Western Philosophy
20th century philosophy
Name
Sir Karl Raimund Popper CH FRS FBA
BirthJuly 28, 1902
Vienna, Austria
DeathSeptember 17, 1994 (aged 92)
London, England
Critical rationalism · Fallibilism
Evolutionary epistemology
Main interestsEpistemology
Philosophy of science
Social and political philosophy
Notable ideasFalsifiability
Hypothetico-deductive method
Open society
Influenced bySocrates (via Plato) · Aristotle
Kant · Schopenhauer · Hegel
Einstein · Kierkegaard · Wittgenstein
Vienna Circle · Tarski · Selz
Russell · Campbell · Burke
InfluencedVirtually all philosophy of science since 1930s · Hayek · Friedman
Lakatos · Feyerabend · Soros
Miller · Agassi · Bartley · Gombrich
Jarvie · Levinson · Schmidt · Munz
Magee · Lorenz · Shearmur
Medawar · Dimitrakos · Albert · Gellner · Soroush · Taleb

## Life

Karl Popper was born in Vienna (then in Austria-Hungary) in 1902 to middle-class parents of Jewish origins, both of whom had converted to Christianity. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings [3] Popper received a Lutheran upbringing and was educated at the University of Vienna. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther The University of Vienna (Universität Wien is a Public university located in Vienna, Austria. [3]. His father was a bibliophile who had 12,000-14,000 volumes in his personal library. Bibliophilia is the love of Books Accordingly a bibliophile loves books but especially "for Qualities of Format. [4] Popper inherited from him both the library and the disposition. [5]

In 1919 he became attracted by Marxism and subsequently joined the Association of Socialist School Students and also became a member of the Social Democratic Party of Austria, which was at that time a party that fully adopted the marxist ideology. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The Social Democratic Party of Austria ( German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, or SPÖ) is one of the oldest parties in Austria. [6] He soon became disillusioned by the philosophical restraints imposed by the historical materialism of Marx, abandoned the ideology and remained a passive supporter of social liberalism throughout his life. Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx ( 1818 - 1883 Social liberalism, also called new liberalism (as it was originally termed high liberalism radical liberalism, modern liberalism, or

In 1928 he earned a PhD in Psychology and taught secondary school from 1930 to 1936. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He published his first book, Logik der Forschung (The Logic of Scientific Discovery), in 1934. Logik der Forschung is a 1934 book by Karl Popper. It was originally written in German, but reformulated in English by Popper himself Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Here, he criticised psychologism, naturalism, inductionism, and logical positivism, and put forth his theory of potential falsifiability as the criterion demarcating science from non-science. Psychologism is a generic type of position in Philosophy according to which Psychology plays a central role in grounding or explaining some other non-psychological Philosophical naturalism has been described in various ways In its broadest and strongest sense naturalism is the metaphysical position that "nature is all there is Inductionism is the scientific philosophy where laws are " induced " from sets of data Logical positivism (later and more accurately called logical empiricism) is a school of philosophy that combines Empiricism, the idea that observational evidence is Falsifiability (or "refutability" is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment

Gravesite of Sir Karl Popper in Lainzer Friedhof, Vienna, Austria. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich

## Popper's philosophy

### Philosophy of Science

Popper coined the term critical rationalism to describe his philosophy. Critical rationalism is an Epistemological Philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. The term indicates his rejection of classical empiricism, and of the observationalist-inductivist account of science that had grown out of it. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. Popper argued strongly against the latter, holding that scientific theories are abstract in nature, and can be tested only indirectly, by reference to their implications. The word theory has many distinct meanings in different fields of Knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. He also held that scientific theory, and human knowledge generally, is irreducibly conjectural or hypothetical, and is generated by the creative imagination in order to solve problems that have arisen in specific historico-cultural settings. Logically, no number of positive outcomes at the level of experimental testing can confirm a scientific theory, but a single counterexample is logically decisive: it shows the theory, from which the implication is derived, to be false. Popper's account of the logical asymmetry between verification and falsifiability lies at the heart of his philosophy of science. The verification theory (of meaning is a philosophical theory proposed by the logical positivists of the Vienna Circle. Falsifiability (or "refutability" is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment It also inspired him to take falsifiability as his criterion of demarcation between what is and is not genuinely scientific: a theory should be considered scientific if and only if it is falsifiable. The demarcation problem in the Philosophy of science is about how and where to draw the lines around Science. This led him to attack the claims of both psychoanalysis and contemporary Marxism to scientific status, on the basis that the theories enshrined by them are not falsifiable. Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Popper also wrote extensively against the famous Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation of Quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons He strongly disagreed with Niels Bohr's instrumentalism and supported Albert Einstein's realist approach to scientific theories about the universe. Niels Henrik David Bohr (nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ in Danish 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 was a Danish Physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding In the Philosophy of science, instrumentalism is the view that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments whose worth is measured not by whether the concepts and Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Scientific realism is at the most general level the view that the world described by science is the real world as it is independent of what we might take it to be The word theory has many distinct meanings in different fields of Knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. Popper's falsifiability resembles Charles Peirce's fallibilism. Charles Sanders Peirce (pronounced purse) (September 10 1839 &ndash April 19 1914 was an American Logician mathematician, philosopher In Of Clocks and Clouds (1966), Popper remarked that he wished he had known of Peirce's work earlier.

