The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade. This article chronicles the history of Jerusalem. Antiquity (prehistory - 1000 BCE The earliest traces of human occupation in Jerusalem go back to the late Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing It lasted just under two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining outpost, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks.
At first the kingdom was little more than a loose collection of towns and cities captured during the crusade. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents It developed along the same lines as the monarchies of Western Europe, with which it had close connections, both politically and through the familial relationships of its rulers. It was, however, a relatively minor kingdom in comparison and often lacked financial and military support from Europe. The kingdom had closer ties to the neighbouring Kingdom of Armenia and the Byzantine Empire, which had an "orientalizing" influence on the western crusaders. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, Cilician Kingdom; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ
At its height, the kingdom roughly encompassed the territory of modern Israel, including the West Bank and the Gaza Strip; it extended from modern Lebanon in the north to the Sinai Desert in the south, and into modern Jordan and Syria in the east. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية There were also attempts to expand the kingdom into Fatimid Egypt. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Its kings also held a certain amount of authority over the other crusader states, Tripoli, Antioch, and Edessa. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and The County of Tripoli (1109–1289 was the last Crusader state founded in the Levant, located in what today is known as northern Lebanon The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the Crusader states created during the First Crusade The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity
At first the Muslim world had little concern for the fledgling kingdom, but as the 12th century progressed, the notion of jihad was resurrected, and the kingdom's increasingly-united Muslim neighbours vigorously began to recapture lost territory. Jihad (جهاد ʤɪhæːd an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. Jerusalem itself was lost to Saladin in 1187, and by the 13th century the Kingdom was reduced to a small strip of land along the Mediterranean coast, dominated by a few cities. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c In this period, sometimes referred to as the "Kingdom of Acre", the kingdom was dominated by the Lusignan dynasty of the crusader Kingdom of Cyprus, and ties were also strengthened with Tripoli, Antioch, and Armenia. The Lusignan family originated in the Poitou near Lusignan in western France in the early 10th century. The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the high and late Middle Ages, between 1192 and 1489 The kingdom was also increasingly dominated by the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa, as well as the imperial ambitions of the Holy Roman Emperors. The Italian city states were a remarkable political phenomenon of small independent states in the northern Italian peninsula between the tenth and fifteenth centuries Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Meanwhile the surrounding Muslim territories were united under the Ayyubid and later the Mamluk dynasties in Egypt, and the kingdom became little more than a pawn in the politics and warfare in the region, which saw invasions by the Khwarezmians and Mongols in the mid-13th century. The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for The Mamluk sultans Khalil and Baibars eventually reconquered all the remaining crusader strongholds, culminating in the destruction of Acre in 1291. al-Malik al-Ashraf Salāh al-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn ( الملك الأشرف صلاح الدين خليل بن قلاوون (b Baibars, or al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari ( Arabic ar الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري
The First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, with the goal of assisting the Byzantine Empire against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks. The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing The Council of Clermont was a mixed Synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held on November 27 1095 at Clermont France Pope The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in Very soon, however, the participants saw the main objective as the capturing or recapturing of the Holy Land. The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש The kingdom came into being with the arrival of the crusaders in June 1099; a few of the neighbouring towns (Ramla, Lydda, Bethlehem, and others) were taken first, and Jerusalem itself was captured on July 15. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Ramla (רַמְלָה Ramlāh; الرملة also Ramle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel with a mixed Arab and Lod (לוֹד اَلْلُدّْ al-Ludd; Greco-Latin Lydda) is a mixed Arab - Jewish city about 15 km southeast of Tel Aviv in Bethlehem ( بيت لحم,, lit "House of Meat" Βηθλεέμ Bethleém בית לחם Beit Lehem, lit "House of Bread" is a The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final  There was immediately a dispute among the various leaders as to who would rule the newly-conquered territory, the two most worthy candidates being Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine, and Raymond of St. Gilles, Count of Toulouse. Godfrey of Bouillon (c 1060 Boulogne-sur-Mer &ndash 18 July 1100, Jerusalem) was a medieval knight who was a leader of the First The rulers of Lorraine have held different posts under different governments over different regions Raymond IV of Toulouse sometimes called Raymond of St Gilles (c The first comites ( counts) of Toulouse were the administrators of the city and its environs under the Merovingians No succession of such royal Neither wished to be crowned king in the city where Christ had worn his crown of thorns; Raymond was perhaps attempting to show his piety and hoped that the other nobles would insist upon his election anyway, but Godfrey, the more popular of the two, did no damage to his own piety by accepting a position as secular leader with an unknown or ill-defined title. Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " In Christianity the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, was the woven chaplet of thorn branches worn by Jesus before his Crucifixion  With the election of Godfrey on July 22, Raymond, incensed, took his army to forage away from the city. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of The foundation of the kingdom, as well as Godfrey's reputation, was secured with the defeat of the Fatimid Egyptian army under al-Afdal Shahanshah at the Battle of Ascalon one month after the conquest, on August 12. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. al-Malik al-Afdal ibn Badr al-Jamali Shahanshah (1066 &ndash December 11, 1121) (الأفضل شاهنشاه بن بدر الجمالي was a Vizier of The Battle of Ascalon took place on August 12, 1099, and is often considered the last action of the First Crusade. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid However, Raymond and Godfrey's continued antagonism prevented the crusaders from taking control of Ascalon itself. 
There was still some uncertainty as to the nature of the new kingdom. The papal legate Daimbert of Pisa convinced Godfrey to hand over Jerusalem to him as Latin Patriarch, forming the basis for a theocratic state. A Papal Legate – from the Latin authentic Roman title Legatus – is a personal representative of the Pope to Foreign nations or to some part of the Catholic Dagobert (died 1107 was the first Archbishop of Pisa and the first Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem after it was captured in the First Crusade. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem According to William of Tyre, Godfrey may have supported Daimbert's efforts, and he agreed to take possession of "one or two other cities and thus enlarge the kingdom" if Daimbert were permitted to rule Jerusalem. This article is about the Archbishop/historian from the 1100s  During his short reign, Godfrey indeed increased the boundaries of the kingdom, by capturing Jaffa, Haifa, Tiberias, and other cities, and reducing many others to tributary status; he also set the foundations for the system of vassalage in the kingdom, including the Principality of Galilee and the County of Jaffa. Jaffa يَافَا;(יָפוֹ Yafo; also Japho, Joppa) is an ancient Port city believed to be one of the oldest in the world Haifa (חֵיפָה; حَيْفَا) is the largest City in Northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country with Tiberias ( British English: /taɪˈbɪəriæs -əs/ American English: /taɪˈbɪriəs/ טְבֶרְיָה Tverya; طبرية Ṭabariyyah The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries The Principality of Galilee was one of the four major seigneuries of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin The double County of Jaffa and Ascalon was one of the four major seigneuries comprising the major Crusader state, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century
The path for a secular state was therefore set during Godfrey's rule, and when Godfrey died of an illness in 1100, his brother Baldwin of Boulogne successfully outmanoeuvered Daimbert and claimed Jerusalem for himself as a secular "king of the Latins of Jerusalem. Baldwin I of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin I of Edessa, born Baldwin of Boulogne (French Baudouin de Boulogne 1058? - April 2, 1118, was is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291 as well as claimants to the title up to the present day " Daimbert compromised by crowning Baldwin in Bethlehem rather than Jerusalem, but the path for a secular state had been laid.  Within this secular framework, a Catholic church hierarchy was established, overtop of the local Eastern Orthodox and Syrian Orthodox authorities, who retained their own hierarchies. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The Aramean-Syriac people ( Syriac: arc [[arcܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ]]) are an Ethnic group who are widely Under the Latin Patriarch there were four suffragan arcdioceses and numerous dioceses. 
