Kermit is a computer file transfer/management protocol and a set of communications software tools; it provides a consistent approach to file transfer, terminal emulation, script programming, and character set conversion across many different computer hardware and OS platforms. A computer file is a block of Arbitrary Information, or resource for storing information which is available to a Computer program and is usually In computing, a protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection Communication, and Data transfer between two computing A terminal emulator, terminal application, term, or tty for short is a program that emulates a "dumb" video terminal within some other "Scripting" redirects here For other uses see Script. A character encoding consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given character set (sometimes incorrectly referred to as Code page Typical PC hardware A typical Personal computer consists of a case or chassis in a tower shape (desktop and the following parts Motherboard An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination
The Kermit protocol allows for transferring text and binary files on both full-duplex and half-duplex 8 bit and 7-bit serial connections in a system- and medium-independent fashion, and is implemented on hundreds of different computer and operating system platforms. A text file (sometimes spelled "textfile" is a kind of Computer file that is structured as a sequence of lines. In Telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232 is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE ( Data Terminal Equipment On full-duplex connections, a sliding window protocol is used with selective retransmission which provides excellent performance and error recovery characteristics. On 7-bit connections, locking shifts provide efficient transfer of 8-bit data. When properly implemented, as in the Columbia University Kermit Software collection, performance is equal to or better than other protocols such as ZMODEM, YMODEM, and XMODEM, especially on poor connections. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ZMODEM is a file transfer protocol developed by Chuck Forsberg in 1986, in a Project funded by Telenet in order to improve file transfers YMODEM is a Protocol for file transfer used between Modems YMODEM was developed by Chuck Forsberg as the successor to XMODEM and MODEM7 and XMODEM is a simple File transfer protocol developed as a quick hack by Ward Christensen for use in his 1977 MODEM On connections over RS-232 Statistical Multiplexers where some control characters don't transmit, Kermit can be configured to work, unlike protocols like XMODEM that require all 256 bytes be transmitted. In Telecommunications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232 is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE ( Data Terminal Equipment Statistical multiplexing is a type of communication link sharing very similar to Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA American Standard Code for Information Interchange ( ASCII)
Kermit was developed at Columbia University in 1981 to allow students to use removable media on microcomputers (initially Intertec Superbrains running CP/M) to hold files from IBM mainframes and DEC DECSYSTEM-20 machines running the TOPS-20 operating system. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 In Computer storage, removable media refers to storage media which can be removed from its reader device conferring portability on the data it carries microcomputer is a Computer with a Microprocessor as its Central processing unit. The Intertec Superbrain was an all-in-one commercial Microcomputer first sold by Intertec in 1979. CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers is an Operating system originally created for Intel 8080 / 85 based Microcomputers by Gary Kildall International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology Mainframes (often colloquially referred to as Big Iron) are Computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications typically bulk data Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the Computer industry The DECSYSTEM-20 was a 36-bit DEC PDP-10 Computer running the TOPS-20 operating system The TOPS-20 Operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC was the second proprietary OS for the PDP-10. IBM mainframes used an EBCDIC character set and CP/M and DEC machines used ASCII so conversion between the two character sets was one of the early functions built into Kermit. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code ( EBCDIC) is an 8- Bit Character encoding ( Code page) used on IBM mainframe Operating American Standard Code for Information Interchange ( ASCII)
CP/M machines used many different floppy disk formats, which meant that one machine could not normally read disks from another CP/M machine. A floppy disk is an increasingly Obsolete data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin flexible ("floppy" Magnetic storage medium encased PIP with a very low baud rate (because it had no built-in error correction) was used to transfer a small simple version of Kermit from one machine to another over a null modem cable, or failing that, a very very simple version of the kermit protocol could be hand coded in binary in less than 2K using DDT, the CP/M Debugging Tool. Peripheral Interchange Program (PIP was a utility to transfer data files on Digital Equipment Corporation 's computers In Telecommunications and Electronics, baud (ˈbɔːd unit symbol "Bd" is synonymous to symbols/s or pulses/s. Null modem is a communication method to connect two DTEs ( Computer, terminal, printer etc Once that was done the simple version of Kermit could be used to download a fully functional version. That version could then be used to transfer any CP/M application or data.
Over the more than 20 years since its inception, the Kermit protocol has evolved into a worldwide de facto data communications standard, and the software has been used for tasks ranging from simple student assignments to solving compatibility problems aboard the International Space Station.  It has been ported to a wide variety of mainframe, minicomputer and microcomputer systems (some even say that C-Kermit is the second most portable program in the world, after hello world programs); most versions had a user interface based on the original TOPS-20 Kermit. A minicomputer (colloquially mini) is a class of multi-user Computers that lies in the middle range of the computing spectrum in between the largest Multi-user A "Hello World" program is a Computer program that prints out "Hello world!" on a Display device. The MS-DOS version of Kermit was developed in 1983. MS-DOS (short for M icro' s' oft D isk O perating S ystem is an Operating system commercialized by Microsoft. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Later versions of some Kermit implementations also support network as well as serial connections.
Implementations that are presently supported include C-Kermit (for Unix and OpenVMS) and Kermit 95 (for versions of Microsoft Windows from Windows 95 onwards and OS/2), but other versions remain available as well. tags please moot on the talk page first! --> In Computing, C is a general-purpose cross-platform block structured Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer Open Virtual Memory System ( OpenVMS) initially known just as Virtual Memory System ( VMS) is the name of a High-end Computer server Microsoft Windows is a series of Software Operating systems and Graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented Graphical user interface -based Operating system. OS/2 is a computer Operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later developed by IBM exclusively The Kermit protocol can still be used as a bootstrap and there is an apocryphal story about its legendary portability: "If your toaster has a microchip in it, someone somewhere has probably ported Kermit to it". In computing bootstrapping ("to pull oneself up by one's bootstraps" refers to techniques that allow a simple system to activate a more complicated system
Kermit was initially developed by and distributed for free by the Columbia University, until 1986 when Columbia founded the Kermit Project which took over development and started charging fees for commercial use. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) The project is self-sufficient. 
Kermit was named after Kermit the Frog from the Muppets. Kermit the Frog is a Muppet, one of Puppeteer Jim Henson 's most famous and beloved creations first introduced in 1955 The Muppets are a group of Puppet characters created by Jim Henson.  The program's icon in the Apple Macintosh version was a depiction of Kermit the Frog. On Computer displays, a computer icon is a small Pictogram. Icons have been used to supplement the normal alphanumerics of the computer Macintosh, commonly nicknamed Mac is a Brand name which covers several lines of Personal computers designed developed and marketed by Apple Inc A backronym was nevertheless created, perhaps to avoid trademark issues, KL10 Error-Free Reciprocal Microprocessor Interchange over TTY lines. A backronym (or bacronym) is a Phrase that is constructed "after the fact" from a previously existing word or Abbreviation, the abbreviation
Kermit is an open protocol - anybody can base their own program on it, but some Kermit software and source code is copyright by Columbia University. 
This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL. The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing ( FOLDOC) is an online searchable encyclopedic Dictionary of Computing subjects The GNU Free Documentation License ( GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a Copyleft License for free documentation designed by the Free Software