In All Life is Problem Solving, Popper sought to explain the apparent progress of scientific knowledge—how it is that our understanding of the universe seems to improve over time. This problem arises from his position that the truth content of our theories, even the best of them, cannot be verified by scientific testing, but can only be falsified. If so, then how is it that the growth of science appears to result in a growth in knowledge? In Popper's view, the advance of scientific knowledge is an evolutionary process characterised by his formula:

$PS_1 \rightarrow TT_1 \rightarrow EE_1 \rightarrow PS_2$

In response to a given problem situation (PS1), a number of competing conjectures, or tentative theories (TT), are systematically subjected to the most rigorous attempts at falsification possible. This process, error elimination (EE), performs a similar function for science that natural selection performs for biological evolution. Natural selection is the process by which favorable Heritable traits become more common in successive Generations of a Population of eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Theories that better survive the process of refutation are not more true, but rather, more "fit"—in other words, more applicable to the problem situation at hand (PS1). Consequently, just as a species' "biological fit" does not predict continued survival, neither does rigorous testing protect a scientific theory from refutation in the future. Yet, as it appears that the engine of biological evolution has produced, over time, adaptive traits equipped to deal with more and more complex problems of survival, likewise, the evolution of theories through the scientific method may, in Popper's view, reflect a certain type of progress: toward more and more interesting problems (PS2). For Popper, it is in the interplay between the tentative theories (conjectures) and error elimination (refutation) that scientific knowledge advances toward greater and greater problems; in a process very much akin to the interplay between genetic variation and natural selection.

Where does "truth" fit into all this? As early as 1934 Popper wrote of the search for truth as "one of the strongest motives for scientific discovery. " Still, he describes in Objective Knowledge (1972) early concerns about the much-criticised notion of truth as correspondence. The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i Then came the semantic theory of truth formulated by the logician Alfred Tarski and published in 1933. The semantic theory of truth holds that any assertion that a sentence is true can be made only as a formal requirement regarding the language in which the proposition Alfred Tarski ( January 14, 1901, Warsaw, Russian ruled Poland – October 26, 1983, Berkeley California Popper writes of learning in 1935 of the consequences of Tarski's theory, to his intense joy. The theory met critical objections to truth as correspondence and thereby rehabilitated it. The meaning of the word truth extends from Honesty, Good faith, and Sincerity in general to agreement with Fact or Reality The theory also seemed to Popper to support metaphysical realism and the regulative idea of a search for truth. Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief in a Reality that is completely Ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes linguistic practices beliefs

According to this theory, the conditions for the truth of a sentence as well as the sentences themselves are part of a metalanguage. In Logic and Linguistics, a metalanguage is a Language used to make statements about statements in another language which is called the Object So, for example, the sentence "Snow is white" is true if and only if snow is white. Although many philosophers have interpreted, and continue to interpret, Tarski's theory as a deflationary theory, Popper refers to it as a theory in which "is true" is replaced with "corresponds to the facts. The deflationary theory of truth is a family of theories which all have in common the claim that assertions that predicate Truth of a statement do not attribute a property called The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i " He bases this interpretation on the fact that examples such as the one described above refer to two things: assertions and the facts to which they refer. He identifies Tarski's formulation of the truth conditions of sentences as the introduction of a "metalinguistic predicate" and distinguishes the following cases:

1. "John called" is true.
2. "It is true that John called. "

The first case belongs to the metalanguage whereas the second is more likely to belong to the object language. Hence, "it is true that" possesses the logical status of a redundancy. "Is true", on the other hand, is a predicate necessary for making general observations such as "John was telling the truth about Phillip. "

Upon this basis, along with that of the logical content of assertions (where logical content is inversely proportional to probability), Popper went on to develop his important notion of verisimilitude or "truthlikeness". Verisimilitude in its literary context is defined as the fact or quality of being verisimilar the appearance of being true or real likeness or resemblance of the truth reality or a fact’s

The intuitive idea behind verisimilitude is that the assertions or hypotheses of scientific theories can be objectively measured with respect to the amount of truth and falsity that they imply. And, in this way, one theory can be evaluated as more or less true than another on a quantitative basis which, Popper emphasizes forcefully, has nothing to do with "subjective probabilities" or other merely "epistemic" considerations.