During Baldwin's reign the kingdom expanded even further. The numbers of Latin inhabitants increased, as the minor crusade of 1101 brought reinforcements to the kingdom. Latin is the name of various peoples or ethnicities related to the Latium region in the Italian Peninsula, to the Latin language, or to its descendants The Crusade of 1101 was a minor Crusade of three separate movements organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade He also repopulated Jerusalem with Franks and native Christians, after his expedition across the Jordan in 1115. Oultrejordain or Oultrejourdain ( Old French for "beyond the Jordan" was the name used during the Crusades for an extensive and partly undefined With help from the Italian city-states and other adventurers, notably King Sigurd I of Norway, Baldwin capturing the port cities of Acre (1104), Beirut (1110), and Sidon (1111), while also exerting his suzerainty over the other Crusader states to the north – the County of Edessa (which he had founded), the Principality of Antioch, and, after Tripoli was captured in 1109, the County of Tripoli. "Sigurd Jorsalfar" redirects here For the orchestral suite by Edvard Grieg see Sigurd Jorsalfar (Grieg. Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2 Sidon,or Saïda, ( Arabic ar صيدا; Phoenician phoenician yodh Suzerainty (ˈsjuːzərənti RP or /ˈsjuːzəreɪnti/ RP) (/ˈsuːzərənti/ GA) is a situation in which a Region or people is a The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the Crusader states created during the First Crusade Tripoli ( Lebanese Arabic: طرابلس Ṭrāblos or Ṭrēblos locally Ṭrōbles Standard Arabic: Ṭarābulus Τρίπολις Tripolis is the second-largest The County of Tripoli (1109–1289 was the last Crusader state founded in the Levant, located in what today is known as northern Lebanon He successfully defended against Muslim invasions, from the Fatimids at the numerous battles at Ramla and elsewhere in the southwest of the kingdom, and from Damascus and Mosul in the northeast in 1113. The Battle of Ramla (or Ramla) can refer to a number of battles in the early years of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. For the village in Azerbaijan see Mosul Azerbaijan. Mosul (الموصل Al Mūṣul, Kurdish: Mosul/Ninawa, Musul  As Thomas Madden says, Baldwin was "the true founder of the kingdom of Jerusalem", who "had transformed a tenuous arrangement into a solid feudal state. This article is about the modern historian at Saint Louis University With brilliance and diligence, he established a strong monarchy, conquered the Palestinian coast, reconciled the crusader barons, and built strong frontiers against the kingdom's Muslim neighbours. " However, the kingdom would never overcome its geographic isolation from Europe. For almost its entire history it was confined to the narrow strip of land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River; land beyond this was subject to constant raiding and warfare. This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia The kingdom's population centres could also easily be isolated from each other in the event of a major invasion, which eventually led to the kingdom's downfall in the 1180s.
Baldwin, who was probably homosexual, brought with him an Armenian wife, traditionally named Arda (although never named such by contemporaries), whom he had married to gain political support from the Armenian population in Edessa, and whom he quickly set her aside when he found that he had no need of Armenian support in Jerusalem. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Arda was the wife of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem. She was the first Queen consort of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, as Baldwin's brother and predecessor He bigamously married Adelaide del Vasto, regent of Sicily, in 1113, but was convinced to divorce her as well in 1117; Adelaide's son from her first marriage, Roger II of Sicily, never forgave Jerusalem, and for decades withheld much-needed naval support from Sicily. Adelaide del Vasto ( Adelasia, Azalaïs) (c 1075 &ndash April 16, 1118) was the third wife of Roger I of Sicily and mother of Roger II ( 22 December 1095 &ndash 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his 
Baldwin died without heirs in 1118, during a campaign against Egypt, and the kingdom was offered to his brother Eustace III of Boulogne, who had accompanied Baldwin and Godfrey on the crusade, but he was uninterested. Eustace III, was a Count of Boulogne, successor to his father Count Eustace II of Boulogne. Instead the crown passed to Baldwin's relative, probably a cousin, Baldwin of Le Bourg, who had previously succeeded him as Count of Edessa. Baldwin II of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died August 21, 1131 Baldwin II was also an able ruler, and he too successfully defended against Fatimid and Seljuk invasions. Although Antioch was severely weakened after the Battle of Ager Sanguinis in 1119, and Baldwin himself was held captive by the emir of Aleppo from 1122-1124, Baldwin led the crusader states to victory at the Battle of Azaz in 1125. In the Battle of Ager Sanguinis, also known as the Battle of the Field of Blood, the Battle of Sarmada, or the Battle of Balat, Roger of In the Battle of Azaz forces of the Crusader States commanded by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem defeated Aq-Sunqur il-Bursuqi's army of Seljuk Turks on His reign also saw the establishment of the first military orders, the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar. military order is a Christian Order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order The earliest surviving written laws of the kingdom were compiled at the Council of Nablus in 1120, and the first commercial treaty with Venice, the Pactum Warmundi, was written in 1124; the increase of naval and military support from Venice led to capture of Tyre that year. Council of Nablus was a council of ecclesiasic and secular lords in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, held on January 16, 1120. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the The Pactum Warmundi was a treaty of alliance established in 1123 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Republic of Venice. Tyre ( Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Phoenician wawsvg|12px|ו]] Ṣur, Hebrew The influence of Jerusalem was also further extended over Edessa and Antioch, where Baldwin II acted as regent when their own leaders were killed in battle, although there were regency governments in Jerusalem as well during Baldwin's captivity.  Baldwin was married to the Armenian princess Morphia of Melitene, and had four daughters: Hodierna and Alice, who married into the families of the Count of Tripoli and Prince of Antioch; Ioveta, who became an influential abbess; and the eldest, Melisende, who was his heir and succeeded him upon his death in 1131, with her husband Fulk V of Anjou as king-consort. Morphia of Melitene, or Morfia, or Moraphia (died c 1126 or 1129 was the wife of Baldwin II, king of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem Hodierna of Tripoli (c 1110 &ndash c 1164 was the daughter of Baldwin II of Jerusalem and the Armenian noblewoman Morphia. Alice of Antioch (also Haalis Halis or Adelicia was Princess of Antioch through her marriage to Bohemund II. Ioveta (1120-c 1170s was the fourth and youngest daughter of Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Morphia of Melitene. Melisende of Jerusalem (1105 &ndash September 11, 1161) was Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153 Fulk V (1089/1092 &ndash November 13, 1143) also known as Fulk the Younger, was Count of Anjou from 1109 to 1129 and Their son, the future Baldwin III, was also named co-heir by his grandfather. Baldwin III of Jerusalem (1130 &ndash February 10, 1162) was king of Jerusalem from 1143&ndash1162 
Fulk was an experienced crusader, who had brought military support to the kingdom during a pilgrimage in 1120. The Second Crusade (1147&ndash1149 was the second major Crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents He also brought Jerusalem into the sphere of the Angevin Empire, as the father of Geoffrey V of Anjou and grandfather of the future Henry II of England. The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty Not everyone appreciated the imposition of a foreigner as king, however; in 1132 Antioch, Tripoli, and Edessa all asserted their independence and conspired to prevent Fulk from exercising the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them. He defeated Tripoli in battle, and settled the regency in Antioch by arranging a marriage between the countess, Melisende's niece Constance, and his own relative Raymond of Poitiers. Constance of Antioch (1127 &ndash 1163 was the Princess regnant of the Principality of Antioch (a Crusader state) from 1130 to her death Raymond of Poitiers (c 1115 &ndash June 29, 1149) was Prince of Antioch 1136&ndash1149  Meanwhile, in Jerusalem, the native crusader nobles opposed Fulk's preference for his Angevin retinue. In 1134 Hugh II of Jaffa revolted against Fulk, allying with the Muslim garrison at Ascalon, for which he was convicted of treason in absentia. Hugh II of Le Puiset or Hugh II of Jaffa (c 1106&ndash1134 was a Crusader knight and Count of Jaffa, who revolted against King Fulk in 1134 The Latin Patriarch intervened to settle the dispute, but an assassination attempt was then made on Hugh, for which Fulk was blamed. This scandal allowed Melisende and her supporters to gain control of the government, just as her father had intended.  Accordingly, Fulk "became so uxorious that. . . not even in unimportant cases did he take any measures without her knowledge and assistance. "
