Jupiter
This processed color image of Jupiter was produced in 1990 by the U. S. Geological Survey from a Voyager image captured in 1979. The colors have been enhanced to bring out detail.
Epoch J2000
Aphelion816,520,800 km (5. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star In Astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference for the Orbital elements of a Celestial body. In Astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference for the Orbital elements of a Celestial body. In Celestial mechanics, an apsis, plural apsides (ˈæpsɨdɪːz is the point of greatest or least distance of the Elliptical orbit of an object from The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand 458104 AU)
Perihelion740,573,600 km (4. The astronomical unit ( AU or au or au or sometimes ua) is a unit of Length based on the distance from the Earth to the In Celestial mechanics, an apsis, plural apsides (ˈæpsɨdɪːz is the point of greatest or least distance of the Elliptical orbit of an object from 950429 AU)
Semi-major axis778,547,200 km (5. In Geometry, the semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae 204267 AU)
Eccentricity0. In Astrodynamics, under standard assumptions, any Orbit must be of Conic section shape 048775
Orbital period4331. The orbital period is the time taken for a given object to make one complete Orbit about another object 572 days
11. A day (symbol d is a unit of Time equivalent to 24 Hours and the duration of a single Rotation of planet Earth with respect to the 85920 yr
Synodic period398. In Astronomy, a Julian year (symbol a) is a unit of measurement of Time defined The orbital period is the time taken for a given object to make one complete Orbit about another object 88 days[3]
Average orbital speed13. The orbital speed of a body generally a Planet, a Natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a Multiple star, is the speed at which it 07 km/s[3]
Mean anomaly18. In the study of orbital dynamics the mean anomaly of an orbiting body is the Angle the body would have traveled about the center of the orbit's Auxiliary circle 818°
Inclination1. Inclination in general is the Angle between a Reference plane and another plane or axis of direction 305°
6. 09° to Sun's equator
Longitude of ascending node100. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. The longitude of the ascending node (☊ or Ω is one of the Orbital elements used to specify the Orbit of an object in space 492°
Argument of perihelion275. The argument of periapsis (or argument of perifocus) ( ω) is the Orbital element describing the Angle of an Orbiting body's periapsis 066°
Satellites63
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius71,492 ± 4 km[4][5]
11. A natural satellite or moon is a Celestial body that Orbits a Planet or smaller body which is called the primary. Jupiter has 62 confirmed moons, giving it the largest retinue of moons with "reasonably secure" orbits of any planet in the Solar System The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the 209 Earths
Polar radius66,854 ± 10 km[4][5]
10. A geographical pole, or geographic pole, is either of two fixed points on the surface of a spinning body or Planet, at 90 degrees from the Equator, based 517 Earths
Flattening0. Ellipticity redirects here For the mathematical topic of ellipticity see Elliptic operator. 06487 ± 0. 00015
Surface area6. Equation A spheroid centered at the origin and rotated about the z axis is defined by the implicit equation \left(\frac{x}{a}\right^2+\left(\frac{y}{a}\right^2+\left(\frac{z}{b}\right^2 21796×1010 km²[6][5]
121. 9 Earths
Volume1. The volume of any solid plasma vacuum or theoretical object is how much three- Dimensional space it occupies often quantified numerically 43128×1015 km³[3][5]
1321. 3 Earths
Mass1. Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object 8986×1027 kg[3]
317. 8 Earths
Mean density1. The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different 326 g/cm³[3][5]
Equatorial surface gravity24. The surface gravity, g, of an astronomical or other object is the Gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface 79 m/s²[3][5]
2. 528 g
Escape velocity59. g-force (also G-force, g-load) is a measurement of an object's Acceleration expressed in g s In Physics, escape velocity is the speed where the Kinetic energy of an object is equal to the magnitude of its Gravitational potential energy 5 km/s[3][5]
Sidereal rotation
period
9. The rotation period of an astronomical object is the time it takes to complete one revolution around its Axis of rotation relative to the background stars 925 h[7]
Equatorial rotation velocity12. 6 km/s
45,300 km/h
Axial tilt3. In Astronomy, axial tilt is the Inclination angle of a planet's rotational axis in relation to its orbital plane. 13°[3]
North pole right ascension268. Right ascension (abbrev RA; symbol α) is the Astronomical term for one of the two Coordinates of a point on the Celestial sphere 057°
17 h 52 min 14 s[4]
North pole declination64. In Astronomy, declination (abbrev dec or δ) is one of the two coordinates of the Equatorial coordinate system, the other being either 496°[4]
Albedo0. The albedo of an object is the extent to which it diffusely reflects light from the sun 343 (bond)
0. The Bond albedo is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space 52 (geom.)[3]
Surface temp.
1 bar level
0. The geometric albedo of an astronomical body is the ratio of its actual brightness at zero phase angle (i Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature 1 bar
minmeanmax
165 K[3]
112 K[3]
Apparent magnitude-1. The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic The apparent magnitude ( m) of a celestial body is a measure of its Brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, normalized to the value 6 to -2. 94[3]
Angular diameter29. The angular diameter of an object as seen from a given position is the "visual diameter" of the object measured as an angle 8" — 50. 1"[3]
Atmosphere[3]
Surface pressure20–200 kPa[8] (cloud layer)
Scale height27 km
Composition
 89. A scale height is a term often used in scientific contexts for a distance over which a quantity decreases by a factor of e. 8±2. 0% Hydrogen (H2) 10. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 2±2. 0% Helium ~0. Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical 3% Methane ~0. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. 026% Ammonia ~0. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor 003% Hydrogen deuteride (HD) 0. Hydrogen deuteride is a bi-atomic substance of the two isotopes of Hydrogen: the majority isotope 1H protium and 2H Deuterium 0006% Ethane 0. ETHANE is a mnemonic indicating a protocol used by Emergency services to report situations which they may be faced with especially as it relates to major incidents where 0004% water Ices: Ammonia water ammonium hydrosulfide(NH4SH)