The simplest mathematical formulation that Popper gives of this concept can be found in the tenth chapter of Conjectures and Refutations. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge is a book written by philosopher Karl Popper. . Here he defines it as:

$Vs(a)=CT_v(a)-CT_f(a) \,$

where Vs(a) is the verisimilitude of a, Ctv(a) is a measure of the content of truth of a, and CTf(a) is a measure of the content of the falsity of a.

Knowledge, for Popper, was objective, both in the sense that it is objectively true (or truthlike), and also in the sense that knowledge has an ontological status (i. e. , knowledge as object) independent of the knowing subject (Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach, 1972). He proposed three worlds (see Popperian cosmology): World One, being the physical world, or physical states; World Two, being the world of mind, or mental states, ideas, and perceptions; and World Three, being the body of human knowledge expressed in its manifold forms, or the products of the second world made manifest in the materials of the first world (i. Popperian cosmology is Karl Popper 's philosophical theory of Reality that includes three interacting worlds called World 1, World 2 and e. –books, papers, paintings, symphonies, and all the products of the human mind). World Three, he argued, was the product of individual human beings in exactly the same sense that an animal path is the product of individual animals, and that, as such, has an existence and evolution independent of any individual knowing subjects. The influence of World Three, in his view, on the individual human mind (World Two) is at least as strong as the influence of World One. In other words, the knowledge held by a given individual mind owes at least as much to the total accumulated wealth of human knowledge, made manifest, as to the world of direct experience. As such, the growth of human knowledge could be said to be a function of the independent evolution of World Three. Many contemporary philosophers have not embraced Popper's Three World conjecture, due mostly, it seems, to its resemblance to Cartesian dualism. In Philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are in some

### Political philosophy

The Liberalism series,
part of the Politics series
Portal:Politics
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### Problem of Induction

Among his contributions to philosophy is his attempt to answer the philosophical problem of induction. The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning is valid The problem, in basic terms, can be understood by example: given that the sun has risen every day for as long as anyone can remember, what is the rational proof that it will rise tomorrow? How can one rationally prove that past events will continue to repeat in the future, just because they have repeated in the past? Popper's reply is characteristic, and ties in with his criterion of falsifiability. He states that while there is no way to prove that the sun will rise, we can formulate a theory that every day the sun will rise—if it does not rise on some particular day, our theory will be disproved, but at present it is confirmed. Since it is a very well-tested theory, we have every right to believe that it accurately represents reality, so far as we know.

This may be a true description of the pragmatic approach to knowledge adopted by the scientific method, but it does not in itself address the philosophical problem. As Stephen Hawking explains, "No matter how many times the results of experiments agree with some theory, you can never be sure that the next time the result will not contradict the theory. Stephen William Hawking CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942 is a British theoretical physicist. "[8] It may be pragmatically useful to accept a well-tested theory as true until it is falsified, but this does not solve the philosophical problem of induction. As Bertrand Russell put it, "the general principles of science . Bertrand Arthur William Russell 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970 was a British Philosopher, Historian . . are believed because mankind have found innumerable instances of their truth and no instances of their falsehood. But this affords no evidence for their truth in the future, unless the inductive principle is assumed. "[9] In essence, Popper addressed justification for belief ("why do you believe") that the sun will rise tomorrow, not justification for the fact ("how do you know") that it will, which is the crux of the philosophical problem. Said another way, Popper addressed the psychological causes of our belief in the validity of induction without trying to provide logical reasons for it. In this way, he provided a psychological account of the use of induction, but left the philosophical ground of induction as a valid mode of knowledge unaccounted for.