Fulk, a renowned military commander, was then faced with a new and more dangerous enemy: the Atabeg Zengi of Mosul, who had taken control of Aleppo and had set his sights on Damascus as well; the union of these three states would have been a serious blow to the growing power of Jerusalem. For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. A brief intervention in 1137=1138 by the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus, who wished to assert imperial suzerainty over all the crusader states, did nothing to stop the threat of Zengi; in 1139 Damascus and Jerusalem recognized the severity of the threat to both states, and an alliance was concluded which temporarily halted Zengi's advance. John II Komnenos or Comnenus ( Iōannēs II Komnēnos) ( September 13, 1087 &ndash April 8, 1143) was Byzantine Fulk used this time to construct numerous castles, including Ibelin and Kerak. Ibelin was a castle in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century (at modern Yavne,) which gave its name to an important family of nobles Karak (also Kerak) (Al-Kerak الكرك is a city in Jordan that contains a famous Crusader castle  However, after the death of both Fulk and Emperor John in separate hunting accidents in 1143, Zengi successfully invaded and conquered Edessa in 1144. The Siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the capital of the Crusader County of Edessa Queen Melisende, now regent for her elder son Baldwin III, appointed a new constable, Manasses of Hierges, to head the army after Fulk's death, but Edessa could not be recaptured, despite Zengi's own assassination in 1146. Manasses of Hierges was an important Crusader lord and Constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.  The fall of Edessa shocked Europe, and a Second Crusade arrived in 1148. The Second Crusade (1147&ndash1149 was the second major Crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the
Meeting in Acre in 1148, the crusading kings Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany decided to attack the friendly Emir of Damascus, with whom there was still a peace treaty for mutual defense against Zengi and his son and successor Nur ad-Din. Louis VII, called the Younger or the Young (Louis le Jeune 1120 – 18 September 1180) was King of France, the son and successor Conrad III (1093 &ndash 15 February 1152) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. The western crusaders saw Damascus as an easy target, and young Baldwin III, perhaps eager to impress the famous European monarchs, agreed with their plan. This was in direct opposition to the advice of Queen Melisende and constable Manasses, as they and the other crusader states saw Aleppo as the main target that would allow for the recapture of Edessa. For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. The crusade ended in defeat by 1148 with the disastrous Siege of Damascus. The Siege of Damascus took place over four days in July 1148 during the Second Crusade.
Melisende continued to rule as regent long after Baldwin came of age, until her government was overthrown by Baldwin in 1153: the two agreed to split the kingdom in half, with Baldwin ruling from Acre in the north and Melisende ruling from Jerusalem in the south, but both knew that this situation was untenable. Baldwin III of Jerusalem (1130 &ndash February 10, 1162) was king of Jerusalem from 1143&ndash1162 The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Baldwin soon invaded his mother's possessions, defeated Manasses, and besieged his mother in the Tower of David in Jerusalem. The Tower of David (מגדל דוד Migdal David, برج داود Burj Daud) is an ancient Citadel located near the Jaffa Gate entrance to Melisende surrendered and retired as regent, leaving Baldwin the sole monarch, but Baldwin appointed her his regent and chief advisor the next year. Baldwin III then conquered Ascalon from the Fatimids, the last Egyptian outpost on the Palestinian coast. The Siege of Ascalon took place in 1153, resulting in the capture of that Egyptian fortress by the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. At the same time, however, the overall crusader situation became worse, as Nur ad-Din succeeded in taking Damascus and unifying Muslim Syria under his rule. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria.
Baldwin now faced formidable difficulties. He was chronically short of men and resources with which to defend his realm, and to make matters worse the supply of help from the west had dried up almost completely. Therefore, he turned to the only other source of aid available: the Byzantine Emperor. In order to bolster the defences of the Kingdom against the growing strength of the Muslims, Baldwin III made the first direct alliance with the Byzantine Empire in the history of the kingdom, marrying Theodora Comnena, a niece of emperor Manuel I Comnenus; Manuel also married Baldwin's cousin Maria. Theodora Komnene or Comnena ( Greek: Θεοδώρα Κομνηνή Theodōra Komnēnē) (born c For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145. Maria of Antioch (1145 &ndash 1182 was the daughter of Constance of Antioch and her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. As crusade historian William of Tyre put it, the hope was that Manuel would be able "to relieve from his own abundance the distress under which our realm was suffering and to change our poverty into superabundance". This article is about the Archbishop/historian from the 1100s Although Baldwin died childless in 1162, a year after his mother Melisende, the kingdom passed to his brother Amalric I, who renewed the alliance negotiated by Baldwin. Amalric I of Jerusalem (also Amaury or Aimery) (1136 &ndash July 11 1174) was King of Jerusalem 1162&ndash1174 and Count of The value of the alliance was soon demonstrated in 1164 when, the crusaders suffered a very serious defeat at the Battle of Harim just outside Antioch. The Battle of Harim was fought on August 12, 1164 between the forces of Nur ad-Din and a combined army from the County of Tripoli, the Principality The Prince of Antioch, Bohemund III, was captured by Nur ed-Din along with many other important barons. Bohemond III of Antioch (1144 &ndash 1201 also known as the Stammerer or the Stutterer, was Prince of Antioch from 1163 to his death As Amalric was away campaigning far to the south at the time, there seemed every chance that Antioch would fall to Nur ad-Din. The emperor Manuel immediately sent a large Byzantine force to the area, and Nur ad-Din retreated. Manuel also paid the ransom to release the Prince of Antioch. The new alliance had saved the kingdom from disaster.
Amalric was forced to divorce his first wife Agnes of Courtenay in order to succeed to the throne. Agnes of Courtenay (c 1136 &ndash c 1184 was the daughter of Joscelin II of Courtenay by his wife Beatrice (widow of William Lord of Saone and the mother of king Amalric's reign was characterized by competition between himself and Manuel on the one hand, and Nur ad-Din and his wily some-time subordinate Saladin on the other, over control of Egypt. Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c Amalric's first expedition to Egypt came in 1163, and a long series of alliances and counter-alliances between Amalric, the viziers of Egypt, and Nur ad-Din led to four more invasions by 1169. The Egyptian campaigns were supported by Emperor Manuel, and Amalric married a great-niece of the emperor, Maria Comnena. The Crusader invasion of Egypt ( 1154 - 1169) was a series of campaigns undertaken by the Kingdom of Jerusalem to strengthen its position in the Levant Maria Komnene or Comnena ( Greek: Μαρία Κομνηνή Maria Komnēnē) (c In 1169, Manuel sent a large Byzantine fleet of some 300 ships to assist Amalric, and the town of Damietta was placed under siege. Damietta, Damiata, or Domyat (دمياط is a port and the capital of the governorate of Domyat, Egypt. However, due to the failure of the Crusaders and the Byzantines to co-operate fully, the chance to capture Egypt was thrown away. The Byzantine fleet sailed only with provisions for three months: by the time the crusaders were ready, supplies were already running out, and eventually the fleet retired. Each side sought to blame the other for failure, but both also knew that they depended on each other: the alliance was maintained, and plans for another campaign in Egypt were made, which ultimately were to come to naught. Amalric ultimately failed in his bid to conquer Egypt. In the end, Nur ad-Din was victorious and Saladin established himself as Sultan of Egypt. The death of both Amalric and Nur ad-Din in 1174 ensured the dominance of Saladin, whose power soon spread over Nur ad-Din's Syrian possessions as well, completely surrounding the crusader kingdom. And with the death of the pro-western Emperor Manuel in 1180, the Kingdom of Jerusalem also lost its most powerful ally.
