The Kara-Khitan Khanate, or Western Liao (Mongolian Хар Хятад; Kara Kitad; traditional Chinese: 西遼; simplified Chinese: 西辽; pinyin: Xī Liáo, 1124-1218) was a Khitan empire in Central Asia. The Mongolian language (mn [[ImageMonggol kelesvg 17px]] Mongɣol kele, Cyrillic: Монгол хэл Mongol khel) is the best-known member of Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use The Khitan (or Khitai,) were a Nomadic people, located in Mongolia and modern Manchuria (Northeast China from the 4th century dominating much of it Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south The dynasty was founded by Yelü Dashi, who led the remnants of the Liao Dynasty to Central Asia after fleeing from the Jurchen conquest of their homeland in Manchuria. Yelü Dashi (耶律大石 Yēlǜ Dàshí or 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí or Yeh-Lu Ta-Shih (r The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria The Jurchens ( were a Tungus people who inhabited the region of Manchuria ( Northeast China) until the 17th century when they adopted the name Manchu Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast The empire was usurped by the Naimans under Kuchlug in 1211; traditional Chinese, Persian and Arab sources consider the usurption to be the end of the empire. The Naimans, also Naiman Turks or Naiman Mongols, ( Mongolian: naiman, "eight" Найман was a Mongolian name given to a group Kuchlug (also spelled Küchlüg was a member of the Naiman tribe of western Mongolia.  The empire was destroyed by the Mongol Empire in 1218. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire
Kara Khitan (Hala Qidan) was the name used by the Khitans to refer to themselves. The phrase is often translated as the Black Khitans, but its original meaning is unclear today.  Since no direct records from the empire survive today, the only surviving historical records about the empire come from outside sources. Since the empire took on trappings of a Chinese state, Chinese historians generally refer to the empire as the Western Liao Dynasty, emphasizing its continuation from the Liao Dynasty in Manchuria. The Jurchens referred to the empire as Dashi or Dashi Linya (after its founder), to reduce any claims the empire may have had to the old territories of the Liao Dynasty. Muslim historians initially referred to the state simply as Khitay or Khitai. It was only after the Mongol conquest that the state began to be referred to in the Muslim world as the Kara-Khitai or Qara-Khitai. 
The Khitans ruled from their capital at Balasagun (in today's Kyrgyzstan). Balasagun ( Balassagun, Balasaghun, Karabalsagun;, Persian: بلاساغون was an ancient Soghdian city in modern-day Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan (ˈkɻ̩gɪztɑn (AmE or /'kɝgəztan/ (BrE Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан; Russian: Киргизия or Киргизстан or Кыргызстан They directly controlled the central region of the empire. The rest of their empire consisted of highly-autonomous vassalized states, primarily Khwarezm, the Karluks, the Gaochang Uyghurs, the Qangli and the Western, Eastern and Fergana Kara-Khanids. Khwarezm were a series of States centered on the Amu Darya River delta of the The Karluks (obs Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, Arab/Persian Halluh,, customary phonetic Gelolu, Gelu, Khololo Gaochang ( is the site of an ancient Oasis city built on the northern rim of the inhospitable Taklamakan Desert in Xinjiang, China. The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. This article refers to the Turkic state Kara-Khanid Khanate (also designated as Qarakhanids The late-arriving Naimans also became vassals, before usurping the empire under Kuchlug. The Naimans, also Naiman Turks or Naiman Mongols, ( Mongolian: naiman, "eight" Найман was a Mongolian name given to a group Kuchlug (also spelled Küchlüg was a member of the Naiman tribe of western Mongolia.
The Khitan rulers adopted many administrative elements from the Liao Dynasty, including the use of Confucian administration and imperial trappings. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B The empire also adopted the title of Gurkhan (universal Khan).  The Khitans used the Chinese calendar, maintained Chinese imperial and administrative titles, gave its emperors reign names, used Chinese-styled coins, and sent imperial seals to its vassals.  Although most of its administrative titles were derived from Chinese, the empire also adopted local administrative titles, such as tayangyu (Turkic) and vizier. A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian
The Khitans maintained their old customs, even in Central Asia. They remained nomads, adhered to their traditional dress and maintained the religious practices followed by the Liao Dynasty Khitans. The ruling elite tried to maintain the traditional marriages between the Yelü royal clan and the Xiao consort clan, and were highly reluctant to allow their princesses to marry outsiders. The Kara-Khitai Khitans followed a mix of Buddhism and traditional Khitan religion, which included fire worship and tribal customs, such as the tradition of sacrificing a gray ox with a white horse. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices In an innovation unique to the Kara-Khitai, the Khitans paid their soldiers a salary.
