|Archipel des Kerguelen|
|Motto: "Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité"|
|Anthem: La Marseillaise|
Map of Kerguelen Island
(and largest city)
|French overseas territory||District of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands|
|-||Total||7,215 km² |
2,786 sq mi
|-||census||70 (winter); c. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group Liberté égalité fraternité, French for " Liberty, equality, fraternity ( Brotherhood)" is the motto A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's " La Marseillaise " (la maʁsɛˡjɛz in English The Song of Marseille) is the National anthem of France. Port-aux-Français is the capital settlement of the Kerguelen Islands, French territory in the south Indian Ocean. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France 's elected Nicolas Sarkozy (pronounced, The French Overseas Departments and Territories ( French: départements d'outre-mer and territoires d'outre-mer or DOM-TOM) consist broadly of The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises abbreviated TAAF) full name Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology 110 (summer)|
The Kerguelen Islands or the Kerguelen Archipelago (French: commonly Îles Kerguelen or Archipel de Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen or Archipel Kerguelen), also known as Desolation Island, is a group of islands in the southern Indian Ocean. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established UTC+5 is the Timezone for Pakistan Standard Time West Asia Standard Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface It is a territory of France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
The Kerguelen Islands are located at antipodal to the area where Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Montana meet in North America. The antipodes refer to lands and peoples located on the opposite side of the World compared to the speaker Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern The main island, Grande Terre, is 6,675 km² and it is surrounded by another 300 smaller islands and islets, forming an archipelago of 7,215 km². To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here areas between 1000 km2 and 10000 km2 An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian The climate is raw and chilly but not severely cold throughout the year — much like that of the outer Aleutian Islands of Alaska — with frequent high winds; and while the surrounding seas are generally rough, they remain free of ice year-round. The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, " Island " are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming a Volcanic Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent, which is
In English, "Kerguelen" is pronounced /ˈkɝɡɨlɨn/, etc.
The islands, along with Adélie Land, the Crozet Islands, and the Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands are part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands and are administered as a separate district. The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises abbreviated TAAF) full name Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
They were discovered by the French navigator Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen de Trémarec in February 1772. Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec ( February 13, 1734 - March 3, 1797) was a Breton Explorer and French naval officer
Soon after their discovery, the archipelago was regularly visited by whalers and sealers (mostly British, American, and Norwegian) who hunted the resident populations of whales and seals to the point of near extinction, including fur seals in the 18th century and elephant seals in the 19th century. Fur seals are any of nine species of Pinnipeds in the Otariidae family Elephant seals are large oceangoing Mammals in the Genus Mirounga, in the Earless seal (Phocidae family. Since the end of the whaling and sealing era, most of the islands' species have been able to re-establish themselves.
In the past, a number of expeditions briefly visited the islands, including that of Captain James Cook in 1776. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and The German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis called at Kerguelen during December 1940. Early history Formerly a Freighter named Goldenfels, she was built by Bremer Vulkan in 1937 and was owned and operated by the Hansa Line During their stay the crew performed maintenance and replenished their water supplies. The ship's first fatality of the war came when a sailor fell while painting the funnel. He is buried in what is sometimes referred to as "the most southerly German grave" of the Second World War.
Kerguelen has been used by a small number of science teams since 1949, with a population of fifty to one hundred always present. There is also a satellite tracking station. The main island is home to a well-established feral cat population, descended from ships' cats. A feral cat (or stray cat, alley cat) is a Cat which has been separated from Domestication through abandonment loss or running away and becomes They survive on sea birds and non-indigenous rabbits introduced to the islands. The islands are also known for the indigenous, edible Kerguelen cabbage.
The main base, the "capital" of the district, is located at the eastern end of the Gulf of Morbihan on Grande Terre at Port-aux-Français. Port-aux-Français is the capital settlement of the Kerguelen Islands, French territory in the south Indian Ocean. Facilities include a bar, gym, hospital, library, and the chapel of Notre-Dame des Vents. Notre-Dame des Vents is a chapel located in Port-aux-Français, the capital settlement of the Kerguelen Islands, Territory of the French Southern and Antarcticand is known as
In 2000, one of the over-winterers was killed in a hunting accident on Ile Haute, an event written about by a British journalist, Matthew Parris, during a stay while writing a column on the islands. Matthew Parris (born 7 August 1949 in Johannesburg) is a Journalist and former Conservative politician in the United 
The main island of this archipelago is called La Grande Terre. The Péninsule Rallier du Baty is a peninsula of Grande Terre the main island of the Kerguelen archipelago It measures 150 km east to west and 120 km north to south. The highest point is the Galliéni Massif (Pic du Grand-Ross), which lies along the southern coast of the island and has an elevation of 1850 m. The Cook Glacier, which covers approximately 550 square km, lies on the west-central part of the island. Grande Terre has numerous bays, inlets, fjords, and coves, as well as several important peninsulas and promontories. The most important ones are listed below and indicated on the map by numbers:
There are also a number of historic localities, all on Grande Terre (see also the main map):
For the 1874 Transit of Venus, George Biddell Airy at the Royal Observatory organised and equipped five expeditions to different parts of the world. Sir George Biddell Airy FRS (27 July 1801&ndash2 January 1892 was an English Mathematician and Astronomer, Astronomer Royal Three of these would be sent to the Kerguelen Islands. The Reverend Stephen Joseph Perry led the British expeditions to the Kerguelen Islands. Stephen Joseph Perry (born in London August 1833 d 27 December[[ 889]] was an English Jesuit, known as a participant in scientific expeditions He set up his chief station at Observatory Bay and two auxiliary stations, one at Thumb Peak [49°31'11". 8 S, 70°10'18". 1 E] led by Sommerville Goodridge, and a second at Supply Bay [49°30'47". 3 S, 69 °46'13". 2 E] led by Cyril Corbet. Observatory Bay was also used by the German Antarctic Expedition led by Erich Dagobert von Drygalski in 1902-03. Erich Dagobert von Drygalski ( February 9, 1865 &ndash January 10, 1949) was a German Geographer, Geophysicist In January 2007, an archaeological excavation of this site was carried out.