## Influence

By all accounts, Popper has played a vital role in establishing the philosophy of science as a vigorous, autonomous discipline within analytic philosophy, through his own prolific and influential works, and also through his influence on his own contemporaries and students. Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions foundations and implications of Science. Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of Philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century Popper founded in 1946 the Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method at the London School of Economics and there lectured and influenced both Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend, two of the foremost philosophers of science in the next generation of philosophy of science. The London School of Economics and Political Science, more commonly referred to as The London School of Economics or LSE, is a specialist college of the Imre Lakatos ( November 9, 1922 – February 2, 1974) was a Philosopher of mathematics and science, Paul Karl Feyerabend ( January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian born Philosopher of science best known for (Lakatos significantly modified Popper's position, and Feyerabend repudiated it entirely, but the work of both is deeply influenced by Popper and engaged with many of the problems that Popper set. )

While there is some dispute as to the matter of influence, Popper had a long-standing and close friendship with economist Friedrich Hayek, who was also brought to the London School of Economics from Vienna. Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist The London School of Economics and Political Science, more commonly referred to as The London School of Economics or LSE, is a specialist college of the Each found support and similarities in each other's work, citing each other often, though not without qualification. In a letter to Hayek in 1944, Popper stated, "I think I have learnt more from you than from any other living thinker, except perhaps Alfred Tarski. Alfred Tarski ( January 14, 1901, Warsaw, Russian ruled Poland – October 26, 1983, Berkeley California " (See Hacohen, 2000). Popper dedicated his Conjectures and Refutations to Hayek. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge is a book written by philosopher Karl Popper. For his part, Hayek dedicated a collection of papers, Studies in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics, to Popper, and in 1982 said, ". . . ever since his Logik der Forschung first came out in 1934, I have been a complete adherent to his general theory of methodology. " (See Weimer and Palermo, 1982).

Popper also had long and mutually influential friendships with art historian Ernst Gombrich, biologist Peter Medawar, and neuro-scientist John Carew Eccles. Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE ( 30 March 1909 &ndash 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born Art historian Sir Peter Brian Medawar, OM, FRS, ( February 28, 1915 &ndash October 2, 1987) was a Brazilian born Sir John Carew Eccles, AC FRS FRACP FRSNZ FAAS ( January 27, 1903 &ndash May 2, 1997

Popper's influence, both through his work in philosophy of science and through his political philosophy, has also extended beyond the academy. Among Popper's students and advocates at the London School of Economics is the multibillionaire investor George Soros, who says his investment strategies are modelled on Popper's understanding of the advancement of knowledge through falsification. The London School of Economics and Political Science, more commonly referred to as The London School of Economics or LSE, is a specialist college of the George Soros (ˈsɔroʊs or /ˈsɔrəs/ Hungarian ˈʃoroʃ (born August 12, 1930, in Budapest, Hungary, as György Schwartz) is Falsifiability (or "refutability" is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment Among Soros's philanthropic foundations is the Open Society Institute, a think-tank named in honour of Popper's The Open Society and Its Enemies, which Soros founded to advance the Popperian defense of the open society against authoritarianism and totalitarianism. Philanthropy is the act of donating money goods services time and/or effort to support a socially beneficial cause with a defined objective and with no financial or material The Open Society Institute (OSI a private operating and grantmaking foundation aims to shape public policy to promote democratic Governance, The Open Society and Its Enemies, is an influential two-volume work by Karl Popper written during World War II. The open society is a concept originally developed by philosopher Henri Bergson. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private

Popperian philosophy also inspired the creation of Taking Children Seriously, a movement arguing that children and adults should try to resolve their differences without coercion. Taking Children Seriously, TCS, is a worldwide parenting movement and educational philosophy based upon the idea that it is possible and desirable to raise and educate children

## Critics

### Criticism of his philosophy of science

Most criticisms of Popper's philosophy are of the falsification, or error elimination, element in his account of problem solving. In interpreting these, it is important to bear in mind the aims of his idea. It is intended as an ideal, practical method of effective human problem solving; as such, the current conclusions of science are stronger than pseudo-sciences or non-sciences, insofar as they have survived this particularly vigorous selection method. He does not argue that any such conclusions are therefore true, or that this describes the actual methods of any particular scientist.

Rather, it is a recommended ideal method that, if enacted by a system or community, will over time lead to slow but steady progress of a sort (relative to how well the system or community enacts the method). It has been suggested that Popper's ideas are often mistaken for a hard logical account of truth because of the historical co-incidence of their appearing at the same time as logical positivism, the followers of which mistook his aims for their own (Brian Magee 1973: Popper (Modern Masters series). Logical positivism (later and more accurately called logical empiricism) is a school of philosophy that combines Empiricism, the idea that observational evidence is

