|Scottish Gaelic: Cill Meàrnaig|
|Scots: Kilmarnock, Killie|
Kilmarnock shown within Scotland
|Population||43,588 (2001 Census)|
|OS grid reference|
|Council area||East Ayrshire|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|UK Parliament||Kilmarnock and Loudoun|
|Scottish Parliament||Kilmarnock and Loudoun|
|List of places: UK • Scotland|
Kilmarnock (Scottish Gaelic: Cill Meàrnaig; locally known as Killie) is a large burgh in East Ayrshire, Scotland, with a population of 44,170. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude For local government purposes Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas" which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as East Ayrshire ( Siorrachd Inbhir Àir an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 Council areas of Scotland. The Lieutenancy areas of Scotland are the areas used for the ceremonial lord-lieutenants, the monarch 's representatives in Scotland. Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir ʃir̴əxg̊ iɲiɾʲˈaːɾʲ is a Registration county, and former administrative county in south-west Scotland, Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged gives an overview of States around the world with information on the extent of their Sovereignty. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A post town is a required part of all postal addresses in the United Kingdom, and a basic unit of the postal delivery system UK Postal codes are known as postcodes. UK postcodes are Alphanumeric. The, also known as the Kilmarnock postcode area, is a group of Postal districts in East Ayrshire, North Ayrshire and South Ayrshire The UK Telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, is the system used for assigning Telephone numbers in the United There are a number of law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom. Strathclyde Police is the Police force for the Scottish council areas of Argyll and Bute, City of Glasgow, East Ayrshire The fire service in the United Kingdom operates under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Strathclyde Fire and Rescue is the Statutory fire and rescue service for the area of Strathclyde, Scotland. SASDivmap copyjpg|right|200px]] Helimed5jpg|thumb|right|EC-135 G-SASA "Helimed 5" based at Glasgow City Heliport]] The Scottish Ambulance Service ( Scottish Scotland constitutes a single Constituency of the European Parliament. This is a list of the 646 constituencies currently represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as at the 2005 general election Kilmarnock and Loudoun is a Constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Scottish Parliament ( Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: Scottish Pairlament) is the devlolved national unicameral Kilmarnock and Loudoun is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament ( Holyrood) Constituencies and council areas The constituencies were created in 1999 with the names and boundaries of Westminster constituencies as existing in at that time A Gazetteer of place names in the United Kingdom showing each place's County, Unitary authority or council area and its geographical coordinates This List of places in Scotland is a complete collection of lists of places in Scotland. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. A Burgh (ˈbʌʀə is an autonomous corporate entity in Scotland, usually a Town. East Ayrshire ( Siorrachd Inbhir Àir an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 Council areas of Scotland. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.  It is located roughly between Glasgow and Ayr, and is the largest town in Ayrshire. Glasgow (ˈglæzgoʊ is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom Ayr (Inbhir Àir Mouth of the River Ayr) is a town and port situated on the Firth of Clyde, in south-west Scotland. Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir ʃir̴əxg̊ iɲiɾʲˈaːɾʲ is a Registration county, and former administrative county in south-west Scotland,  The River Irvine runs through its eastern section, and the Kilmarnock Water passes through it, giving rise to the name 'Bank Street'. For the Scottish town of the same name see Irvine North Ayrshire. For the Scottish town of the same name see Irvine North Ayrshire. 
The name comes from the Gaelic cill (kirk), and the name of Saint Marnoch or Mernoc who is also remembered in the name of Portmarnock in Ireland, and Inchmarnock. Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. Kirk can mean " church " in general or the Church of Scotland in particular Portmarnock ( Port Mearnóg in Irish) is a small suburban Village with extensive housing estates to the north and west north of the city of Dublin Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Inchmarnock ( Scottish Gaelic: Innis Mheàrnaig) is an island at the northern end of the Sound of Bute on the west coast of Scotland. It may come from the three Gaelic elements mo (my) Earn (name of the saint) and the diminutive ag, giving Church of My Little Earn. It is believed by some that the saint founded a church there in 322. There are 12 Church of Scotland congregations in the town, plus other denominations. The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland. In 2005, the Reverend David W. Lacy, minister of the town's Henderson Church, was elected Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. David William Lacy was the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 2005-6 The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is an honorary role held for 12 months
The core of the early town appears to have lain around what is now the Laigh Kirk (Low Church), although the oldest parts of the current building are no earlier than the 17th century, extending north and northwest. A comparatively modest settlement until the industrial revolution, Kilmarnock extended considerably from around 1800 onwards. This resulted in formal, planned developments such as King Street, Portland Street, Saint Marnock Street, and latterly John Finnie Street; the latter often suggested as one of the finest Victorian planned streets in Scotland.
