Koko (born July 4, 1971, in San Francisco, California) is a lowland gorilla taught by Dr. Francine 'Penny' Patterson and other scientists at Stanford University to communicate with more than 1,000 signs based on American Sign Language, and understand approximately 2,000 words of spoken English. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The Western Gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla) is the most populous species of the genus Gorilla. Dr Francine "Penny" Patterson (b February 13 1947, in Chicago Illinois) is an American researcher who claims to have taught a modified form Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in American Sign Language (or ASL Ameslan is the dominant Sign language of the Deaf community in the United States, in the English-speaking parts She has lived most of her life in Woodside, California, but plans for a move to a sanctuary in Maui, Hawaii, are nearing attainment. Woodside (pop 5352 is a small incorporated town in San Mateo County, California, United States, on the San Francisco Peninsula. The Island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727  She was also the inspiration for Amy the "talking" ape in the Michael Crichton novel Congo. John Michael Crichton, ˈkraɪtən, (born October 23 1942 is an American author Film producer, Film director, Medical doctor, and Television producer Congo is a 1980 Novel by American writer Michael Crichton. The novel centers on an expedition searching for Diamonds in the dense
Koko is short for the name Hanabi-Ko, meaning "fireworks child" in Japanese (a reference to her date of birth, the Fourth of July). In the United States, Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July (or the Fourth) is a Federal holiday commemorating the adoption
Some scientists assert Koko's use of signs, and her actions consistent with her use of signs, indicate she has mastered the use of sign language. A sign language (also signed language) is a Language which instead of acoustically conveyed Sound patterns uses visually transmitted sign patterns Others contend she does not understand the meaning behind what she is doing, but learns to complete the signs simply because the researchers reward her for doing so (indicating that her actions are the product of operant conditioning). However, the latter position is not consistent with the observation that Koko uses the language freely and in novel ways, even when there is no foreseeable gratification. Another concern that has been raised about Koko's ability to express coherent thoughts through the use of signs is that interpretation of the gorilla's conversation is left to the handler, who may see improbable concatenations of signs as meaningful.
Dr. Patterson has documented Koko inventing new signs to communicate novel thoughts. For example, she asserts that nobody taught Koko the word for "ring", therefore to refer to it she combined the words "finger" and "bracelet", hence "finger-bracelet". Similarly, she invented "drink-fruit" (melon), "water-bird" (swan) and "animal-person" (gorilla).
Criticism from some parts of the scientific community centers on the fact that while publications often appear in the popular press about Koko, scientific publications are fewer in number (though they have certainly been published).
Such debate requires careful consideration of what it means to 'learn' or 'use' a language (see animal language for further discussion). Animal language is the modeling of human language in non human animal systems This debate has been ongoing since the first ape sign language experiments with the chimpanzee Washoe in the 1960s. Chimpanzee (often shortened to chimp) is the common name for the two extant Species of Apes in the Genus Pan. Washoe (c September 1965 – October 30, 2007) was a chimpanzee who was the first non-human to learn to use a human language that of American The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Other well-known signing apes include chimpanzee Nim Chimpsky and the orangutan, Chantek. --> Nim Chimpsky ( November 19, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was The orangutans are two Species of great apes known for their intelligence long arms and reddish-brown hair Chantek (born December 17, 1977, at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in Atlanta Georgia) is a male Orangutan who Gorillas and bonobos (pygmy chimpanzees) are relatively adept with certain forms of communication, whereas common chimpanzees and orangutans tend toward mastery of manual skills, including brachiation. The Bonobo (bə'noʊboʊ Pan paniscus) until recently usually called the Pygmy Chimpanzee (and less often the Dwarf or Gracile Chimpanzee The Common Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes) also known as the Robust Chimpanzee, is a great ape. Brachiation (from "limb" or "branch" is a form of Arboreal locomotion in which Primates swing from tree limb to tree limb using only their arms
Koko's training began at the age of one. Dr. Patterson has assessed Koko's vocabulary at over 1,000 signs, which places her among the most proficient non-human users of language .