Amalric was succeeded by his young son, Baldwin IV, who was discovered at a very young age to be a leper. Baldwin IV of Jerusalem (1161&ndash 16 March 1185) called the Leper or the Leprous, the son of Amalric I of Jerusalem and his first Leprosy (from the Greek lepi (λέπι meaning scales on a fish or Hansen's disease, is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Baldwin nevertheless proved an effective and energetic king and a brilliant military commander. Commander is a Military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service His mother, Agnes of Courtenay, returned to court, but her influence has been greatly exaggerated by earlier historians. Agnes of Courtenay (c 1136 &ndash c 1184 was the daughter of Joscelin II of Courtenay by his wife Beatrice (widow of William Lord of Saone and the mother of king Her role in appointing Eraclius, archbishop of Caesarea, as Patriarch of Jerusalem, followed the precedent of Queen Melisende: however, it sparked a grudge in Eraclius's rival, William of Tyre. Heraclius or Eraclius (c 1128-1190/1191 was Archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. The Archbishop of Caesarea was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the Crusades The diocese was an ancient one established This article is about the Archbishop/historian from the 1100s His writings, and those of his continuators in the Chronicle of Ernoul, damaged her political and sexual reputation until recent years. Ernoul is the name generally given to the author of a Chronicle of the late 12th century dealing with the fall of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
Count Raymond III of Tripoli, his father's first cousin, was bailli or regent during Baldwin IV's minority. Raymond III of Tripoli (1140 &ndash 1187 was Count of Tripoli from 1152 to 1187 and Prince of Galilee and Tiberias in right of his wife Eschiva There were six major officers of the kingdom of Jerusalem: the Constable, the Marshal, the Seneschal, the chamberlain (which were known Baldwin reached his majority in 1176, and despite his illness he no longer had any legal need for a regent. Since Raymond was his nearest relative in the male line, with a strong claim to the throne, there was concern about the extent of his ambitions (although he had no direct heirs of his body). To balance this, the king turned from time to time to his uncle, Joscelin III of Edessa, after he was ransomed in 1176: as his maternal kin, the Courtenay family had no claim to the throne. Joscelin III of Edessa (died 1190s was the titular Count of Edessa 1159&ndash after 1190
As a leper, Baldwin would never produce an heir, so the focus of his succession passed to his sister Sibylla and his younger half-sister Isabella. Leprosy (from the Greek lepi (λέπι meaning scales on a fish or Hansen's disease, is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Sibylla of Jerusalem (c 1160 &ndash 1190 was the Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon from 1176 and Queen of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1190 Isabella I of Jerusalem (1172 &ndash 1205 was Queen of Jerusalem 1190/1192&ndash1205 Baldwin and his advisors recognised that it was essential for Sibylla to be married to a Western nobleman in order to access support from Europe in a military crisis. In 1176, he married her to William of Montferrat, a cousin of Louis VII and of Frederick Barbarossa. William of Montferrat (early 1140s-1177 also called William Longsword (modern Italian Guglielmo Lungaspada, originally Occitan Guilhem Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 &ndash 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned Unfortunately, William died only a few months later in 1177, leaving Sibylla pregnant with the future Baldwin V. Baldwin V of Jerusalem ( Baldwin of Montferrat, also known as Baudouinet) (1177 &ndash August 1186 was the son of Sibylla of Jerusalem and her first husband Meanwhile, Baldwin IV's stepmother Maria, mother of Isabella, married Balian of Ibelin. Balian of Ibelin (early 1140s—1193 was an important noble in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century
Baldwin defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard in 1177, giving Jerusalem a brief respite from Saladin's continual attacks. The Battle of Montgisard was fought between the Ayyubids and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on November 25, 1177. The succession, however, remained a difficult issue. In 1180 Baldwin blocked moves by Raymond of Tripoli to marry Sibylla off to Baldwin of Ibelin by arranging her marriage to Guy of Lusignan. "Baldwin of Ibelin" may also refer to Baldwin of Ibelin Seneschal of Cyprus or Baldwin of Ibelin (died 1313. Guy of Lusignan, Guy of Jerusalem or Guy of Cyprus (c 1150 or 1159/1160 &ndash Nicosia, July 18, 1194) was a French Guy was the younger brother of Amalric of Lusignan, who had already established himself as a capable figure in the kingdom, supported by the Courtenays. Amalric II of Jerusalem or Amalric I of Cyprus, born Amalric of Lusignan (1145 &ndash April 1, 1205) King of Jerusalem 1197&ndash1205 More importantly, internationally, the Lusignans were useful as vassals of Baldwin and Sibylla's cousin Henry II of England. Baldwin also betrothed Isabella (aged 8) to Humphrey IV of Toron, stepson of the powerful Raynald of Chatillon - thereby removing her from the influence of the Ibelin family and her mother. Humphrey IV of Toron (c 1166 &ndash before 1197 was the lord of Toron, Kerak, and Oultrejordain in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem Ibelin was a castle in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century (at modern Yavne,) which gave its name to an important family of nobles Guy was appointed bailli during the king's bouts of illness.
In 1183 Isabella married Humphrey at Kerak, during a siege by Saladin. Karak (also Kerak) (Al-Kerak الكرك is a city in Jordan that contains a famous Crusader castle The Siege of Kerak took place in 1183 with Saladin 's forces attacking and being repelled from the Crusader stronghold Baldwin, now blind and crippled, went to the castle's relief on a litter, tended by his mother. He became disillusioned with Guy's military performance there (he was less competent than his brother Amalric), and was reconciled with Raymond. To cut Sibylla and Guy out of the succession, he had Sibylla's son Baldwin of Montferrat crowned Baldwin V, as co-king, although the boy was only 5.
The succession crisis had prompted a mission to the west to seek assistance: in 1184, Patriarch Eraclius travelled throughout the courts of Europe, but no help was forthcoming. Heraclius or Eraclius (c 1128-1190/1191 was Archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. The chronicler Ralph Niger reports that his enormous retinue and opulent dress offended the sensibilities of many westerners, who felt that if the east was so wealthy, no help was needed from the west. Eraclius offered the kingship to both Philip II of France and Henry II of England; the latter, as a grandson of Fulk, was a first cousin of the royal family of Jerusalem, and had promised to go on crusade after the murder of Thomas Becket, but he preferred to remain at home to defend his own territories. Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death St Thomas Becket (c 1118 &ndash December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170 However, William V of Montferrat did come to support his grandson Baldwin V
Baldwin IV died in spring 1185, and Baldwin V became king, with Raymond of Tripoli as regent and his great-uncle Joscelin of Edessa as his guardian. William V of Montferrat (occ/piem Guilhem, it Guglielmo) (c 1115 &ndash 1191 also known as William the Old to distinguish him from his eldest son However, he was a sickly child and died in the summer of 1186. The kingdom passed to his mother Sibylla, on the condition that her marriage to Guy be annulled; she agreed, if only she could chose her own husband next time. The annulment did not take place: after being crowned, Sibylla immediately crowned Guy with her own hands. Raymond and the Ibelins attempted a coup, in order to place Baldwin IV and Sibylla's half-sister Isabella on the throne, with her husband Humphrey of Toron. Humphrey, however, defected to Guy. Disgusted, Raymond returned to Tripoli, and Baldwin of Ibelin also left the kingdom. "Baldwin of Ibelin" may also refer to Baldwin of Ibelin Seneschal of Cyprus or Baldwin of Ibelin (died 1313.
