Karelia (historically also Swedish Karelia) is a historical province of Finland. The Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, known as the Helsinki Final Act, Helsinki Accords or Helsinki Declaration, was The historical provinces (historialliset maakunnat singular historiallinen maakunta, historiska landskap of Finland is a legacy of the country's joint history with It refers to the Western Karelia that during the second millennium have been under western dominance, religiously and politically. Karelia ( Karelian and Finnish Karjala, Карелия ( Kareliya) Karelen the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in The second millennium is a period of time that commenced on January 1, 1001, and ended on December 31, 2000. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Western, i. e. Finnish Karelia is separate from Eastern, i. e. Russian Karelia, which was dominated by Novgorod and its successor states from the 12th century onwards. East Karelia, in Finnish Itä-Karjala also Eastern Karelia or Russian Karelia, is a name for the part of Karelia that since the Treaty Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod
The name is Karjala in Finnish and Karelen in Swedish. Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the The Finnish word "karja" means "cattle" in English. Karelia borders to Uusimaa, Savonia and Ostrobothnia. Coat of arms of historical province of Uusimaa in Finlandpng|right|150px]] Uusimaa, Nyland in Swedish is a historical province in the south of Finland. It is also bounded by Russia and the Gulf of Finland. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Gulf of Finland ( Finnish: Suomenlahti, Russian: Финский залив, Finskiy zaliv, Swedish: Finska viken
Parts of the historical province of Karelia are divided between the Provinces of Eastern Finland and Southern Finland. The Province of Eastern Finland is a province of Finland. It borders the provinces of Oulu, Western Finland and Southern Finland. The Province of Southern Finland is a province of Finland. It borders the provinces of Western Finland and Eastern Finland. The state of Finland consists of 6 provinces ( Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län) Within the provinces there are also the Regions of North Karelia and South Karelia and also little parts of Kymenlaakso and Northern Savonia. Finland is divided into 20 regions ( maakunta in Finnish, landskap in Swedish) The Region of North Karelia is a region ( maakunta / landskap) in eastern Finland. The Region of South Karelia is a region ( maakunta / landskap) of Finland. Kymenlaakso ( Swedish Kymmenedalen) is a region ( maakunta / landskap) in Southern Finland. North Savo is a region ( maakunta / landskap) in eastern Finland.
During the 13th century, Karelia was still undivided and fought over between Novgorod Republic and Sweden. The history of Karelia dates to 7000-6000 BC. Mining began between 1 and 1000 AD The Novgorod Republic (Новгородская республика / Novgorodskaya respublika Новгородская земьля / Novgorodskaya zemlja) was a "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Karelians are listed as Novgorodian allies already in the mid-12th century in Russian Chronicles. The "Third Swedish crusade", led by the marshal Torgils Knutsson, which took place 1293–1295, resulted in the western parts of Karelia coming under Swedish rule, and in the building of the Castle of Viborg. The Third Swedish Crusade was a Swedish military expedition to Karelia in 1293 CE on area controlled by Novgorod. Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches Torkel ( Tyrgils or Torgils) Knutsson, known well as Marshal Torkel, (?–1306 of Aranäs, was Marshal and virtual ruler Vyborg Castle (Выборгский замок Viipurin linna Viborgs fästning is a Swedish built Medieval Fortress around which the town of Vyborg
The hostilities continued in 1300 when a Swedish force attacked the mouth of river Neva and built a fort near the current location of Saint Petersburg. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River The fort was destroyed the following year by the Novgorodians. Indecisive fighting in 1321 and 1322 led to negotiations and peace by the Treaty of Nöteborg which for the first time decided the border between Sweden and Novgorod. Treaty of Nöteborg, also known as Treaty of Oreshek, is a conventional name for the peace treaty that was signed at Orekhovets (Nöteborg on August 12 Sweden got western Karelia with the Karelian Isthmus; and Novgorod got Ingria, Ladoga Karelia and East Karelia. See Karelia (disambiguation for other meanings of the name Karelia. For the Italian municipality see Ingria Italy. For the Brachiopod Genus, see Ingria (brachiopod. Karelia ( Karelian and Finnish Karjala, Карелия ( Kareliya) Karelen the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in East Karelia, in Finnish Itä-Karjala also Eastern Karelia or Russian Karelia, is a name for the part of Karelia that since the Treaty
In 1635 Savonia and the parts of Karelia around Vyborg were incorporated in the Viborg and Nyslott County. After the Treaty of Nystad in 1721 Vyborg and the Kexholm County were ceded to Russia; and the rest was incorporated into the Kymmenegårds and Nyslott County. The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир Uudenkaupungin rauha was signed in 1721 in the then Swedish town of Nystad (which is called Uusikaupunki Most of this was also ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Åbo of 1743. The Treaty of Åbo or the Treaty of Turku was a peace Treaty signed between the Russian Empire and Sweden in Turku (Åbo on After the conquest in 1808 of the rest of Finland, Russia's 18th century gains, called "Old Finland", were in 1812 joined to the Grand Duchy of Finland as a gesture of good will (see Viipuri Province). The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Old Finland ( Vanha Suomi in Finnish, Gamla Finland in Swedish is a name used for the areas that Russia gained from Sweden in the The Grand Duchy of Finland (Magnus Ducatus Finlandiæ Великое княжество Финляндское ' Velikoe knjažestvo finljandskoe) was the Predecessor The Province of Viipuri (Viipurin lääni, commonly abbreviated Vpl Viborgs län or Wiborgs län was a province of Finland from 1917 to
Big part of Finnish Karelia was ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union in 1940 after the Winter War when the new border was established close to that of 1721. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Winter War (Talvisota Советско-финляндская война - official Зимняя война - unofficial Vinterkriget began when the During the Continuation War 1941-44 most the ceded area was occupied by Finnish troops. The Continuation War (Jatkosota Fortsättningskriget Советско-финская война ( 25 June 1941 &ndash 19 September 1944) After the war, the remains of the Province of Viipuri were made into the Province of Kymi. The Province of Viipuri (Viipurin lääni, commonly abbreviated Vpl Viborgs län or Wiborgs län was a province of Finland from 1917 to In 1997 the province was incorporated with the province of Southern Finland. The Province of Southern Finland is a province of Finland. It borders the provinces of Western Finland and Eastern Finland.