Jupiter (pronounced [ˈdʒuːpɨtɚ] [9]) is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Ammonium hydrosulfide is the Chemical compound with the formula (NH4SH A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. This is a list of Solar System objects by radius, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric Radius. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. It is two and a half times as massive as all of the other planets in our Solar System combined. Jupiter, along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, is classified as a gas giant. Neptune ( English|AmE] ] is the eighth and farthest Planet from the Sun in the Solar System. A gas giant (sometimes also known as a Jovian planet after the planet Jupiter, or giant planet) is a large Planet that is not primarily Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian planets, where Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the

The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures. Historically Astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky while Astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena The Romans named the planet after the Roman god Jupiter. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Roman mythology, or more appropriately Latin mythology, refers to the mythological beliefs of the Italic people inhabiting the region of Latium and its In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. [10] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2. The apparent magnitude ( m) of a celestial body is a measure of its Brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, normalized to the value 8, making it the third brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. The VENUS ( V ictoria E xperimental N etwork U nder the S ea project is a cabled sea floor observatory operated by the University (However, at certain points in its orbit, Mars can briefly exceed Jupiter's brightness. )

The planet Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a small proportion of helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements under high pressure. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Because of its rapid rotation, Jupiter's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). An oblate Spheroid is a rotationally symmetric Ellipsoid having a polar axis shorter than the diameter of the equatorial circle whose plane The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the seventeenth century. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. A planetary ring is a ring of Cosmic dust and other small particles Orbiting around a Planet in a flat disc-shaped region A magnetosphere' is a highly magnetized region around and possessed by an Astronomical object. There are also at least 63 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Ganymede, the largest of these moons, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Ganymede (ˈgænɨmiːd, or as Greek

Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. The US Pioneer program of Unmanned space missions was designed for planetary exploration See also Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. The Voyager program consists of a pair of unmanned scientific probes Voyager 1 and Galileo was an Unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the Planet Jupiter and its moons Named after the Astronomer The latest probe to visit Jupiter was the Pluto-bound New Horizons spacecraft in late February 2007. New Horizons is a Robotic spacecraft mission by NASA currently underway The probe used the gravity from Jupiter to increase its speed and adjust its trajectory toward Pluto, thereby saving years of travel. In Orbital mechanics and Aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist or swing-by is the use of the relative movement and Future targets for exploration include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the Jovian moon Europa. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as