Guy proved a disastrous ruler. His close ally Raynald of Chatillon, the lord of Oultrejourdain and of Kerak, provoked Saladin into open war by attacking Muslim caravans and threatening to attack Mecca itself. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored To make matters worse, Raymond had allied with Saladin against Guy and had allowed a Muslim garrison to occupy his fief in Tiberias. Tiberias ( British English: /taɪˈbɪəriæs -əs/ American English: /taɪˈbɪriəs/ טְבֶרְיָה Tverya; طبرية Ṭabariyyah Guy was on the verge of attacking Raymond before Balian of Ibelin effected a reconciliation in 1187, and the two joined together to attack Saladin at Tiberias. Balian of Ibelin (early 1140s—1193 was an important noble in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century However, Guy and Raymond could not agree on a proper plan of attack, and on July 4, 1187, the army of the Kingdom was utterly destroyed at the Battle of Hattin. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples The Battle of Hattin (also known as " The Horns of Hattin " because of a nearby extinct Volcano of the same name took place on Saturday July Raynald was executed and Guy was imprisoned in Damascus. Over the next few months Saladin easily overran the entire Kingdom, save for the port of Tyre, which was ably defended by Conrad of Montferrat, the paternal uncle of Baldwin V, lately arrived from Constantinople. Conrad of Montferrat, or Conrad I of Jerusalem ( Piedmontese: Conrà ëd Monfrà; Italian Corrado del Monferrato; mid-1140s &ndash Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
The subsequent fall of Jerusalem essentially ended the first Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Siege of Jerusalem took place from September 20 to October 2, 1187. Much of the population, swollen with refugees fleeing Saladin's conquest of the surrounding territory, was allowed to flee to Tyre, Tripoli, or Egypt (whence they were sent back to Europe), but those who could not pay for their freedom were sold into slavery, and those who could were often robbed by Christians and Muslims alike on their way into exile. The capture of the city shocked Europe, resulting in the Third Crusade, which was launched in 1189, led by Richard the Lionheart, Philip Augustus and Frederick Barbarossa, though the last drowned en route. The Third Crusade (1189&ndash1192 also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 &ndash 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned
Guy of Lusignan, who had been refused entry to Tyre by Conrad, began to besiege Acre in 1189. During the lengthy siege, which lasted until 1191, Patriarch Eraclius, Queen Sibylla and her daughters, and many others died of disease. The Siege of Acre was the first confrontation of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the With the death of Sibylla in 1190, Guy now had no legal claim to the kingship, and the succession passed to Isabella. Her mother Maria and the Ibelins (now closely allied to Conrad) argued that Isabella and Humphrey's marriage was illegal, as she had been underage at the time; underlying this was the fact that Humphrey had betrayed his wife's cause in 1186. The marriage was annulled amid some controversy. (The annulment followed the precedents of Amalric I and Agnes, and - though not carried out - Sibylla and Guy - of succession dependent on annulling a politically inconvenient match. ) Conrad, who was nearest kinsman to Baldwin V in the male line, and had already proved himself a capable military leader, then married Isabella, but Guy refused to concede the crown.
When Richard arrived in 1191, he and Philip took different sides in the succession dispute. Richard backed Guy, his vassal from Poitou, while Philip supported Conrad, a cousin of his late father Louis VII. After much ill-feeling and ill-health, Philip returned home in 1191, soon after the fall of Acre. Richard defeated Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf in 1191 and the Battle of Jaffa in 1192, recovering most of the coast, but could not recover Jerusalem or any of the inland territory of the kingdom. The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf. The Battle of Jaffa took place during the Crusades, as one of a series of campaigns between Saladin 's army and the forces of King Richard I of England Conrad was unanimously elected king in April 1192, but was murdered by the Hashshashin only days later. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia Eight days later, the pregnant Isabella was married to Count Henry II of Champagne, nephew of Richard and Philip, but politically allied to Richard. Guy was sold the Kingdom of Cyprus, after Richard had captured the island on the way to Acre, as compensation. The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the high and late Middle Ages, between 1192 and 1489
The crusade came to an end peacefully, with the Treaty of Ramla negotiated in 1192; Saladin allowed pilgrimages to be made to Jerusalem, allowing the crusaders to fulfill their vows, after which they all returned home. The Treaty of Ramla was signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in June 1192 after the Battle of Arsuf. The native crusader barons set about rebuilding their kingdom from Acre and the other coastal cities. Shortly after Richard left, Saladin died and his realm fell into civil war, leaving the Crusader lords further embittered at what could have been accomplished had the European princes remained to help rebuild.
For the next hundred years, the Kingdom of Jerusalem clung to life as a tiny kingdom hugging the Syrian coastline. Its capital was moved to Acre and controlled most of the coastline of present day Israel and southern and central Lebanon, including the strongholds and towns of Jaffa, Arsuf, Caesarea, Tyre, Sidon, and Beirut. At best, it included only a few other significant cities, such as Ascalon and some interior fortresses, as well as suzerainty over Tripoli and Antioch. Suzerainty (ˈsjuːzərənti RP or /ˈsjuːzəreɪnti/ RP) (/ˈsuːzərənti/ GA) is a situation in which a Region or people is a The new king, Henry of Champagne, died accidentally in 1197, and Isabella married for a fourth time, to Amalric of Lusignan, Guy's brother. Amalric II of Jerusalem or Amalric I of Cyprus, born Amalric of Lusignan (1145 &ndash April 1, 1205) King of Jerusalem 1197&ndash1205 A Fourth Crusade was planned after the failure of the Third, but it resulted in the sack of Constantinople in 1204 and the crusaders involved never arrived in the kingdom. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
Both Isabella and Amalric died in 1205 and again an underage girl, Isabella and Conrad's daughter Maria of Montferrat, became queen of Jerusalem. Maria of Montferrat, Queen of Jerusalem (1192 &ndash 1212 was the daughter of Conrad of Montferrat and Isabella Queen of Jerusalem. In 1210 Maria was married to an experienced sexagenarian knight, John of Brienne, who succeeded in keeping the tiny kingdom safe. John of Brienne (c 1170 – 27 March, 1237) was a French nobleman who became King of Jerusalem by marriage and was later invited to become Latin She died in childbirth in 1212, and John continued to rule as regent for their daughter Yolande. For Isabella of England the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, see Isabella de Coucy. Schemes were hatched to reconquer Jerusalem through Egypt, resulting in the failed Fifth Crusade against Damietta in 1217; King John took part in this, but the crusade was a failure. The Fifth Crusade ( 1217 &ndash 1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Damietta, Damiata, or Domyat (دمياط is a port and the capital of the governorate of Domyat, Egypt. John travelled throughout Europe seeking assistance, and found support only from Emperor Frederick II, who then married John and Maria's daughter, Queen Yolande. Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title Frederick II led the Sixth Crusade in 1228, and claimed the kingship of Jerusalem by right of his wife, just as John had done. The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to reconquer Jerusalem. Indeed, the sheer size of Frederick II's army and his stature before the Islamic world was sufficient to regain Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, and a number of surrounding castles without a fight: these were recovered by treaty with the Ayyubid Sultan Al-Kamil. The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for Al-Kamil (الكامل ( epithet: al-Malik al-Kamel Naser al-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Muhammed) (1180-1238 was an Ayyubid Sultan of Kurdish However, the nobles of Outremer, led by the regent John of Ibelin, not only felt more could have been recovered militarily, but also resented his attempts to impose Imperial authority over their kingdom, resulting in a number of military confrontations both on the mainland and on Cyprus. John of Ibelin (c 1179 &ndash 1236 called the Old Lord of Beirut, was a powerful Crusader noble in the 13th century