The empire ruled over a diverse population that was quite different from its rulers. The majority of the population was sedentary, although the population suddenly became more nomadic during the end of the empire, due to the influx of Naimans. The majority of their subjects were Muslims, although a significant minority practiced Buddhism and Nestorianism. Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern Although Chinese and Khitan were the primary languages of administration, the empire also administered in Persian and Uyghur. Uyghur (/ ug-Latn Uyƣurqə/ug-Cyrl Уйғурчә, or / ug-Latn Uyƣur tili/ug-Cyrl Уйғур 
The Kara-Khitai empire was established by Yelü Dashi, who led 100,000 Khitans into Central Asia from Manchuria by way of Mongolia. Yelü Dashi (耶律大石 Yēlǜ Dàshí or 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí or Yeh-Lu Ta-Shih (r Yelü conquered Balasagun from the Kara-Khanid Khanate in 1134, which marks the start of the empire in Central Asia. This article refers to the Turkic state Kara-Khanid Khanate (also designated as Qarakhanids The Khitan forces were soon joined by 10,000 Khitans, who had been subjects of the Kara-Khanid Khanate. The Khitans then conquered Kashgar, Khotan, and Besh Baliq. Kashgar or Kashi (officially transliterated as Kaxgar in Uyghur; قەشقەر/K̡ǝxk̡ǝr, is an Oasis The Khitans defeated the Western Kara-Khanid Khanate at Khujand in 1137, eventually leading to their control over the Fergana Valley. The Fergana Valley or Farghana Valley (Farg‘ona vodiysi Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү Tajik: водии Фaрғонa Ферганская долина They won the Battle of Qatwan against the Western Kara-Khanids in September 9, 1141, which allowed the Khitans to control Transoxania and forced Khwarezm to become their vassals. Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Transoxiana (sometimes spelled Transoxania "河中“Chinese / Ma Wara'un-Nahr ( Arabic: ما وراء النهر / Farārood (فرارود Khwarezm were a series of States centered on the Amu Darya River delta of the
Yelü soon died in 1143, and was followed by his wife, Xiao Tabuyan, as regent for their son. Their son, Yelü Yiliu, died in 1163 and was succeeded by his sister, Yelü Pusuwan. She sent her husband, Xiao Duolubu, on many military campaigns. She then fell in love with his younger brother, Xiao Fuguzhi. They were executed in 1177 by her father-in-law, Xiao Wolila, who then placed Yelü Zhilugu on the throne in 1178. The empire was weakened by rebellions and internal wars among its vassals, especially during the latter parts of its history. In 1208, the Naimans fled from their homeland and were welcomed into the empire of the Kara-Khitai. In 1211, the Naiman prince, Kuchlug, captured Yelü Zhilugu while the latter was hunting, ending Khitan rule in the Kara-Khitai empire. The Mongols captured and killed Kuchlug in 1218. The Mongols fully conquered the former territories of the Kara-Khitai in 1220.
|Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào)||Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào)||Birth Names||Convention||Period of Reign||Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their according range of years|
|Convention: check each sovereign|
|Dezong (德宗 Dézōng)||Tianyouwuliedi (天祐武烈帝 Tiānyòuwǔlièdì)||Yelü Dashi (耶律大石 Yēlǜ Dàshí or 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí) 1||use born name||1124-1144||Yanqing (延慶 Yánqìng) 1124 or 1125-1134|
Kangguo (康國 Kāngguó) 1134-1144
|Did not exist||Gantianhou (感天后 Gǎntiānhòu)||Tabuyan (塔不煙 Tǎbùyān)||"Xi Liao" + posthumous name||1144-1150||Xianqing (咸清 Xiánqīng) 1144-1150|
|Emperor Renzong of Western Liao (仁宗 Rénzōng)||Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign||Yelü Yilie (耶律夷列 Yēlǜ Yíliè)||"Xi Liao" + temple name||1150-1164||Shaoxing (紹興 Shàoxīng) 1150-1164|
|Did not exist||Chengtianhou (承天后 Chéngtiānhòu)||Yelü Pusuwan (耶律普速完 Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán)||"Xi Liao" + posthumous name||1164-1178||Chongfu (崇福 Chóngfú) 1164-1178|
|Did not exist||Mozhu (末主 Mòzhǔ) or Modi (末帝 Mòdì)||Yelü Zhilugu (耶律直魯古 Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ)||use born name||1178-1211||Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxī) 1178-1211|
|Did not exist||Did not exist||Kuchlug (Ch. 屈出律 Qūchūlǜ)||use born name||1211-1218||Did not exist|
|1 "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; Or it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests|