Kommune 1 or K1 was the first politically-motivated commune in Germany. A commune is an Intentional community of people living together sharing common interests Property, possessions Resources, work and Income Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. It was created on January 12, 1967, in West Berlin and finally dissolved in November 1969. Events 475 - Basiliscus becomes Byzantine Emperor, with a coronation ceremony in the Hebdomon palace in Constantinople Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990 Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Kommune 1 developed from the extraparliamentary opposition of the German student movement of the 1960s. It was intended as a counter-model against the small middle-class family, as a reaction against a society that the commune thought was very conservative.
They were first located (from February 19, 1967, until the beginning of March, 1967) in the empty apartment of the author, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, in Fregestraße 19, as well as in the studio apartment of the author, Uwe Johnson, who was staying in the USA, at Niedstraße 14 in the Berlin district of Friedenau. Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Hans Magnus Enzensberger (born 11 November 1929 in Kaufbeuren) is a German Author, Poet, translator and editor Uwe Johnson (July 20 1934 - February 22 1984 was a German writer editor, and scholar The United States of America —commonly referred to as the After Enzensberger's return from a long study trip to Moscow, they left his apartment and occupied the home of Johnson at Stierstraße 3 for a short time and then finally moved to the second floor of the back of a tenement house in Stephanstraße 60 in the Berlin district of Stephankiez. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of 
Members of the "Munich Subversive Action" (such as Dieter Kunzelmann) and of the Berlin Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund ("SDS") (such as Rudi Dutschke and Bernd Rabehl) discussed how to break from what they considered to be narrow-minded and bourgeois concepts. Der Sozialistische Deutsche Studentenbund ( Socialist German Student Union) was founded 1946 in Hamburg, Germany, as the college organisation Rudi Dutschke born Alfred Willi Rudi Dutschke ( March 7, 1940 Schönefeld &ndash December 24, 1979, Århus, Denmark
Dieter Kunzelmann had the idea of creating a commune. They decided to try a life of "those passionately interested in themselves". Kunzelmann soon moved to Berlin. In Berlin, the SDS had its first "commune working group", which advanced the following ideas:
When it was proposed that this theory should be realized as the practice of a life as a commune, many SDS members left, including Rudi Dutschke and Bernd Rabehl, who did not want to give up their marriages and lifestyles. In the end, nine men and women, as well as a child, moved into the empty apartment of Hans Magnus Enzensberger and the studio apartment of the author Uwe Johnson in Berlin-Friedenau, who was staying in New York City at the time, on February 19, 1967. Hans Magnus Enzensberger (born 11 November 1929 in Kaufbeuren) is a German Author, Poet, translator and editor Uwe Johnson (July 20 1934 - February 22 1984 was a German writer editor, and scholar The City of New York Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. After Enzensberger's return from an extended study trip to Moscow, the communards left and occupied the main residence of Johnson in the nearby Stierstraße 3. They called themselves Kommune 1.
The early communards included Dagrun Enzensberger (divorced wife of Hans Magnus Enzensberger), Tanaquil Enzensberger (nine years old at that time, daughter of Hans Magnus Enzensberger), Ulrich Enzensberger (Hans Magnus Enzensberger's brother), Dieter Kunzelmann, Detlef Michel (until March 25, 1967), Volker Gebbert, Hans-Joachim Hameister, Dorothea Ridder, ("the iron Dorothee"), Dagmar Seehuber and Fritz Teufel. Detlef Michel (born October 13, 1955 in Berlin) is a German Track and field athlete Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Rainer Langhans joined in March of 1967. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar.  At times, other people also lived in the premises of Kommune 1, such as Dagmar von Doetinchem and Gertrud Hemmer („Agathe“).
The communards first tried to tell each other their own biographical identity, to break the old certainties. They were very different from each other. Correspondingly, the roles each of them played were soon different. Kunzelmann was the "patriarch" and made sure everyone knew it. His definition of the goals of the commune were based on his time as a "situationist" and in the "Subversive Action". He was therefore in favor of getting rid of all securities, even financial ones, which is why he scorned study grants, for example. He wanted to abolish any property, any private sphere. And he was against the principle of work, but for the principle of fun or pleasure. Everyone could and should do what he wanted, as long as it happened where everyone could see it.
Langhans, Teufel and the others wore long hair, beaded necklaces, army jackets or Mao suits at the urging of the women of the commune. Soon, they were paid for interviews and photographs. A sign hung plainly in the hallway of their apartment: "First pay up, then speak".
During its entire existence, Kommune 1 was infamous for its bizarre staged events that fluctuated between satire and provocation. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human These events served as inspiration for the "Sponti" movement and other leftist groups. Revolutionary spontaneity (also known as spontaneism) is a tendency to believe that Social revolution can and should occur spontaneously from below
Because the domestic commune life was too boring, the communards decided to turn their internal experience into actions.