## Structure

Jupiter is one of the four gas giants; that is, it is not primarily composed of solid matter. A gas giant (sometimes also known as a Jovian planet after the planet Jupiter, or giant planet) is a large Planet that is not primarily It is the largest planet in the Solar System, having a diameter of 142,984 km at its equator. The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the Jupiter's density, 1. 326 g/cm³, is the second highest of the gas giant planets, but lower than any of the four terrestrial planets. A terrestrial planet, telluric planet or rocky planet is a Planet that is primarily composed of Silicate rocks Within our

### Composition

Jupiter's upper atmosphere is composed of about 88-92% hydrogen and 8-12% helium by percent volume or fraction of gas molecules—see table to the right. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Since a helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, the composition changes when described in terms of the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus the atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining 1% of the mass consisting of other elements. The interior contains denser materials such that the distribution is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium and 5% other elements by mass. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. General properties of water vapor Evaporation/sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface it is said to have evaporated Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Silicon (ˈsɪlɪkən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ silicium is the Chemical element that has the symbol Si and Atomic number 14 There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 ETHANE is a mnemonic indicating a protocol used by Emergency services to report situations which they may be faced with especially as it relates to major incidents where Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. Neon (ˈniːɒn is the Chemical element that has the symbol Ne and Atomic number 10 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3 also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and occasionally phosphamine. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. In Materials science, a crystal is a Solid in which the constituent Atoms Molecules or Ions are packed in a regularly ordered repeating [11][12] Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found. Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. [13]

The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are very close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. The formation and evolution of the Solar System is estimated to have begun However, neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, which is about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun. [14] Helium is also depleted, although to a lesser degree. This depletion may be a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet. [15] Abundances of heavier inert gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are about two to three times that of the sun.

Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other gas giants Uranus and Neptune have relatively much less hydrogen and helium. Spectroscopy was originally the study of the interaction between Radiation and Matter as a function of Wavelength (λ Neptune ( English|AmE] ] is the eighth and farthest Planet from the Sun in the Solar System. [16] However, because of the lack of atmospheric entry probes, high quality abundance numbers of the heavier elements are lacking for the outer planets beyond Jupiter.

### Mass

Approximate size comparison of Earth and Jupiter, including the Great Red Spot

Jupiter is 2. 5 times more massive than all the other planets in our Solar System combined—this is so massive that its barycenter with the Sun actually lies above the Sun's surface (1. Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object 068 solar radii from the Sun's center). In Astronomy, the solar radius is a unit of Length used to express the size of Stars It is equal to the current radius of the Sun. Although this planet dwarfs the Earth (with a diameter 11 times as great) it is considerably less dense. Jupiter's volume is equal to 1,317 Earths, yet is only 318 times as massive. [17][18]

Theoretical models indicate that if Jupiter had much more mass than it does at present, the planet would shrink. For small changes in mass, the radius would not change appreciably, and above about four Jupiter masses the interior would become so much more compressed under the increased gravitation force that the planet's volume would actually decrease despite the increasing amount of matter. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. The process of further shrinkage with increasing mass would continue until appreciable stellar ignition is achieved as in high-mass brown dwarfs around 50 Jupiter masses. Star Formation is the process by which dense parts of Molecular clouds collapse into a ball of plasma to form a Star. Brown dwarfs are sub- stellar objects with a mass below that necessary to maintain Hydrogen -burning Nuclear fusion reactions in their cores as do stars [19] This has led some astronomers to term it a "failed star", although it is unclear whether or not the processes involved in the formation of planets like Jupiter are similar to the processes involved in the formation of multiple star systems.