The recovery was short-lived - not enough territory had been ceded to make the city defensible, and in 1244 the Ayyubids invited the Khwarezmian clans displaced by the Mongols to reconquer the city. Khwarezm were a series of States centered on the Amu Darya River delta of the In the resulting siege and conquest the Khwarezmians completely razed Jerusalem, leaving it in ruins and useless to both Christians and Muslims. The Seventh Crusade under Louis IX of France was inspired by this massacre, but it accomplished little save to replace the Ayyubids and Khwarezmians with the more powerful Mamluks as the Crusaders' main enemy in 1250. The Seventh Crusade was a Crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
Because the monarchy was now directly tied to powerful sovereigns in Europe, for the period from 1229 to 1268, the monarch resided in Europe and usually had a larger realm to pursue or take care of, thereby leaving governance to the Haute Cour. Kings of Jerusalem were represented by their baillis and regents. The title of King of Jerusalem was inherited by Conrad IV of Germany, son of Frederick II and Yolande, and later by his own son Conradin. Conrad IV ( 25 April 1228 &ndash 21 May 1254) was king of Jerusalem (as Conrad II) (1228&ndash1254 of Germany Conradin is also a character in the short story Sredni Vashtar. With the death of Conradin the kingdom was inherited by King Hugh III of Cyprus. Hugh III of Cyprus (1235 &ndash 24 March 1284 born Hughues de Poitiers, later Hughues de Lusignan (he adopted his mother's surname de Lusignan in 1267 The territory descended into squabbling between the nobles of Cyprus and the mainland, between the remnant of the (now unified) County of Tripoli and Principality of Antioch, whose rulers also vied for influence in Acre, and especially between the Italian trading communities, whose quarrels erupted in the so-called "War of Saint Sabas" in Acre in 1257. The War of Saint Sabas or San Saba (1256&ndash1270 was a conflict between the Mediterranean Maritime republics of Genoa (aided by Philip After the Seventh Crusade, no organized effort from Europe ever arrived in the kingdom, although in 1277 Charles of Anjou bought the title of "King of Jerusalem" from a pretender to the throne. Charles I ( 21 March 1226 &ndash 7 January 1285) commonly called Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest He never appeared in Acre but sent a representative, who, like Frederick II's representatives before him, was rejected by the nobles of Outremer.
Despite their precarious geopolitical situation, the Frankish realm managed to maintain an economically viable and influential power. Frankish diplomats aimed to keep the Muslim powers divided against each other, utilizing the feared Assassins as much as other Islamic rulers. In their later years, faced with the threat of the Egyptian Mamluks, the Crusaders' hopes rested with a Franco-Mongol alliance. Many attempts were made towards forming a Franco-Mongol alliance between the mid-13th and early 14th centuries starting around the time of the Seventh Crusade. The Mongols were thought to be sympathetic to Christianity, and some Frankish princes had already submitted to Mongol overlordship in the mid-1200s, though others had refused any kind of alliance. The Mongols successfully attacked as far south as Damascus on these campaigns, but suffered a historic defeat by the Mamluks at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, and the Mongols were limited to a few raids into Palestine in 1260 and 1300. The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between The Mamluks eventually made good their pledge to cleanse the entire Middle East of the infidel Franks; in 1291, Acre, the last major Crusader stronghold, was taken by Sultan Khalil. The Siege of Acre (also called the Fall of Acre) took place in 1291 and resulted in the loss of the Crusader -control city of Acre to the Muslims al-Malik al-Ashraf Salāh al-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn ( الملك الأشرف صلاح الدين خليل بن قلاوون (b This conquest was far less merciful than that of Saladin one hundred years before; much of the Frankish population was massacred or sold into slavery, such that Khalil could proclaim "A pearly white Frankish woman couldn't sell in the bazaar for a penny!"
Thereafter, the Kingdom of Jerusalem ceased to exist on the mainland, but the kings of Cyprus for many decades hatched plans to regain the Holy Land. For the next seven centuries, up to today, a veritable multitude of European monarchs have used the title of King of Jerusalem. See Kings of Jerusalem. is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291 as well as claimants to the title up to the present day
The Latin population of the kingdom was always small; although a steady stream of settlers and new crusaders continually arrived, most of the original crusaders who fought in the First Crusade simply went home. Latin is the name of various peoples or ethnicities related to the Latium region in the Italian Peninsula, to the Latin language, or to its descendants According to William of Tyre, "barely three hundred knights and two thousand foot soldiers could be found" in the kingdom in 1100 during Godfrey's siege of Arsuf. This article is about the Archbishop/historian from the 1100s ArsufJPG|right|thumbnail|450px|Remains of the stronghold]] Arsuf (אַרְסוּף ארשוף أرصف also known as Arsur or Apollonia, was an ancient city  From the very beginning, the Latins were little more than a colonial frontier exercising rule over the native Muslim, Greek and Syrian population, who were more populous in number. But Jerusalem came to be known as Outremer, the French word for "overseas," and as new generations grew up in the kingdom, they also began to think of themselves as natives, rather than immigrants. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Outremer, French ( outre-mer) for " Overseas " was the general name given to the Crusader states established after the Although they never gave up their core identity as Western Europeans or Franks, their clothing, diet, and commercialism integrated much Oriental, particularly Byzantine, influence. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group As the chronicler Fulcher of Chartres wrote around 1124,
"For we who were Occidentals now have been made Orientals. Fulcher of Chartres (born around 1059 in or near Chartres) was a chronicler of the First Crusade. He who was a Roman or Frank has in this land been made into a Galilean or a Palestinean. He who was of Rheims or Chartres has now become a citizen of Tyre or Antioch. Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; riːmz in English and /ʁɛ̃s/ in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern Chartres is a town and commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in north-central France It is located 96 km southwest of Paris We have already forgotten the places of our birth; already these are unknown to many of us or not mentioned any more. "
The crusaders and their descendants often learned to speak Greek, Arabic, and other eastern languages, and intermarried with the native Christians (whether Greek, Syrian, or Armenian) and sometimes with converted Muslims. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language  Nonetheless, the Frankish principalities remained a distinctive Occidental colony in the heart of Islam.