The Quine-Duhem thesis argues that it's impossible to test a single hypothesis on its own, since each one comes as part of an environment of theories. Confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism is the claim that a single Scientific theory cannot be tested in isolation a test of one theory always depends Thus we can only say that the whole package of relevant theories has been collectively falsified, but cannot conclusively say which element of the package must be replaced. An example of this is given by the discovery of the planet Neptune: when the motion of Uranus was found not to match the predictions of Newton's laws, the theory "There are seven planets in the solar system" was rejected, and not Newton's laws themselves. Neptune ( English|AmE] ] is the eighth and farthest Planet from the Sun in the Solar System. Popper discussed this critique of naïve falsificationism in Chapters 3 & 4 of The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Falsifiability (or "refutability" is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment Logik der Forschung is a 1934 book by Karl Popper. It was originally written in German, but reformulated in English by Popper himself For Popper, theories are accepted or rejected via a sort of 'natural selection'. Theories that say more about the way things appear are to be preferred over those that do not; the more generally applicable a theory is, the greater its value. Thus Newton’s laws, with their wide general application, are to be preferred over the much more specific “the solar system has seven planets”.

Thomas Kuhn’s influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions argued that scientists work in a series of paradigms, and found little evidence of scientists actually following a falsificationist methodology. Thomas Samuel Kuhn (surname ˈkuːn July 18, 1922  &ndash June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ( 1962) by Thomas Kuhn, is an analysis of the History of science. The word paradigm ( Greek:παράδειγμα (paradigmacomposite from para- and the verb δείχνυμι "to show" as a whole -roughly- meaning "example" Popper's student Imre Lakatos attempted to reconcile Kuhn’s work with falsificationism by arguing that science progresses by the falsification of research programs rather than the more specific universal statements of naïve falsificationism. Imre Lakatos ( November 9, 1922 – February 2, 1974) was a Philosopher of mathematics and science, Falsifiability (or "refutability" is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment In Predicate logic, universal quantification is an attempt to formalize the notion that something (a Logical predicate) is true for everything, or every Another of Popper’s students Paul Feyerabend ultimately rejected any prescriptive methodology, and argued that the only universal method characterizing scientific progress was anything goes. Paul Karl Feyerabend ( January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian born Philosopher of science best known for

Popper seems to have anticipated Kuhn's observations. In his collection Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (Harper & Row, 1963), Popper writes, "Science must begin with myths, and with the criticism of myths; neither with the collection of observations, nor with the invention of experiments, but with the critical discussion of myths, and of magical techniques and practices. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge is a book written by philosopher Karl Popper. The scientific tradition is distinguished from the pre-scientific tradition in having two layers. Like the latter, it passes on its theories; but it also passes on a critical attitude towards them. The theories are passed on, not as dogmas, but rather with the challenge to discuss them and improve upon them. "

Another objection is that it is not always possible to demonstrate falsehood definitively, especially if one is using statistical criteria to evaluate a null hypothesis. In Statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by Chance. See also Statistical hypothesis testing In Statistics, a null hypothesis ( H 0 is a plausible hypothesis (scenario which may explain More generally, it is not always clear that if evidence contradicts a hypothesis that this is a sign of flaws in the hypothesis rather than of flaws in the evidence. However, this is a misunderstanding of what Popper's philosophy of science sets out to do. Rather than offering a set of instructions that merely need to be followed diligently to achieve science, Popper makes it clear in The Logic of Scientific Discovery that his belief is that the resolution of conflicts between hypotheses and observations can only be a matter of the collective judgment of scientists, in each individual case. Logik der Forschung is a 1934 book by Karl Popper. It was originally written in German, but reformulated in English by Popper himself [10]

Popper's falsificationism can be questioned logically, by asking about statements such as "There are black holes", which cannot be falsified by any possible observation, yet which seems to be a legitimately scientific claim. A black hole is a theoretical region of space in which the Gravitational field is so powerful that nothing not even Electromagnetic radiation (e Similarly, it's not clear how Popper would deal with a statement like "for every metal, there is a temperature at which it will melt", which can neither be confirmed nor falsified by any possible observation, yet which seems to be a valid scientific hypothesis. These examples were pointed out by Carl Gustav Hempel. Carl Gustav "Peter" Hempel (born January 8 1905 in Oranienburg, Germany died November 9 1997 in Princeton Hempel came to acknowledge that Logical Positivism's verificationism was untenable, but argued that falsificationism was equally untenable on logical grounds alone. The simplest response to this is that, because Popper describes how theories attain, maintain and lose scientific status, individual consequences of currently accepted scientific theories are scientific in the sense of being part of tentative scientific knowledge, and both of Hempel's examples fall under this category. For instance, atomic theory implies that all metals melt at some temperature. This article focuses on the historical models of the atom For a history of the study of how atoms combine to form molecules see History of the molecule.