Michael, a gorilla who lived with Koko for several years, also developed a broad vocabulary of signs, over 600, but did not become as proficient as Koko before his death in 2000. Michael (b March 17, 1973, Cameroon, Africa - d April 19, 2000) was the first male 'talking' Gorilla. Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Michael's caregivers believe that he witnessed and remembered his mother's death at the hands of poachers, but was unable to clearly express the event. In the PBS Nature special Koko: Conversation with a Gorilla a group of Michael's signs is interpreted to be an attempt to convey a description of his mother being shot as he watched. While it was intended that Koko and Michael might produce a baby gorilla and teach it to sign, the two saw each other as siblings and did not mate.
Another gorilla, named Ndume, was selected by Koko from a group of videotapes shown to her by her "Mother" Penny, who played several tapes showing male apes of her species, in what may be described as an attempt at "video-dating. " Despite these efforts, Koko and Ndume have also not become mates.
Although not unique, Koko is one of the few non-humans known to keep pets of a different species. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals She has cared for several cats over the years and Koko's relationship with All Ball was featured in the 1987 book Koko's Kitten (Scholastic Press, ISBN 0-590-44425-5), which was written by Dr. WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic All Ball was a pet Cat of Koko, the famous Gorilla living in Woodside California, who communicates through Patterson.
Other gorillas known to have cared for pets include Toto. Toto (1931 - 1968 was a Gorilla that was adopted and raised very much like a human child
Many documentaries have been made on Koko, including Koko: A Talking Gorilla (1977). Koko A Talking Gorilla is a 1978 documentary directed by Barbet Schroeder that focuses on Dr On April 27 1998, Koko held an "online chat" live on AOL. Online chat can refer to any kind of Communication over the Internet, but is primarily meant to refer to direct one-on-one chat or Text-based group 
In August 2004, Koko was in the news again due to a toothache. News is any new information or information on Current events which is presented by print, broadcast, Internet, or Word of mouth She communicated that she was in pain, and according to her handlers was able to indicate her pain level on a scale of 1 to 10. 
Robin Williams did a set about his encounter with Koko in his Live on Broadway special. Robin McLaurim Williams (born July 21 1951 or 1952 is an American television stage and film actor and Comedian who has won an Academy Award for his performance Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located
In a 1998 episode of Seinfeld's 9th season entitled "The Dealership", David Puddy and Jerry Seinfeld talk about Koko the gorilla (or chimp in this episode) while Jerry is buying a car. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Seinfeld is an American Situation comedy, or sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5 1989 to May 14 1998 lasting nine seasons "The Dealership" is the 167th episode of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld. David Puddy, usually just called Puddy, is a fictional character played by Patrick Warburton in the Situation comedy Seinfeld. Jerome Allen "Jerry" Seinfeld (born on April 29 1954 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American comedian actor and writer
In a 1998 episode of Seinfeld entitled "The Maid," George's boss gives him the nickname "Koko the Monkey" after observing his ape-like gesticulations. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Seinfeld is an American Situation comedy, or sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5 1989 to May 14 1998 lasting nine seasons 
Koko has been involved in several sexual harassment lawsuits.  At least three former employees, all female, have claimed that they were pressured into showing their breasts to Koko. They alleged that Dr. Patterson encouraged the behavior, often interpreted Koko's signs as requests for nipple display, and let them know that their job would be in danger if they "did not indulge Koko's nipple fetish. Dr Francine "Penny" Patterson (b February 13 1947, in Chicago Illinois) is an American researcher who claims to have taught a modified form " Koko has been known to playfully grab both male and female nipples without warning or provocation. Dr. Patterson claims that Koko uses the word "nipple" to refer to humans. 
All claims of harassment have been permanently dropped as of November 21, 2005 after the foundation and the parties involved reached a settlement. 
Jody Weiner, Koko's lawyer, writes about Koko and sexual harassment in Kinship With Animals. Jody Weiner (full name Jody Carl Weiner is an American novelist non-fiction Author, film producer and lawyer