Areas of Kilmarnock include:
Kilmarnock's traditional industries were based around textiles and heavy engineering; carpets (manufactured by BMK) from the early 1900s, locomotives (Andrew Barclay and Sons) from 1837 through 1970, and valves (Glenfield and Kennedy) which are still in production. A carpet is any loom-woven felted textile or grass floor covering A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. Andrew Barclay Sons & Co was a steam and later diesel Locomotive builder based in Kilmarnock, Scotland founded in 1840 For other uses see Valve (disambiguation. For the electronic component see Thermionic valve.
The carpets manufactured in Kilmarnock were internationally known for their quality and intricacy since the late 1800s. Many locations around the world chose to install BMK carpets. Famously, RMS Titanic was carpeted using carpets manufactured by Stoddard Carpets, the parent company and successor to BMK. Construction The Titanic was a White Star Line ocean liner built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland Primarily due to a move by the UK market towards laminated and hard-wood flooring, but also partially due to a long decline in the industry in the area as well as cheaper, but noticeably less hard-wearing foreign competition, carpet-making finally ceased in Kilmarnock in early 2005.
Archibald Finnie and his family lived at Springhill House (now a nursing home) near the Grange Academy. Grange Academy is a secondary school in Kilmarnock in Ayrshire, Scotland. They owned many coal mines, pits and other companies in Springside and other places. John Finnie Street is named after one of the family. Shoes were also a major product for some time, with Saxone having a factory in the town on the site of where the Galleon leisure centre now stands.
Kilmarnock had one of the earliest tram railways in the world, running to Troon over the (recently restored) Laigh Milton viaduct. Laigh Milton Viaduct (formerly known as Milton Bridge) is a Railway Viaduct near Laigh Milton mill at Gatehead in East Ayrshire The Glasgow and South Western Railway also set up their works here, producing nearly 400 locomotives by the time it was absorbed by the LMS in 1923. The Glasgow and South Western Railway (G&SWR one of the pre- grouping railway companies, served a triangular area of south-west Scotland, between Glasgow London Midland for the new (2007 railway company The London Midland and Scottish Railway ( LMS) was a British Railway company Some work continued, but heavy repairs were sent to Saint Rollox. Springburn is a semi-suburban (partly suburban area in the north of the Scottish city of Glasgow, home to various working- and middle-class families Locomotive repairs finished in 1952, and the works closed in 1959. Nevertheless locomotives are still made by Hunslett-Barclay, as well as the maintenance of existing diesel and electric multiple units. From 1946 tractors were also built in Kilmarnock, with a large Massey-Harris factory present on the outskirts of the town. It later became Massey-Ferguson, before closing in 1978. Massey Ferguson Limited was a major Agricultural equipment manufacturer based in England Glenfield and Kennedy still survives albeit with a fraction of its former workforce, which at its height numbered in the thousands. Kilmarnock however is still home to the world famous Johnnie Walker's brand Scotch whisky. Johnnie Walker is a brand of Scotch whisky produced in Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland. Scotch whisky is Whisky made in Scotland. In Britain the term whisky is usually taken to mean Scotch unless otherwise specified On the outskirts of the town is Scotland's first privately run prison, HM Prison Kilmarnock. "HM Prison" redirects here For prisons in Australia see List of Australian prisons. HM Prison Kilmarnock is a Prison in Bowhouse Hurlford near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland.
The textile and manufacturing sectors across Scotland suffered significant decline in the postwar period, and in particular from the 1960s, in the face of greater foreign competition. Kilmarnock was no exception, with the closure or significant reduction of many of its traditional large employers: Glenfield and Kennedy, Massey Ferguson, BMK, and Saxone. Although significant attempts have been made to halt this decline and attract new employers, Kilmarnock saw a continuing net loss of jobs in the five years to 2005.
Although traditionally a main shopping area for most of the surrounding districts, patterns have changed over the last 20 years; traditional centres such as Ayr have been joined by new developments at Braehead and East Kilbride.