Since 1963, sounding rockets (mainly Arcas, Dragon and Eridan). A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying Rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during For the butterfly genus see Arcas (butterfly. In Pelasgian Mythology, Arcas (Ἀρκάς is the son of the god The Dragon is a two-stage French Solid propellant Sounding rocket used for high altitude research The Eridan is a two-stage French Sounding rocket, which resulted from the use of the Stromboli engine of the Dragon and/or Dauphin as first and second stagejust east of Port-aux-Français is a launch site for
The following list the most important adjacent islands:
Principal activities on the Kerguelen Islands focus on scientific research - mostly earth sciences and biology.
The former sounding rocket range to the east of Port-aux-Français SuperDARN radar. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN is an international Radar network for studying the upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere, comprised of elevenis currently the site of a
Since 1992, the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) has operated a satellite tracking station which is located 4 km east of Port-aux-Français. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The fr '''Centre National d'Études Spatiales''' ( CNES) is the French government Space agency (administratively a "public establishment of industrial and commercial This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. An earth station or ground station is the surface-based (terrestrial end of a Communications link to an object in Outer space. Port-aux-Français is the capital settlement of the Kerguelen Islands, French territory in the south Indian Ocean.
Agricultural activities are limited to raising sheep (approximately 3500 bizet sheep - an endangered species in metropolitan France) on Longue Island for consumption by the occupants of the base, as well as small quantities of vegetables in a greenhouse within the immediate vicinity of the base. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
There are also a small number of fishing vessels, owned by fishermen on Réunion island - a departement of France - who are licensed to fish within the archipelago's economic zone. Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone ( EEZ) is a seazone over which a State has special rights over the exploration and use of marine
The Kerguelen islands form an emerged part of the submerged Kerguelen-Heard tectonic plate, which has a surface area nearing 2. Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere 2 million square kilometres. 
The major part of the volcanic formations visible on the islands are characteristic of an effusive volcanism, which caused a trap rock formation to start emerging above the level of the ocean 35 million years ago. Trap rock is a form of Plutonic Igneous rock that tends to form polygonal vertical fractures most typically hexagonal but also four to eight sided The accumulation is of a considerable amount; basalt flows, each with a thickness of three to ten metres, stack on top of each other, sometimes up to a depth of 1,200 metres. Basalt (bəˈsɔːlt ˈbeisɔːlt ˈbæsɔːlt is a common Extrusive Volcanic rock. This form of volcanism creates a monumental relief shaped as stairs of pyramids.
Other forms of volcanism are present locally, such as the strombolic volcano Mont Ross, and the volcano-plutonic complex on the Rallier du Baty peninsular. Mont Ross is a Stratovolcano, the highest mountain in the Kerguelen Islands at 1840 m Various veins and extrusions of lava such as trachytes, trachy-phonolites and phonolites are frequent all over the islands. Trachyte is an Igneous, Volcanic rock with an Aphanitic to Porphyritic texture Phonolite is an evolved lava which is considered as forming in shallow Magma chambers Phonolite is an igneous, volcanic ( Extrusive) rock
No eruptive activity has been recorded in historic times, but some fumaroles are still active in the South-West of the Grande-Terre island.
A few lignite strata, trapped in basalt flows, reveal fossilised Araucariaceae fragments, dated at about 14 million years of age. Mont Ross is a Stratovolcano, the highest mountain in the Kerguelen Islands at 1840 m Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere The Araucariaceae are a very ancient family of Conifers They achieved maximum diversity in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods when they existed almost
Glaciation caused the depression and tipping phenomena which created the gulfs at the north and east of the archipelago. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Erosion caused by the glacial and fluvial activity carved out the valleys and fjords; erosion also created conglomerate detrital complexes, and the plain of the Courbet Peninsula. Detritus (adjective detrital) is a geological term used to describe particles of rock derived from pre-existing rock through processes of Weathering and The Courbet Peninsula ( Péninsule Courbet) is a vast peninsula occupying the northeastern portion of the principal island of Kerguelen.
The islands are part of a submerged microcontinent called the Kerguelen continent. Continental crustal fragments or microcontinents are fragments of continents thought to have been broken off from the main continental mass forming distinct islands possibly The Kerguelen Plateau (kɚˈɡeɪlən ˈkɝɡələn is an underwater Volcanic Large igneous province (LIP in the Indian Ocean.  The microcontinent existed for three periods between 100 million years ago and 20 million years ago. The so-called Kerguelen continent may have had tropical flora and fauna about 50 million years ago. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 In Botany, flora ( Plural: floras or florae has two meanings The first meaning flora of an area or of time period, refers to all Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time The Kerguelen continent finally sank 20 million years ago and is now 1 - 2 km below sea level. Kerguelen's sedimentary rocks are similar to ones found in Australia and India, indicating they were once connected. Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others being igneous and Metamorphic rock) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Scientists hope that studying the Kerguelen continent will help them discover how Australia, India and Antarctica broke apart. A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country