Kenneth Anderson Kitchen (born 1932) is Personal and Brunner Professor Emeritus of Egyptology and Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Archaeology, Classics and Oriental Studies, University of Liverpool, England. Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek grc -λογία -logia. علم المصريات مصر شناسی is a major field of Archaeology Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos The University of Liverpool is a University in the city of Liverpool, England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
Kitchen is one of the leading experts on Biblical History and the Egyptian Third Intermediate Period having written over 250 books and journal articles on these and other subjects since the mid-1950s. The History of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive His book, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC), is regarded by historians as the standard and most comprehensive treatment on this era. The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Events and trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras Guatemala. It noted a hitherto unknown period of coregency between Psusennes I with Amenemope and Osorkon III with Takelot III, and established that Shebitku of the 25th Dynasty was already king of Egypt by 702 BC among other revelations. Psusennes I, or language|Greek] Ψουσέννης] Psibkhanno or Hor-Pasebakhaenniut I language|Egyptian] ḥr-p3-sb3-ḫˁỉ--nỉwt Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon III Si-Ese was the famous Crown Prince and High Priest of Amun Osorkon B son of Takelot II by his Great Royal Wife Usimare Setepenamun Takelot III Si-Ese was Osorkon III 's eldest son and successor Shebitku (or Shabatka was the third king of the twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled from (707/706 BC-690 BC according to Dan'el Kahn's most recent academic research The twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title Third Intermediate However, some of its points are now slightly dated. For instance, Kitchen believes that Takelot II succeeded Osorkon II at Tanis whereas most Egyptologists today accept it was rather Shoshenq III who succeeded this king. Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot II Si-Ese was a Pharaoh of the Twenty-Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt in Middle and Upper Egypt Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon II was a Pharaoh of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and the son of Takelot I and Queen Kapes Tanis (Τάνις the Greek name of ancient Djanet (modern صان الحجر Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar) is a city in the north-eastern Nile delta King Usermaatre Setepenre or Usimare Setepenamun Shoshenq III ruled Egypt's 22nd Dynasty for 39 years according to contemporary historical (see Karl Jansen-Winkeln, "Historische Probleme Der 3. Zwischenzeit," JEA 81(1995) pp. 129-49, Aidan Dodson in GM 137(1993), p. Göttinger Miszellen (often abbreviated as GM) is a scientific journal published by the Seminar für Ägyptologie and Koptologie ( Göttingen, 58 and G. Broekman, 'The Reign of Takeloth II, a Controversial Matter,' GM 205(2005), pp. 21-35). Secondly, the author views king Shoshenq II as the High Priest of Amun Shoshenq C, a son of Osorkon I who predeceased his father. Heqakheperre Shoshenq II was an Egyptian king of the 22nd dynasty of Egypt Shoshenq C was the eldest son of Osorkon I by Queen Maatkare, the daughter of Psusennes II, and served as the High Priest of Amun at The son of Shoshenq I and his chief consort Karomat A Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I was the second king of Egypt 's 22nd Dynasty and ruled around 922 BC-887 However, this interpretation is weakened by the fact that no objects from Shoshenq II's intact burial at Tanis bears Osorkon I's name. Finally, contra Kitchen, most Egyptologists today such as Rolf Krauss, Aidan Dodson in GM 137 and Jürgen von Beckerath--the latter in his book Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten (1997)--accept David Aston's argument in JEA 75, p. Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. 150 that the Crown Prince Osorkon B, Takelot II's son, assumed power as Osorkon III, a king of the 'Theban Twenty-Third Dynasty' in Upper Egypt. Usermaatre Setepenamun Osorkon III Si-Ese was the famous Crown Prince and High Priest of Amun Osorkon B son of Takelot II by his Great Royal Wife The Twenty-third Dynasty of ancient Egypt was a separate regime of Meshwesh Libyan kings, who ruled Ancient Egypt. Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر Sa'id Misr) is a narrow strip of land that extends from the cataract boundaries of modern-day Aswan to the area between