This difficult economic climate is most visible in the town centre, the eastern part of which has been extensively redeveloped, with important historic buildings such as King Street Church and the Town Hall being demolished, and Duke Street (the link from Kilmarnock Cross to the Palace Theatre and out to the London Road) built over.
More recently Portland Street, which formed the northerly part of the main shopping area, lay abandoned for many years due to a decline in retail trade and in the face of possible comprehensive redevelopment. The street has now been redeveloped, but has not yet regained its former degree of popularity, with a Gala Bingo and a J. D. Wetherspoons taking up much of one side of the street and the rest largely occupied by chain stores.
In 2004, the Rough Guide to Scotland described the town as "shabby and depressed, saddled with some terrible shopping centres and a grim one-way system". The town, however, contains several parks such as Howard Park, Dean Park, and Kay Park, and residential areas including London Road, Dundonald Road, McLelland Drive, and Howard Park Drive. The town also boasts a collection of gift shops, cafes, bars, and restaurants within the very desirable Bank Street area, whilst offering retail options within its retail parks at Queen's Drive and Glencairn Square.
According to the local press in November 2007, the new SNP council have drawn up a Top Ten Hit List on 'eyesore' buildings in the town, and their owners and have revealed plans to crack down hard on property owners who have left their buildings fall into disrepair. A plan of action is being carried out to get something done with each of these sites. Many of the buildings in disrepair are irreplaceable listed buildings such as the former ABC cinema (previously the King's Theatre) on Titchfield Street.
A four-star hotel recently opened next to Rugby Park, the home of Kilmarnock F.C., and new restaurants, such as Merchants and the award winning Jefferson Restaurant have opened in the town centre. This article refers to the Scottish football stadium For New Zealand venue see Rugby Park Stadium. Kilmarnock Football Club is a Scottish football team based in the town of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire.
Regeneration activities have been discussed for Kilmarnock town centre; in early 2006, an application to Historic Scotland's Conservation Area Regeneration Scheme was successful, and as of July 2006 an application under the Heritage Lottery Fund's Townscape Heritage Initiative Scheme was pending. Work has pretty much finished on a quality housing development on the gapsite of the former Kilmarnock Infirmary north of the town centre.
In the past there have been major efforts to improve the quality of life for residents in the town's worst housing estates, especially in parts of Shortlees, Longpark and Onthank. Though the physical rehabilitation of housing in these areas has partly tackled the underlying problems of social exclusion, Onthank is arguably that most successful area of regeneration in question.
Much new quality housing has been constructed on the northern fringes of the town, in order to service the demand for commuter housing. With a journey time of 20 minutes from Kilmarnock to Glasgow (roughly half that of the existing train service), the M77 has transformed the link between Glasgow and Kilmarnock. The upgrading of the A77 route to Glasgow to the M77 motorway in 2005 has made Kilmarnock more accessible for commuters, and recent house price increases have reflected this. The M77 motorway is a Motorway in Scotland. It originally began in southern Glasgow at the M8 motorway at Kinning park, and terminates 
In 1812, the famous Kilmarnock and Troon Railway opened, mainly to carry coal from the area to the harbour at Troon, but also carrying passengers. The Kilmarnock and Troon Railway was the first railway line in Scotland authorised by Act of Parliament, in 1808 the engineer was William Jessop.
In 1904, Kilmarnock had its own tramway system built. The name of the company was Kilmarnock Corporation Tramways. An electric power station was built in the south bank of the River Irvine at Riccarton. Overhead power lines and tram lines were laid. With continued upgrading and expansion, the tram network at its peak went from Ayr Road in Riccarton at its southerly point, to Knockinlaw Road in Beansburn in the North. At Kilmarnock Cross, the line had an easterly spur that stretched along London Road, through Crookedholm and finally terminating at Hurlford. Hurlford ( Scottish Gaelic: Baile Átha Cliath) is a village in East Ayrshire, Scotland. There had been proposed extensions along Portland Road, up John Finnie Street, West Langlands Street and eventually towards Crosshouse, but by this time, increasing costs and the far more flexible motor bus had made inroads and the trams ceased operation in 1926 during the General Strike. The UK General Strike of 1926 was a General strike that lasted nine days from 3 May 1926 to 12 May 1926. The council decided not to restart the service and the infrastructure was soon dismantled. Today the town is served by Kilmarnock railway station. Kilmarnock railway station is a railway station in Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland.