Fulcher, a participant in the First Crusade and chaplain of Baldwin I, continued his chronicle up to 1127. Fulcher's chronicle was very popular and was used as a source by other historians in the west, such as Orderic Vitalis and William of Malmesbury. Orderic Vitalis (1075&ndashc 1142 was an English chronicler who wrote one of the great contemporary Chronicles of 11th and 12th century Normandy and Biography The education William received at Malmesbury Abbey included a smattering of Logic and Physics; Moral philosophy and History, Almost as soon as Jerusalem had been captured, and continuing throughout the 12th century, many pilgrims arrived and left accounts of the new kingdom; among them are the English Saewulf, the Russian Abbot Daniel, the Frank Fretellus, the Byzantine Johannes Phocas, and the Germans John of Wurzburg and Theoderich.  Aside from these, thereafter there is no eyewitness to events in Jerusalem until William of Tyre, archbishop of Tyre and chancellor of Jerusalem, who began writing around 1167 and died around 1184, although he includes much information about the First Crusade and the intervening years from the death of Fulcher to his own time, drawn mainly from the writings of Albert of Aix and Fulcher himself. This article is about the Archbishop/historian from the 1100s The Archbishop of Tyre was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the Crusades and was established to serve the Catholic members of There were six major officers of the kingdom of Jerusalem: the Constable, the Marshal, the Seneschal, the chamberlain (which were known Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle or Albert of Aachen (floruit circa AD 1100) Historian of the First Crusade, was born during the later part of the From the Muslim perspective, a chief source of information is Usamah ibn Munqidh, a soldier and frequent ambassador from Damascus to Jerusalem and Egypt, whose memoirs, Kitab al i'tibar, include lively accounts of crusader society in the east. Usamah ibn Murshid ibn Munqidh (1095-1188 also Osama Usama Ussama or Usmah Arabic: أسامة بن منقذ) an Arab Historian, Politician Kitab al-I'tibar ( The Book of Learning by Example) is the autobiography of Usāmah ibn-Munqidh, an Arab Syrian diplomat and soldier of the Further information can be gathered from travellers such as Benjamin of Tudela and Ibn Jubayr. Benjamin of Tudela (Binyamin MeTudela was a medieval Navarrese rabbi and explorer who traveled through Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th Ibn Jubayr (1145-1217 ابن جبير) was an geographer, traveler and poet from Al-Andalus Biography Early life Born in
In the 13th century, John of Ibelin drew up a list of fiefs and the number of knights owed by each; unfortunately this probably reflects the 13th-century kingdom, not the 12th, and gives no indication of the non-noble, non-Latin population. John of Ibelin (1215 &ndash December 1266 Count of Jaffa and Ascalon, was a noted jurist and the author of the longest legal treatise from the Kingdom of Jerusalem Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime Latin is the name of various peoples or ethnicities related to the Latium region in the Italian Peninsula, to the Latin language, or to its descendants The Kingdom at first was virtually bereft of a loyal subject population and had few knights and peers to implement the laws and orders of the realm. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. However, as trading firms from Europe and knights from the military orders arrived, the affairs of the Kingdom improved. Further immigration continued over time to increase the Frankish population to an estimated 25-35% of the realm by the 1180s. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Many Muslims also returned to the Kingdom, having fled the initial conquest, and others emigrated from further east.
It is impossible to give an accurate estimate of the population of the kingdom, but it has been estimated that there were at most 120 000 Franks and 100 000 Muslims living in the cities, with another 250 000 Muslim and Eastern Christian peasants in the countryside.  William of Tyre recorded that in 1183 a census was taken to determine the number of men available to defend against an invasion, and also to determine the amount of tax that could be obtained from the inhabitants, Muslim or Christian. If, however, the population was actually counted, William did not record the number. 
The kingdom was essentially based on the feudal system of contemporary western Europe, but with many important differences. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed First of all, the kingdom was situated within a relatively small area, with little agricultural land. Since ancient times it had been an urban economy, unlike medieval Europe; in fact, although the nobility technically owned land, they preferred to live in Jerusalem or the other cities, closer to the royal court. As in Europe the nobles had their own vassals and were themselves vassals to the king. However, agricultural production was regulated by the iqta, a Muslim system of land ownership and payments roughly (though far from exactly) equivalent to the feudal system of Europe, and this system was not heavily disrupted by the Crusaders. Tax farming was originally a Roman practice whereby the burden of Tax collection was reassigned by the Roman State to private individuals or groups
Although Muslims (as well as Jews and Eastern Christians) had virtually no rights in the countryside, where they were in theory the property of the Crusader lord who owned the land, tolerance for other faiths was in general higher than that found elsewhere in the Middle East. Greeks, Syrians, and Jews continued to live as they had before, subject to their own laws and courts, with their former Muslim overlords simply replaced by the Crusaders; Muslims now joined them at the lowest level of society. The ra'is, the leader of a Muslim or Syrian community, was a kind of vassal to whatever noble owned his land, but as the Crusader nobles were absentee landlords the ra'is and their communities had a high degree of autonomy. In the cities, Muslims and Eastern Christians were free, although no Muslims were permitted to live in Jerusalem itself. However, they were second-class citizens and played no part in politics or law, and owed no military service to the crown; likewise, citizens of the Italian city-states owed nothing despite living in their own quarters in the port cities.
At any given time there were also an unknown number of Muslim slaves living in the Kingdom. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another No Christian, whether Western or Eastern, was permitted by law to be sold into slavery, but this fate was as common for Muslim prisoners of war as it was for Christian prisoners taken by the Muslims. Escape was probably not difficult and fugitive slaves were always a problem, but the only legal means of manumission was conversion to (Catholic) Christianity.
There were many attempts to attract settlers from Europe, which would free the Kingdom economically from reliance upon the suspect Arab, Syrian, and Greek populations, but large-scale immigration and colonisation was beyond the ability of medieval Europe. Thus, although there was an incipient and growing free Frank peasant population in the countryside, it was relatively small, and crusader armies also tended to be small, drawn from the French families of the cities. This meant that a minority of Westerners were left to govern a large and very foreign population of Arabs, Greeks and Syrians, who could not be relied upon for manpower or ultimate allegiance to the kingdom.
The problem of lack of manpower was solved to some extent by the creation of the military orders. The Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller were both founded in the early years of the kingdom, and they often took the place of the nobles in the countryside. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St Although their headquarters were in Jerusalem, the knights themselves often lived in vast castles and bought land that the other nobles could no longer afford to keep. A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages. Templar and Hospitaller houses were established throughout Europe as well, and new recruits were sent to the Holy Land, further bolstering the manpower of the military orders. However, the military orders were under the direct control of the Pope, not the king; they were essentially autonomous and technically owed no military service, though in reality they participated in all the major battles. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
After the loss of Jerusalem in 1187, virtually the entire population of Franks and Italians fled back to Europe. The recovery of the Mediterranean littoral during the Third Crusade allowed for some Frankish repopulation of the coastal cities. The Third Crusade (1189&ndash1192 also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin The remaining cities had a more homogenous Western, Catholic, population, and for the remainder of the Kingdom, the population remained predominantly Frankish and Italian.
The urban composition of the area, combined with the presence of the Italian merchants, led to the development of an economy that was much more commercial than it was agricultural. Palestine had always been a crossroads for trade; now, this trade extended to Europe as well. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. European goods, such as the woolen textiles of northern Europe, made their way to the Middle East and Asia, while Asian goods were transported back to Europe. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Jerusalem was especially involved in the silk, cotton and spice trade; other items that first appeared in Europe through trade with crusader Jerusalem included oranges and sugar, the latter of which chronicler William of Tyre called "very necessary for the use and health of mankind. " In the countryside, wheat, barley, legumes, olives, grapes, and dates were also grown. The Italian city-states made enormous profits from this trade, thanks to commercial treaties like the Pactum Warmundi, and it influenced their Renaissance in later centuries. The Pactum Warmundi was a treaty of alliance established in 1123 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Republic of Venice. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere
Jerusalem also collected money through tribute payments, first from the coastal cities which had not yet been captured, and later from other neighbouring states such as Damascus and Egypt, which the crusaders could not conquer directly. After Baldwin I extended his rule over Oultrejordain, Jerusalem also gained revenue from the taxation of Muslim caravans passing from Syria to Egypt or Arabia. A camel train is a series of Camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) The money economy of Jerusalem meant that their manpower problem could be partially solved by paying for mercenaries, an uncommon occurrence in medieval Europe. A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by Mercenaries could be fellow European crusaders, or, perhaps more often, Muslim soldiers, including the famous Turcopoles. During the Crusades, turcopoles, turcoples, turcopoli or turcopoliers (from the Τουρκόπουλοι "sons of Turks" were
Jerusalem was the center of education in the kingdom. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the There was a school in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where the basic skills of reading and writing Latin were taught; the relative wealth of the merchant class meant that their children could be educated there along with the children of nobles - it is likely that William of Tyre was a classmate of future king Baldwin III. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime Baldwin III of Jerusalem (1130 &ndash February 10, 1162) was king of Jerusalem from 1143&ndash1162 Higher education had to be undertaken at one of the universities in Europe; the development of a university was impossible in the culture of crusader Jerusalem, where warfare was far more important than philosophy or theology. This article is about Western European institutions See also Medieval university (Asia and Byzantine university Medieval university The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Nonetheless, the nobility and general Frankish population were noted for the high literacy: lawyers and clerks were in abundance, and the study of law, history, and other academic subjects was a beloved pastime of the royal family and the nobility.  Jerusalem also had an extensive library not only of ancient and medieval Latin works but also of Arabic literature, much of which was apparently captured from Usamah ibn Munqidh and his entourage after a shipwreck in 1154.  The Holy Sepulchre also contained the kingdom's scriptorium, where royal charters and other documents were produced. Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing" is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European Monasteries devoted to the copying of manuscripts by monastic Aside from Latin, the standard written language of medieval Europe, the populace of crusader Jerusalem also communicated in vernacular forms of French and Italian; Greek, Armenian, and even Arabic were also not uncommonly mastered by Frankish settlers.
In Jerusalem itself the greatest architectural endeavour was the expansion of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in western Gothic style. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Sanctum Sepulchrum also called the Church of the Resurrection, ( Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως Naos tis Anastaseos See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. This expansion consolidated all the separate shrines on the site into one building, and was completed by 1149. Outside of Jerusalem, castles and fortresses were the major focus of construction: Kerak and Montreal in Oultrejordain and Ibelin near Jaffa are among the numerous examples of crusader castles. Karak (also Kerak) (Al-Kerak الكرك is a city in Jordan that contains a famous Crusader castle Montreal was a Crusader castle on the eastern side of the Arabah, perched on the side of a rocky conical mountain looking out over fruit trees below Oultrejordain or Oultrejourdain ( Old French for "beyond the Jordan" was the name used during the Crusades for an extensive and partly undefined Ibelin was a castle in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century (at modern Yavne,) which gave its name to an important family of nobles Jaffa يَافَا;(יָפוֹ Yafo; also Japho, Joppa) is an ancient Port city believed to be one of the oldest in the world
Crusader art was a mix of Western, Byzantine, and Islamic styles. Medieval art covers a vast scope of time and place over 1000 years of Art history in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Byzantine art is the term commonly used to describe the artistic products of the Byzantine Empire from about the 4th century until the Fall of Constantinople Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally The major cities featured baths, interior plumbing, and other advanced hygienic tools which were lacking in most other cities and towns throughout the world. The foremost example of crusader art are perhaps the Melisende Psalter, an illuminated manuscript commissioned between 1135 and 1143 and now located in the British Library, and the sculpted Nazareth Capitals. The Melisende Psalter (London British Library MS Egerton 1139 is an Illuminated manuscript commissioned around 1135 in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem An illuminated manuscript is a Manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration such as decorated Initials borders and The British Library ( BL) is the National library of the United Kingdom. Paintings and mosaics were popular forms of art in the kingdom, but many of these were destroyed by the Mamluks in the 13th century; only the most durable fortresses survived the reconquest.
Immediately after the First Crusade, land was distributed to loyal vassals of Godfrey, forming numerous feudal lordships within the kingdom. The Tower of David (מגדל דוד Migdal David, برج داود Burj Daud) is an ancient Citadel located near the Jaffa Gate entrance to Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries This was continued by Godfrey's successors. The king was also assisted by a number of officers of state. There were six major officers of the kingdom of Jerusalem: the Constable, the Marshal, the Seneschal, the chamberlain (which were known The king and the royal court were normally located in Jerusalem, but due to the prohibition on Muslim inhabitants, the capital was small and underpopulated. The king just as often held court at the far more important cities of Acre, Nablus, Tyre, or wherever else he happened to be. Nablus ( sometimes Nābulus; Arabic:; næːblʊs is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem In Jerusalem, the royal family lived firstly on the Temple Mount, before the foundation of the Knights Templar, and later in the palace complex surrounding the Tower of David; there was another palace complex in Acre. The Temple Mount ( הַר הַבַּיִת, Har haBáyit) also called the Noble Sanctuary ( الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-haram The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order The Tower of David (מגדל דוד Migdal David, برج داود Burj Daud) is an ancient Citadel located near the Jaffa Gate entrance to
Because the nobles tended to live in Jerusalem rather than on estates in the countryside, they had a larger influence on the king than they would have had in Europe. The nobles formed the haute cour (high court), one of the earliest forms of parliament that was also developing in western Europe. Haute Cour (High Court was the Feudal council of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The court consisted of the bishops and the higher nobles, and was responsible for confirming the election of a new king (or a regent if necessary), collecting taxes, minting coins, allotting money to the king, and raising armies. The haute cour was the only judicial body for the nobles of the kingdom, hearing criminal cases such as murder, rape, and treason, and simpler feudal disputes such as recovery of slaves, sales and purchases of fiefs, and default of service. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing Punishments included forfeiture of land and exile, or in extreme cases death. The first laws of the kingdom were, according to tradition, established during Godfrey of Bouillon's short reign, but were more probably established by Baldwin II at the Council of Nablus in 1120, although no written laws survive from earlier than the 13th century (the so-called Assizes of Jerusalem). Council of Nablus was a council of ecclesiasic and secular lords in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, held on January 16, 1120. The Assizes of Jerusalem are a collection of numerous medieval legal treatises containing the law of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and Kingdom of Cyprus 
There were other, lesser courts for non-nobles and non-Latins; the Cour des Bourgeois provided justice for non-noble Latins, dealing with minor criminal offences such as assault and theft, and provided rules for disputes between non-Latins, whose had fewer legal rights. Special courts such as the Cour de la Fond (for commercial disputes in the markets) and the Cour de la Mer (an admiralty court) existed in the coastal cities. The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. The extent to which native Islamic and Eastern Christian courts continued to function is unknown, but the ra'is probably exercised some legal authority on a local level. For capital crimes, however, non-Latins would be tried in the Cour des Bourgeois (or even the Haute Cour if the crime was sufficiently severe). The king was recognised as head of the Haute Cour, although he was legally only primus inter pares. Primus inter pares ( Latin) or First among equals is a phrase which indicates that a person is the most senior of a group of people
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which has gone through several different varieties of a cross Or (gold) on an argent (silver) field, is a famous violation of or exception to the rule of tincture in heraldry, which prohibits the placement of metal on metal or colour on colour. A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people In Heraldry, tinctures are the colours used to Emblazon a Coat of arms. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms.
It is one of the earliest known coats of arms. The crosses are Greek crosses, one of the many Byzantine influences on the kingdom. A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other dividing one or two of the lines in half