Kenneth Kitchen is also regarded as one of the foremost scholars on the Ramesside Period of the New Kingdom; he published a well-respected book on Ramesses II in 1982 titled Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. The Ramesside Period encompasses the Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The New Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in Ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Kitchen is a scholar who advocates a high view of the Old Testament and its inherent historicity. See his most recent 2003 book: On the Reliability of the Old Testament which documents several clear or indirect allusions to King David's status as the founder of Ancient Israel based on passages in the Tel Dan ('House of David') and Mesha stelas as well as in Shoshenq I's Karnak list. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Karnak temple complex, universally known only as Karnak, describes a vast conglomeration of ruined temples chapels pylons and other buildings The book counters the efforts of biblical minimalists who claim that the Bible is unhistorical. Kitchen has strongly opposed the New Chronology views of David Rohl who posits that the Biblical Shishak who invaded Israel in 925 BC was actually Ramesses II rather than Shoshenq I and argues that the 21st and 22nd Dynasties of Egypt were contemporary with one another due to the absence of Dynasty 21 Apis Bull stele in the Serapeum. David M Rohl (born 12 September 1950) is a British Egyptologist and Historian who has put forth several controversial theories concerning Events and trends 928 BC — On the death of King Solomon, his son Rehoboam is unable to hold the tribes of Israel together and Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I ( Egyptian ššnq) also known as Shishak, Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second Twenty-Third Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title Third Intermediate The Twenty-First Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title Third Intermediate A stele (from Greek:, stēlē, ˈstiːli plural stelae,, stēlai, ˈstiːlaɪ also found Latinised singular stela A Serapeum is a Temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Hellenistic - Egyptian god Serapis, who combined aspects Kitchen observes that the word Shishak is closer philologically to Shoshenq I and that this Pharaoh records in his monuments at Thebes that he campaigned actively against Ancient Israel and Judah. Kitchen also notes that there are various contemporary non-Serapeum sources such as the Karnak Priestly Annals, the Nile Quay Texts, and various stelas which mention these Dynasty 21 and Dynasty 22 kings.
Professor Kitchen is an Evangelical Christian with regard to his religious beliefs. Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel He is frequently cited by conservative Christians in relation to writings rejecting the Documentary Hypothesis, which claims that the Pentateuch is a composite work of sources labeled J, E, D, and P rather than by Moses as author. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Kenneth Kitchen has raised various objections to the documentary hypothesis . For example, Kitchen points to Egyptian tablets giving a biographical account in four different writing styles, yet this text (he claims) is widely accepted as having had one author. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Kitchen himself, however, is not strictly traditionalist in terms of authorship of the Pentateuch, pointing out numerous places where the text demand post-Mosaic editing in the Pentateuch (See K. A. Kitchen in He Swore an Oath [ed. R. Hess, et. al. ; Grand Rapids, Baker, 1994] 91). He also takes a late date of the exodus of Israel from Egypt during the time of Ramesses II in the 13th century BC, whereas most conservative evangelical Bible scholars date this event to the 15th century BC.
Kenneth Kitchen was invited to the personal professorship due to his practical work in archaeology. He has never received a Ph. D. degree, being quite proud during his career to be "plain Mr Kitchen".
A phrase often used by Kitchen is "the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence" meaning that the lack of higher dated monuments or inscriptions for a certain Pharaoh's reign does not exclude the possibility that this ruler enjoyed a longer reign than is generally assumed. The increasing number of higher dated archaeological finds in Egypt for certain Third Intermediate Period era kings such as a Year 13 stela for Takelot III at Dakhla in February 2005, a Year 7 annal document for Pami, and the discovery of a burial inscription from Vizier Padiamonet's Deir El-Bahari tomb in early 2006--which is dated to Year 27 of the Nubian king Piye--strongly validates Kitchen's contention here. Usimare Setepenamun Takelot III Si-Ese was Osorkon III 's eldest son and successor February 2005: ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August Usermaatre Setepenre Pami was an Egyptian Pharaoh who ruled Egypt for 7 years Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Piye, (whose name was once transliterated as Piankhi) (d 721 BC was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt
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