### Other criticisms

Other critics seek to vindicate the claims of historicism or holism to intellectual respectability, or psychoanalysis or Marxism to scientific status. Historicism refers to philosophical theories that include one or both of two claims that there is an organic succession of developments a notion also Distinguish from the suffix -holism, which describes addictions Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It has been argued that Popper's student Imre Lakatos, for example, transformed Popper's philosophy using historicist and updated Hegelian historiographic ideas. Imre Lakatos ( November 9, 1922 – February 2, 1974) was a Philosopher of mathematics and science, [11][12]

Charles Taylor accuses Popper of exploiting his worldwide fame as an epistemologist to diminish the importance of philosophers of the 20th century continental tradition. Charles Margrave Taylor (born November 5, 1931) CC GOQ MA DPhil FRSC is a Philosopher from Continental philosophy, in contemporary usage refers to a set of traditions of 19th and 20th century philosophy from mainland Europe According to Taylor, Popper's criticisms are completely baseless, but they are received with an attention and respect that Popper's "intrinsic worth hardly merits". [13] William W. Bartley defended Popper against such allegations: "Sir Karl Popper is not really a participant in the contemporary professional philosophical dialogue; quite the contrary, he has ruined that dialogue. If he is on the right track, then the majority of professional philosophers the world over has wasted or is wasting their intellectual careers. The gulf between Popper's way of doing philosophy and that of the bulk of professional philosophers is as great as that between astronomy and astrology. "[14]

In 2004 philosopher and psychologist Michel ter Hark (Groningen, The Netherlands) published a book, called Popper, Otto Selz and the rise of evolutionary epistemology, ISBN 0521830745, in which he claimed that Popper took some of his ideas from his tutor, the German-Jewish psychologist Otto Selz. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Mental health professional A psychologist is a practitioner of Psychology, the systematic investigation of the mind including Behavior, Cognition, Groningen is the capital city of the province of Groningen in the Netherlands. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Otto Selz, ( 14 February 1881 &ndash Selz himself never published his ideas, partly because of the rise of Nazism which forced him to quit his work in 1933, and the prohibition of referring to Selz' work. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.

## References

1. ^ Watkins, J. Popperian cosmology is Karl Popper 's philosophical theory of Reality that includes three interacting worlds called World 1, World 2 and Evolutionary epistemology refers to two distinct topics it is a subfield of Naturalized epistemology as well as a theory in Epistemology about the growth of knowledge Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal This article gives an overview of liberalism in Austria. It is limited to liberal parties with substantial support mainly proved by having had a representation This is a partial list of individual contributions to liberal political theory on a worldwide scale Calculus of Predispositions is a basic part of Predispositioning Theory and belongs to the indeterministic procedures Predispositioning Theory was founded by Aron Katsenelinboigen (1927–2005 a Professor in Wharton School who dealt with indeterministic Systems such as Popper's experiment is an experiment proposed by the 20th century philosopher of science Karl Popper, to test the standard interpretation (the Copenhagen interpretation) of Quantum Obituary of Karl Popper, 1902-1994. Proceedings of the British Academy, 94, pp. 645–684
2. ^ William W. Bartley: Rationality versus the Theory of Rationality, In Mario Bunge: The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy (The Free Press of Glencoe, 1964), section IX.
3. ^ a b Magee, Bryan. Bryan Edgar Magee (born 12 April 1930) is a noted British broadcasting personality Politician, and Author, best known as a popularizer of The Story of Philosophy. New York: DK Publishing, 2001. p. 221, ISBN 078943511X
4. ^ Raphael, F. The Great Philosophers London: Phoenix, p. 447, ISBN 0753811367
5. ^ Manfred Lube: Karl R. Popper – Die Bibliothek des Philosophen als Spiegel seines Lebens. Imprimatur. Ein Jahrbuch für Bücherfreunde. Neue Folge Band 18 (2003), S. 207–238, ISBN 3-447-04723-2.
6. ^ http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/popper/ - Stephen Thornton, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
7. ^ www.wonderfulatheistsofcfl.org/Quotes.htm.
8. ^ A Brief History of Time, p. 11, ISBN 0553380168.
9. ^ "On Induction" in The Problems of Philosophy', ch. 6, ISBN 0486406741
10. ^ Popper, Karl, (1934) Logik der Forschung, Springer. Vienna. Amplified English edition, Popper (1959), ISBN 0415278449
11. ^ Hacking, Ian (1979). "Imre Lakatos' Philosophy of Science". British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (30): 381-410. doi:10.1093/bjps/30.4.381. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
12. ^ Imre Lakatos' Philosophy of Science, Ian Hacking, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol 30 Nbr 4, 1979, article pg 381-410
(subscription and/or fee required)
13. ^ Taylor, Charles, "Overcoming Epistemology", in Philosophical Arguments, Harvard University Press, 1995, ISBN 0674664779
14. ^ Philosophia. Philosophical Quarterly of Israel, William W. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Bartley: The Philosophy of Karl Popper, Part I: Biology and Evolutionary Epistemology, Philosophia Vol 6 (1976), pp. 463–494.
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## Bibliography