The first of these was the "pudding assassination" of US Vice-President Hubert Humphrey who was scheduled to visit Berlin. Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr ( May 27, 1911 &ndash January 13, 1978) was the thirty-eighth Vice President of the United States, serving On the evening of April 2, 1967, the communards met in Johnson's apartment with about 20 other people whom they knew from demonstrations. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Kunzelmann presented his plan of throwing smoke bombs in the direction of the Vice President on the occasion of the state visit. None of the others besides Langhans wanted to participate. 
Police files indicate that the planned attack was revealed by a secret service agent, since eleven students were arrested by officials of Division I (Political Police) on April 5, 1967. Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. They were supposed to have met under conspiritorial conditions and planned attacks against the life or health of the American Vice President, Hubert Horatio Humphrey, by means of bombs, plastic bags filled with unknown chemicals or with other dangerous tools, such as stones.
Those arrested were Ulrich Enzensberger, Volker Gebbert, Klaus Gilgenmann, Hans-Joachim Hameister, Wulf Krause, Dieter Kunzelmann, Rainer Langhans and Fritz Teufel.  The tabloid Bild's headline was "Humphrey to be assassinated", the weekly Zeit spoke of "Eleven little Oswalds". The Bild (formerly Bild-Zeitung, lit Picture Newspaper) is a German Newspaper published by Axel Springer AG. Zeit (meaning "time" in German) is a 1972 album by the German Electronic music group Tangerine Dream. Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18 1939 &ndash November 24 1963 was according to three United States government investigations the assassin of U Even the New York Times featured a report on the dangerous plan of eight communards to attack the Vice-President with pudding, yoghurt, and flour. Pudding most often refers to a Dessert, but can also be a savory dish Yoghurt, yogurt, yoghourt, youghurt or yogourt (see spelling below is a Flour is a powder made of Cereal grains It is the key ingredient of Bread, which is a staple food in many countries and therefore the availability Because of this negative publicity, Uwe Johnson hastily asked his friend and neighbor Günter Grass to evict the students from his apartment. Günter Wilhelm Grass (born 16 October 1927 is a Nobel Prize -winning German Author and Playwright. The next day, the communards were released and gave their first press conference – they had become celebrities, while the press and police officials had lost face in the public eye. The publisher Axel Springer henceforth called the members of Kommune 1 "communards of horror". Axel Springer AG is one of the largest newspaper publishing companies in Europe, having over 150 newspapers and magazines in over 30 countries including
The commune moved to an apartment in an old building on Kaiser-Friedrich-Straße on Stuttgarter Platz in the district of Berlin-Charlottenburg and later to Stephanstraße 60 in Berlin-Moabit. Hardly a week passed without the communards staging some kind of satiric provocation somewhere in Berlin, which made headlines in the press. In one of them, the commune climbed up the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche to throw down hundreds of Mao Bibles from above. The Protestant Kaiser William Memorial Church (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche) is located in Berlin on the Kurfürstendamm in the
During a demonstration in front of the Opera against the visit of The Shah of Iran on June 2, 1967 (the death of Benno Ohnesorg), Fritz Teufel was arrested and accused of treason. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Benno Ohnesorg (/ˈbɛnoː ˈoːʰnəzɔɐk/ October 15, 1940 – June 2, 1967) was a German university student who was shot It was not until December that he was released, after he and many students with him had began a hunger strike. In the streets, sympathizers held wild demonstrations, chanting "Freedom for Fritz Teufel" and "Drive the devil out of Moabit!" (Moabit being Berlin's prison and Teufel being German for devil). Moabit is an Inner city locality of Berlin. Since Berlin's 2001 administrative reform it belongs to the newly regrouped governmental borough
During Teufel's absence from Kommune 1, the infamous phototograph of the communards' naked behinds against the wall was displayed with the headline: Das Private ist politisch! ("The personal is political")
On June 6, 1967, the "Arsonist's Lawsuit" was filed against Langhans and Teufel because of flyers calling for arson against department stores, which read, "Holt euch das knisternde Vietnam-Gefühl, das wir auch hier nicht missen wollen!" ("Catch that burning Vietnam feeling that we would not want to miss at home!") The court ultimately ruled in favor of Langhans and Teufel, however. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. They later told the story of the lawsuit in their book, Klau Mich ("Steal Me"), which rose to cult status.