Western Karelia, as an historical Province of Sweden, was religiously and politically distinct from the eastern parts that were under the Russian Orthodox Church. The provinces of Sweden, Landskap, are historical geographical and cultural regions See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure
In 1990s long silenced debate over returning Karelia from Russia to Finland has resurfaced in Finland. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) The Karelian question or Karelian issue (Karjala-kysymys is a dispute on the Fringes of Finnish politics over whether or not to try to regain
The traditional culture of "Ladoga-Karelia", or Finnish Karelia according to the pre-Winter War borders, was by and large similar to that of Eastern Karelia, or Russian Karelia. The Winter War (Talvisota Советско-финляндская война - official Зимняя война - unofficial Vinterkriget began when the Karelians live, and did even more so before Stalinism and the Great Purges, also in vast areas east of Finland (in Eastern Karelia, not marked on the map to the right), where folklore, language and architecture during the 19th century was in the center of the Finns' interest (see Karelianism), representing a "purer" Finnish culture than that of Southern and Western Finland, which had been for thousands of years in more contact with (or "contaminated by") Germanic and Scandinavian culture. Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Great Purge (Большая чистка transliterated Bolshaya chistka) was a series of campaigns of Political repression and Persecution History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Karelianism was a late 19th century cultural Phenomenon in the Grand Duchy of Finland and involved writers painters poets and sculptors Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The Kalevala and Finnish Art Nouveau are expressions hereof. The Kalevala is a book and epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian Folklore in the nineteenth Art Nouveau ( nu vo anglicised /ˈɑːt nuːvəu/ ( French for 'new art' also known as Jugendstil ( German for 'youth style' is an international
The dialect spoken in the South Karelian Region of Finland is part of the South Eastern dialects of the Finnish language. The Region of South Karelia is a region ( maakunta / landskap) of Finland. The dialect spoken in the Karelian Isthmus before World War II and the Ingrian language are also part of this dialect group. See Karelia (disambiguation for other meanings of the name Karelia. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including For the Italian municipality see Ingria Italy. For the Brachiopod Genus, see Ingria (brachiopod. The Karelian language, spoken in East Karelia, is very closely related to the Finnish language. Karelian is a language closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily Mutually intelligible. Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside  The dialect that is spoken in North Karelia is considered to be one of the Savonian dialects. The Region of North Karelia is a region ( maakunta / landskap) in eastern Finland. 
The arms is crowned by a ducal coronet, though by Finnish tradition this more resembles a Swedish count's coronet. Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari ( pronounced) (born on June 23 1937 is a former President of Finland (1994–2000 2008 Nobel Peace Prize winner and Riitta Maria Uosukainen (née Vainikka ( 18 June, 1942 in Enso, South Karelia, Finland) is a Finnish politician and former Johannes Virolainen ( ( January 31 1914 – December 11 2000) was a Finnish politician Veijo Meri (born December 31, 1928) is a Finnish writer Much of his work focuses on war and its absurdity --> Martti "Masa" Elis Niemi ( 20 July 1914 in Viipuri – 3 May 1960 in Tampere) was a Finnish Tuomas Holopainen (born December 25, 1976, youngest of three siblings in Kitee, Finland) is a Finnish Composer, Musician Tarja Soile Susanna Turunen Cabuli ('tɑrjɑ'turunen (born August 17, 1977, Finland) is a soprano and songwriter best known as the former lead vocalist Jouni Kalervo Hynynen (born February 15, 1970, in Joutseno, Finland) is the guitarist/vocalist in Kotiteollisuus, a Finnish The Coat of Arms of Karelia were first used in 1562 although the arms were probably presented at the burial of Gustav Vasa in 1560. The symbolism of the coat of arms is supposed to represent how the region was fought over by Sweden and Russia for centuries. Blazon: "Gules, in center chief a crown or above two duelling arms, the dexter armored holding a sword and the sinister chain-mail armored with a scimitar, all argent except for hafts and gauntlet joint or. "