• The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge, 1930–33 (as a typescript circulating as Die beiden Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie; as a German book 1979, as English translation 2008), ISBN 0415394317
• The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1934 (as Logik der Forschung, English translation 1959), ISBN 0415278449
• The Poverty of Historicism, 1936 (private reading at a meeting in Brussels, 1944/45 as a series of journal articles in Econometrica, 1957 a book), ISBN 0415065690
• The Open Society and Its Enemies, 1945 Vol 1 ISBN 0415290635, Vol 2 ISBN 0415290635
• Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, 1963, ISBN 0415043182
• Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach, 1972, Rev. Logik der Forschung is a 1934 book by Karl Popper. It was originally written in German, but reformulated in English by Popper himself The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) The Open Society and Its Enemies, is an influential two-volume work by Karl Popper written during World War II. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge is a book written by philosopher Karl Popper. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. ed. , 1979, ISBN 0198750242
• Unended Quest; An Intellectual Autobiography, 1976, ISBN 0415285909
• The Self and Its Brain: An Argument for Interactionism (with Sir John C. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Eccles), 1977, ISBN 0415058988
• Natural Selection and the Emergence of Mind article by Popper, Dialectica 1978
• Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics, 1982, ISBN 0415091128
• The Open Universe: An Argument for Indeterminism, 1982, ISBN 0415078652
• Realism and the Aim of Science, 1983, ISBN 0091514509
• In Search of a Better World, 1984, a collection of Popper’s essays and lectures covering a range of subjects from the beginning of scientific speculation in classical Greece to the need for a new professional ethic based on the ideas of tolerance and intellectual responsibility; "All things living are in search of a better world. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) "; Karl Popper, from the Preface of the book. ISBN 0415135486
• Die Zukunft ist offen (The Future is Open) (with Konrad Lorenz), 1985 (in German), ISBN 349200640X
• A World of Propensities, 1990, ISBN 1855060000
• The Lesson of this Century, Interviewer: Giancarlo Bosetti, English translation: Patrick Camiller), 1992, ISBN 0415129583
• All life is Problem Solving, 1994, ISBN 0415249929
• The Myth of the Framework: In Defence of Science and Rationality, (Edited by Mark Amadeus Notturno) 1994, ISBN 0415135559
• Knowledge and the Mind-Body Problem: In Defence of Interactionism, (Edited by Mark Amadeus Notturno) 1994
• The World of Parmenides, Essays on the Presocratic Enlightenment, 1998, (Edited by Arne F. Konrad Zacharias Lorenz ( November 7, 1903 in Vienna &ndash February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Petersen with the assistance of Jørgen Mejer), ISBN 0415173019
• Frühe Schriften, 2006 (Edited by Troels Eggers Hansen, includes Popper's writings and publications from before the Logic, including his previously unpublished thesis, dissertation and habilitation and journal articles published that relate to the Wiener Schulreform)
• After 'The Open Society': Selected Social and Political Writings, 2008 (Edited by Jeremy Shearmur and Piers Norris Turner, it includes previously unpublished and uncollected essays), ISBN 0415309085