Kilmarnock has excellent road links to Glasgow with the M77 motorway now extending as far as Fenwick.
Kilmarnock lies on the main road between Edinburgh, Livingston, South Lanarkshire, and Ayrshire (Irvine). Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Livingston is the fourth post-war New town to be built in Scotland, designated in 1962 South Lanarkshire ( Siorrachd Lannraig a Deas in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland, covering the southern part of the Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir ʃir̴əxg̊ iɲiɾʲˈaːɾʲ is a Registration county, and former administrative county in south-west Scotland,
Kilmarnock has 17 schools; 13 primary and four secondary. There is also a college in the town, Kilmarnock College, formerly Kilmarnock Technical College.
The secondary schools are:
The primary schools are:
The town is host to a football club named Kilmarnock F.C., the oldest professional club in Scotland. Kilmarnock Football Club is a Scottish football team based in the town of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. Their home ground is the curiously named Rugby Park. This article refers to the Scottish football stadium For New Zealand venue see Rugby Park Stadium. The reason for the name of the ground is that when founded, the club played both football and rugby. The club has the largest supporter base of any team outwith Scotland's four major cities. Rugby Park was also one of the first football grounds in Scotland to have floodlights installed. In recent years the stadium has been modernised, firstly to bring it in line with the all-seating regulations, then rebuilt totally to make a new ground. It has also hosted international football matches as well as music concerts, the most recent one was when Elton John performed here in June 2005. Sir Elton Hercules John CBE (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947 is an English pop / rock Singer, Composer Derek Olgavie is also a regular appearance in the Palace Theatre.
The town also regularly plays host to professional wrestling shows, promoted by the British Championship Wrestling promotion.
There are two golf courses in the town, Annanhill Golf Course and Caprington Golf Course, which has both an 18 hole course and a nine hole course. Both these courses are council owned and run by East Ayrshire Council. East Ayrshire ( Siorrachd Inbhir Àir an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 Council areas of Scotland.
The local leisure complexes include the Galleon Centre: with a 25 metre swimming pool, baby pool, ice rink, squash courts, sauna, gym, games hall, bar area, bowling green and the New Northwest Centre (formerly the Hunter Centre) which contains an up-to-date community gym and various local medical facilities.
A leisurely stroll around the town will reveal many fine buildings. Kilmarnock boasts a large number of listed buildings. The Dick Institute, opened in April 1901, was severely damaged by fire only eight years after it opened. The Dick Institute is a Museum in Scotland. History of the building The funds which were required to Build the Dick Institute were provided Some of the museums collections were lost in the fire. It reopened two years after the fire in 1911. The Dick Institute was used as an Auxiliary Hospital in 1917 during World War One. The Dick Institute is a Museum in Scotland. History of the building The funds which were required to Build the Dick Institute were provided It is now shared by the Arts and Museums Service, and the Libraries, Registration and Information Service. The two Art Galleries and three Museum Galleries house permanent and temporary displays of Fine Art, Contemporary Art and Craft, Local and Industrial History and Natural Sciences. The Lending Library, Audio Library, Junior Library, Reference Library, and Learning Centre are all housed on the ground floor.
The first collection of work by Scottish poet Robert Burns, Poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect was published here in 1786. Robert Burns (25 January 1759 – 21 July 1796 (also known as Rabbie Burns, Scotland's favourite son, the Ploughman Poet, the Bard of Ayrshire It was published at the current site of the Burn's Mall, dedicated to his work. This edition is known as the Kilmarnock Edition.
Two areas of Kilmarnock, Ellerslie and Riccarton, are associated with William Wallace and his father. Sir William Wallace ( Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; c 1272 – 23 August 1305 was a Scottish Knight, Landowner, and Patriot Claims have been made that this is the true origin of his birthplace, and recently these have been largely substantiated. The claim that Wallace was born in Elderslie near Paisley no longer seems tenable.
John Bowring, renowned polyglot and fourth governor of Hong Kong, was Member of Parliament for Kilmarnock in 1835. Sir John Bowring, KCB ( Chinese translated name 寶寧寶靈 or 包令 (17 October 1792 &ndash 23 November 1872 was an English Political economist Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament.
In the castle of Kilmarnock, Dean Castle, there is an exhibition of armour and weapons, and the Van Raalte collection of musical instruments.