel, with shows on historical events and persons&mdashoften Human Weapon is a weekly Television show on The History Channel that premiered on July 20, 2007. Discovery Channel is an American Satellite and Cable TV channel (also delivered via IPTV, Terrestrial television and Fight Quest is a television show on the Discovery Channel that had a preview episode air on December 28, 2007 and began airing weekly on Overview The NGS's historical mission is "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge while promoting the conservation of the world's cultural historical and natural Fight Science is a Television program shown on the National Geographic Channel in which scientists and Martial arts masters work together
Sam Fisher, the main protagonist from the Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell Video Game series is said to be an advanced user of Krav Maga, along with several other styles of unarmed combat. Background Sam Fisher is a veteran of the CIA Directorate of Operations of the U Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell is a series of Video games endorsed by American author Tom Clancy.