The hedonistic attitude of the communards, who did only what they felt like doing, not only polarized the bourgeoisie but also polarized the political Left. Hedonism is the Philosophy that Pleasure is of ultimate importance, the most important pursuit
The SDS especially disliked the provocative activities of the K1. Der Sozialistische Deutsche Studentenbund ( Socialist German Student Union) was founded 1946 in Hamburg, Germany, as the college organisation The provocative flyers of the K1 ("Water cannons are paper tigers") that were signed with the acronym SDS, were a source of continual irritation. Among other things, the communards were accused of having no political interest, but merely indulging in egotism. Hence in May of 1967, the SDS expelled the "revolutionary rowdies" (Bild Zeitung). Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. The Bild (formerly Bild-Zeitung, lit Picture Newspaper) is a German Newspaper published by Axel Springer AG.
In the weekly newspaper Zeit, Klaus Hartung wrote: "Scarcely any political theory was more successful than that according to which revolutionaries have to revolutionize, according to which there will be no change in the society without a change in everyday life. Zeit (meaning "time" in German) is a 1972 album by the German Electronic music group Tangerine Dream. "
Kommune 1 developed into a kind of refuge for alternative thinkers for problems of all kinds; appeals for help arrived daily. The house was under a veritable siege by friends and groupies who worshipped Teufel and Langhans. A groupie is a person who seeks sexual and/or emotional Intimacy with a Celebrity. Because of the crowd of women, especially caused by Teufel, he was expelled from the commune. He moved into a Munich commune and later belonged to the Movement 2 June. The Movement 2nd June (German Bewegung 2 Juni) was a well known West German Militant group based in West Berlin.
By the end of the 1960s, the societal climate had changed. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 In the late summer of 1968, the commune moved into a deserted factory on Stephanstraße in order to reorient. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This second phase of Kommune 1 was characterized by sex, music, and drugs.
On September 21, 1968, the commune went to the International Song Days in Essen, the Federal Republic's first underground festival. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Essen (ˈɛsən is a City in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.  There, Langhans met and fell in love with Uschi Obermaier, a model from Munich. Uschi Obermaier ( September 24 1946 in Munich, aka Chrissi Malberg) is a former fashion model, A model is a person who is posed or displayed for the purpose of Art, Fashion, or other products and Advertising. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. She lived with the Munich-based music commune Amon Düül, but soon she moved in with the communards of Kommune 1, who shared one bedroom. Amon Düül was a German political art commune formed out of the student movement of the 1960s which became well-known for its free form musical improvisations Soon, the press called Langhans and Obermaier the "best-looking couple of the APO". The Außerparlamentarische Opposition ( German for Extraparliamentary Opposition, commonly known as the APO) was a political Protest
The politization of the private sphere and the fact that Langhans and Obermaier spoke openly to the media about their relationship, about jealousy and about "pleasure machines" constituted the next breaking of social taboos, ushering in the sexual revolution. The sexual revolution refers to the well-documented changes in social thought and codes of behaviour related to sexuality throughout the Western world that continues to evolve Later, John Lennon and Yoko Ono and others followed their example. John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (born born in Tokyo on February 18 1933 is a Japanese Artist and Musician.
All of a sudden, the commune was receiving visitors from all over the world, among them the legendary guitarist, Jimi Hendrix, who turned up one morning in the bedroom of Kommune 1. James Marshall Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix) (November 27 1942 – September 18 1970 was an American Guitarist, Singer and Songwriter Obermaier fell in love with him.
Her modeling fees rose sharply, she was given a lead role in Rudolf Thome's cult movie Rote Sonne (1969). (Rote Sonne at IMDB). (Red Sun), and her photos were all over posters and magazine covers. Rumor has it that the magazine Stern paid her 20 thousand Deutschmark (the price of a Porsche 911 at the time) for an interview and nude photos of this self-confident woman of the commune movement. The stern is the rear or aft part of a Ship or Boat, technically defined as the area built up over the Sternpost, extending upwards from the Counter The Porsche 911 (pronounced as Nine Eleven, Neunelfer is a Sports car made by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany
Eventually, the energy of Kommune 1 was spent. Kunzelmann's addiction to heroin worsened and the second communard was expelled from the commune. Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative (It is said that the other members of the commune left of their own will). Now and then, the Munich women's communes appeared.
In November 1969, a gang of Rockers raided those who remained and devastated the rooms. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The remaining occupants lost their belief in the future of Kommune 1 and they dispersed. Obermaier and Langhans went to Munich.
A table from one of the rooms of the Kommune 1 was bought by the Green Party politician Hans-Christian Ströbele. The Alliance '90/The Greens ( Bündnis 90/Die Grünen) the German Green party, is a Political party in Germany whose regional Hans-Christian Ströbele is a German politician and lawyer He is a member of the German Green party. During meetings around that same table, the newspaper die tageszeitung and the German Chaos Computer Club were founded. die tageszeitung (referred to commonly as taz) founded in 1978 in Berlin, is a cooperative-owned German daily Newspaper. The Chaos Computer Club (CCC is one of the biggest and most influential hacker organizations The table was stolen in 1990, and there is some speculation as to its whereabouts today. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar)