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753 BC – 509 BC
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The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Roman Kingdom ( Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchical Government of the city of Rome Events and trends 756 BC — Founding of Cyzicus. 755 BC — Ashur-nirari V succeeds Ashur-Dan III as king of Assyria The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Year 27 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Year 27 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Events By place Western Roman Empire September 4 — Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century, The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Dominate was the ' despotic ' latter phase of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse The Roman Constitution or Mos maiorum (Latin for "custom of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly The Constitution of the Roman Kingdom or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The Constitution of the Roman Republic or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The Constitution of the Roman Empire or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed The Constitution of the Late Roman Empire or Mos maiorum (Latin for "customs of the ancestors" was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles The History of the Roman Constitution is a study of Ancient Rome that traces the progression of Roman political development from the founding of the city of Rome The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. The Roman Assemblies were institutions in Ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch and thus (theoretically at least passed all legislation The Roman Magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations The Tribuni militum consulari potestate, or Consular Tribunes were Tribunes elected with Consular power during the Conflict of the Orders The term triumvirate (from Latin, "of three men" is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning "Ten Men" which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer Dux (plural duces) is Latin for leader (from the verb ducere, 'to lead' and could refer to anyone who commanded troops such Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings in Ancient Rome, including "service" "(sense of duty" "courtesy" Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i Vicarius is a Latin word meaning substitute or deputy. It is the root and origin of the English word " Vicar " and Cognate to the Persian The Vigintisexviri (sing vigintisexvir) was a college ( collegium) of minor magistrates ( magistratus minores) in the Roman Republic The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant with special tasks of attending and guarding Magister militum ( Latin for "Master of the Soldiers" was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of The Latin word Imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. Augustus (plural augusti) Latin for "majestic" "the increaser" or "venerable" was an Ancient Roman Caesar (plural Caesars Latin: Caesar (plural Caesares is a Title of imperial character Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. In Ancient Rome the concept applied to People, and meant something like "power The mos maiorum (lit ways of the ancestors) were the ancestral Traditions an unwritten code of Laws and conduct of the Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues Definition of collegiality Colleagues are those explicitly united in a common Purpose and respecting Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance Auctoritas is a Latin word and is the origin of English " Authority " The cursus honorum ( Latin: "course of honors" or "honors race" was the sequential order of Public offices held by aspiring Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Chief Magistrate is a generic designation for a public official whose office -- individual or collegial -- is the highest in his or her class in either of the fundamental meanings of The Roman Kingdom ( Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchical Government of the city of Rome The kings, excluding Romulus who held office by his virtue as the city's founder, were all elected by the people of Rome to serve for life, with none of the kings relying on military force to gain the throne. Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology Though no reference is made to the hereditary principle in the election of the first four kings, beginning with the fifth king Tarquinius Priscus, the royal inheritance flowed through the royal females of the deceased king. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I, was held by ancient tradition to be the fifth King of Rome, said to have reigned Consequently, the ancient historians state that the king was chosen on account of his virtues and not his descent.
The ancient historians of Rome make it difficult to determine the powers of the king versus the powers of their later republican counterparts, the consuls. Some modern writers believe that the supreme power of Rome under the kings resided in the hands of the people and that the kings were merely chief executives for the Senate and people—that Rome was a constitutional monarchy. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is Others believe that the kings possessed sovereign powers and that the Senate and people could exercise only minor checks upon these powers—that Rome was an absolute monarchy. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything
The insignia of the kings of Rome were twelve lictors wielding the fasces bearing axes, the right to sit upon a Curule chair, the purple Toga Picta, red shoes, and a white diadem around the head. The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant with special tasks of attending and guarding Fasces (ˈfæsiːz a Plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle" symbolize summary power and Jurisdiction According to Livy the curule chair originated in Etruria, and it has been used on surviving Etruscan monuments to identify magistrates but stools supported This article is about the aviation term for the Roman garment see Toga. A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by Eastern monarchs and others as a badge of royalty Of all these insignia, the most important was the purple toga.
The supreme power of the state was vested in the Rex, whose position made him the:
What is known for certain is that the king alone possessed the right to the auspice on behalf of Rome as its chief augur, and no public business could be performed without the will of the gods made known through auspices. An auspice ( Latin: auspicium from auspex, literally "one who looks at birds" is a type of Omen already familiar The Augur was a priest and official in the classical world especially Ancient Rome and Etruria. The people knew the king as a mediator between them and the gods and thus viewed the king with religious awe. This made the king the head of the national religion and its chief executive. Roman mythology, or more appropriately Latin mythology, refers to the mythological beliefs of the Italic people inhabiting the region of Latium and its Having the power to control the Roman calendar, he conducted all religious ceremonies and appointed lower religious offices and officers. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. It was Romulus who instituted the augurs and was who believed to have been the best augur of all. Likewise, King Numa Pompilius instituted the pontiffs and through them developed the foundations of the religious dogma of Rome. Numa Pompilius, according to Legend, was the second King of Rome, succeeding Romulus. Pontiff or Pontificate is a title of certain religious leaders now used principally to refer to leaders such as the Pope of the Catholic Church and of Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek, plural) is the established Belief or
Beyond his religious authority, the king was invested with the supreme military, executive, and judicial authority through the use of imperium. Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. In Ancient Rome the concept applied to People, and meant something like "power The imperium of the king was held for life and protected him from ever being brought to trial for his actions. As being the sole owner of imperium in Rome at the time, the king possessed ultimate executive power and unchecked military authority as the commander-in-chief of all Rome's legions. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," His executive power and his sole imperium allowed him to issue decrees with the force of law. A decree is an order made by a Head of state or government and having the force of Law. Also, the laws that kept citizens safe from the misuse of magistrates owning imperium did not exist during the times of the king.
Another power of the king was the power to either appoint or nominate all officials to offices. The king would appoint a tribunus celerum to serve as both the tribune of Ramnes tribe in Rome but also as the commander of the king's personal bodyguard, the Celeres. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the The Celeres were a personal armed guard of 300-500 men maintained by Romulus, the mythical founder of ancient Rome. The king was required to appoint the tribune upon entering office and the tribune left office upon the king's death. The tribune was second in rank to the king and also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it.
Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi, which acted as the warden of the city. When the king was absent from the city, the prefect held all of the king's powers and abilities, even to the point of being bestowed with imperium while inside the city. The king even received the right to be the sole person to appoint patricians to the Senate.
The king's imperium granted him both military powers as well as qualified him to pronounce legal judgment in all cases as the chief justice of Rome. Though he could assign pontiffs to act as minor judges in some cases, he had supreme authority in all cases brought before him, both civil and criminal. This made the king supreme in times of both war and peace. While some writers believed there was no appeal from the king's decisions, others believed that a proposal for appeal could be brought before the king by any patrician during a meeting of the Curiate Assembly. The term " patrician " originally referred to a group of elite families in Ancient Rome, including both their natural and The Roman Assemblies were institutions in Ancient Rome. They functioned as the machinery of the Roman legislative branch and thus (theoretically at least passed all legislation
To assist the king, A council advised the king during all trials, but this council had no power to control the king's decisions. Also, two criminal detectives (Quaestores Parridici) were appointed by him as well as a two man criminal court (Duumviri Perduellionis) which oversaw for cases of treason. In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation.
Under the kings, the Senate and Curiate Assembly had very little power and authority; they were not independent bodies in that they possessed the right to meet together and discuss questions of state. They could only be called together by the king and could only discuss the matters the king laid before them. While the Curiate Assembly did have the power to pass laws that had been submitted by the king, the Senate was effectively an honorable council. It could advise the king on his action but by no means could prevent him from acting. The only thing that the king could not do without the approval of the Senate and Curiate Assemnbly was to declare war against a foreign nation. These issues effectively allowed the King to more or less rule by decree with the exception of the above mentioned affairs. Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group and is used primarily by Dictators and Absolute monarchs
Whenever a king died, Rome entered a period of interregnum. An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity of a government organization or social order Supreme power of the state would devolve to the Senate, who was responsible for finding a new king. The Senate would assemble and appoint one of its own members the interrex to serve for a period of five days with the sole purpose of nominating the next king of Rome. Interrex or "inter-rex" (Latin plural interreges) was literally a ruler "between kings After the five day period, the interrex would appoint (with the Senate's consent) another Senator for another five day term. This process would continue until a new king was elected. Once the interrex found a suitable nominee to the kingship, he would bring the nominee before the Senate and the Senate would review him. If the Senate passed the nominee, the interrex would convene the Curiate Assembly and presided as its president during the election of the King.
Once proposed to the Curiate Assembly, the people of Rome could either accept or reject him. If accepted, the king-elect did not immediately enter office. Two other acts had still to take place before he was invested with the full regal authority and power. First it was necessary to obtain the divine will of the gods respecting his appointment by means of the auspices, since the king would serve as high priest of Rome. An auspice ( Latin: auspicium from auspex, literally "one who looks at birds" is a type of Omen already familiar This ceremony was performed by an augur, who conducted the king-elect to the citadel where he was placed on a stone seat as the people waited below. The Augur was a priest and official in the classical world especially Ancient Rome and Etruria. If found worthy of the kingship, the augur announced that the gods had given favorable tokens, thus confirming the king’s priestly character.
The second act which had to be performed was the conferring of the imperium upon the King. Imperium in a broad sense translates as power. In Ancient Rome the concept applied to People, and meant something like "power The Curiate Assembly’s previous vote only determined who was to be king, and had not by that act bestowed the necessary power of the king upon him. Accordingly, the king himself proposed to the Curiate Assembly a law granting him imperium, and the Curiate Assembly by voting in favor of the law would grant it.
In theory, the people of Rome elected their leader, but the Senate had most of the control over the process.
|Kings of Rome|
|Romulus||753 BC–716 BC|
|Numa Pompilius||715 BC–674 BC|
|Tullus Hostilius||673 BC–642 BC|
|Ancus Marcius||642 BC–617 BC|
|Lucius Tarquinius Priscus||616 BC–579 BC|
|Servius Tullius||578 BC–535 BC|
|Lucius Tarquinius Superbus||535 BC–510 BC/509 BC|