• [Comprehensive bibliography:] Lube, Manfred: Karl R. Popper. Bibliographie 1925 - 2004. Wissenschaftstheorie, Sozialphilosophie, Logik, Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie, Naturwissenschaften. Frankfurt/Main etc. : Peter Lang, 2005. 576 pp. (Schriftenreihe der Karl Popper Foundation Klagenfurt. 3. )
• David Miller. David W Miller (born 19 August 1942) is a Philosopher and prominent exponent of Critical rationalism. Critical Rationalism: A Restatement and Defence. 1994. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar)
• David Miller (Ed. David W Miller (born 19 August 1942) is a Philosopher and prominent exponent of Critical rationalism. ). Popper Selections.
• John W. N. Watkins. Science and Skepticism. 1984. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar)
• Bartley, William Warren III. Unfathomed Knowledge, Unmeasured Wealth. La Salle, IL: Open Court Press 1990. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) A look at Popper and his influence by one of his students.
• Edmonds, D. , Eidinow, J. Wittgenstein's Poker. New York: Ecco 2001. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. A review of the origin of the conflict between Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein, focused on events leading up to their volatile first encounter at 1946 Cambridge meeting. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
• Feyerabend, Paul Against Method. London: New Left Books, 1975. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A polemical, iconoclastic book by a former colleague of Popper's. Vigorously critical of Popper's rationalist view of science.
• Hacohen, M. Karl Popper: The Formative Years, 1902 – 1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
• Hickey, J. Thomas. History of the Twentieth-Century Philosophy of Science Book V, Karl Popper And Falsificationist Criticism. www. philsci. com . 1995* Kadvany, John Imre Lakatos and the Guises of Reason. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2001. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. ISBN 0-8223-2659-0. Explains how Imre Lakatos developed Popper's philosophy into a historicist and critical theory of scientific method.
• Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Central to contemporary philosophy of science is the debate between the followers of Kuhn and Popper on the nature of scientific enquiry. This is the book in which Kuhn's views received their classical statement.
• Levinson, Paul, ed. Paul Levinson (born 1947 is an American Author and Professor of Communications and Media studies at Fordham University In Pursuit of Truth: Essays on the Philosophy of Karl Popper on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1982. A collection of essays on Popper's thought and legacy by a wide range of his followers. Includes an interview with Sir Ernst Gombrich. Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE ( 30 March 1909 &ndash 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born Art historian
• Magee, Bryan. Popper. London: Fontana, 1977. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays An elegant introductory text. Very readable, albeit rather uncritical of its subject, by a former Member of Parliament.
• Magee, Bryan. Confessions of a Philosopher, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1997. Magee's philosophical autobiography, with a chapter on his relations with Popper. More critical of Popper than in the previous reference.
• Munz, Peter. Beyond Wittgenstein's Poker: New Light on Popper and Wittgenstein Aldershot, Hampshire, UK: Ashgate, 2004. ISBN 0-7546-4016-7. Written by the only living student of both Wittgenstein and Popper, an eyewitness to the famous "poker" incident described above (Edmunds & Eidinow). Attempts to synthesize and reconcile the differences between these two philosophers.
• Notturno, Mark Amadeus. "Objectivity, Rationality, and the Third Realm: Justification and the Grounds of Psychologism". Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1985. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar)
• Notturno, Mark Amadeus. On Popper. Wadsworth Philosophers Series. 2003. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. A very comprehensive book on Popper’s philosophy by an accomplished Popperian.
• Notturno, Mark Amadeus. "Science and the Open Society". New York: CEU Press, 2000. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
• O'Hear, Anthony. Karl Popper. London: Routledge, 1980. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) A critical account of Popper's thought, viewed from the perspective of contemporary analytic philosophy.
• Radnitzky, Gerard, Bartley, W. W. , III eds. Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge. La Salle, IL: Open Court Press 1987. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) ISBN 0-8126-9039-7. A strong collection of essays by Popper, Campbell, Munz, Flew, et al, on Popper's epistemology and critical rationalism. Includes a particularly vigorous answer to Rorty's criticisms.
• Richmond, Sheldon. Aesthetic Criteria: Gombrich and the Philosophies of Science of Popper and Polanyi. Rodopi, Amsterdam/Atlanta, 1994, 152 pp. ISBN 90-5183-618-X.
• Schilpp, Paul A. , ed. The Philosophy of Karl Popper, 2 vols. La Salle, IL: Open Court Press, 1974. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. One of the better contributions to the Library of Living Philosophers series. Contains Popper's intellectual autobiography, a comprehensive range of critical essays, and Popper's responses to them.
• Stokes, G. Popper: Philosophy, Politics and Scientific Method. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) A very comprehensive, balanced study, which focuses largely on the social and political side of Popper's thought.
• Stove, D.C., Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists. David Charles Stove ( September 15, 1927 - June 2, 1994) was an Australian philosopher of science, and essayist in the popular Popper and After is a book by David Charles Stove first published by Pergamon Press in 1982 Oxford: Pergamon. 1982. Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) A vigorous attack, especially on Popper's restricting himself to deductive logic.
• Weimer, W. , Palermo, D. , eds. Cognition and the Symbolic Processes. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1982. Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) See Hayek's essay, "The Sensory Order after 25 Years", and "Discussion".