### Internal structure

This cut-away illustrates a model of the interior of Jupiter, with a rocky core overlaid by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen. NASA background image

Jupiter is thought to consist of a dense core with a mixture of elements, a surrounding layer of liquid metallic hydrogen with some helium, and an outer layer predominantly of molecular hydrogen. The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s of a Planet. Metallic hydrogen results when Hydrogen is sufficiently Compressed and undergoes a phase change it is an example of Degenerate matter. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 [23] Beyond this basic outline, there is still considerable uncertainty. The core is often described as rocky, but its detailed composition is unknown, as are the properties of materials at the temperatures and pressures of those depths (see below). In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere The existence of the core is suggested by gravitational measurements[23] indicating a mass of from 12 to 45 times the Earth's mass or roughly 3%-15% of the total mass of Jupiter. [25][22] The presence of the core is also suggested by models of planetary formation involving initial formation of a rocky or icy core that is massive enough to collect its bulk of hydrogen and helium from the protosolar nebula. In Cosmogony, the nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model explaining the Formation and evolution of the Solar System. The core may in fact be absent, as gravitational measurements aren't precise enough to rule that possibility out entirely. Assuming it does exist, it may also be shrinking, as convection currents of hot liquid metallic hydrogen mix with the molten core and carry its contents to higher levels in the planetary interior. [23]

The core region is surrounded by dense metallic hydrogen, which extends outward to about 78% of the radius of the planet. Metallic hydrogen results when Hydrogen is sufficiently Compressed and undergoes a phase change it is an example of Degenerate matter. [22] Rain-like droplets of helium and neon precipitate downward through this layer, depleting the abundance of these elements in the upper atmosphere. [15][26]

Above the layer of metallic hydrogen lies a transparent interior atmosphere of liquid hydrogen and gaseous hydrogen, with the gaseous portion extending downward from the cloud layer to a depth of about 1,000 km. In the Physical sciences a phase is a Set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter [22] Instead of a clear boundary or surface between these different phases of hydrogen, there is probably a smooth gradation from gas to liquid as one descends. [27][28] This smooth transition happens whenever the temperature is above the critical temperature, which for hydrogen is only 33 K (see hydrogen). The critical temperature, Tc of a material is the Temperature above which distinct Liquid and Gas phases do not exist The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1

The temperature and pressure inside Jupiter increase steadily toward the core. At the phase transition region where liquid hydrogen (heated beyond its critical point) becomes metallic, it is believed the temperature is 10,000 K and the pressure is 200 GPa. In Thermodynamics, phase transition or phase change is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another The temperature at the core boundary is estimated to be 36,000 K and the interior pressure is roughly 3,000–4,500 GPa. [22]

### Cloud layers

This looping animation shows the movement of Jupiter's counter-rotating cloud bands. In this image, the planet's exterior is mapped onto a cylindrical projection

Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions. The tropopause is in the atmosphere between the Troposphere and the Stratosphere. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air and the means (together with the smaller Ocean circulation) by which Heat is distributed on the surface In Fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a fluid regime characterized by chaotic Stochastic property changes Wind speeds of 100 m/s (360 km/h) are common in zonal jets. Wind speed is the Speed of Wind, the movement of air or other gases in an atmosphere [29] The zones have been observed to vary in width, color and intensity from year to year, but they have remained sufficiently stable for astronomers to give them identifying designations. [18]

The cloud layer is only about 50 km deep, and consists of at least two decks of clouds: a thick lower deck and a thin clearer region. There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer, as evidenced by flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or (Water is a polar molecule that can carry a charge, so it is capable of creating the charge separation needed to produce lightning. "Polar molecule" and "Non-polar" redirect here )[22] These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on the Earth. [30] The water clouds can form thunderstorms driven by the heat rising from the interior. [31]

The orange and brown coloration in the clouds of Jupiter are caused by upwelling compounds that change color when they are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays The exact makeup remains uncertain, but the substances are believed to be phosphorus, sulfur or possibly hydrocarbons. [32][22] These colorful compounds, known as chromophores, mix with the warmer, lower deck of clouds. A chromophore is part (or moiety) of a Molecule responsible for its Color. The zones are formed when rising convection cells form crystallizing ammonia that masks out these lower clouds from view. A convection cell is a phenomenon of Fluid dynamics that occurs in situations where there are Temperature differences within a body of Liquid or [17]

Jupiter's low axial tilt means that the poles constantly receive less solar radiation than at the planet's equatorial region. In Astronomy, axial tilt is the Inclination angle of a planet's rotational axis in relation to its orbital plane. The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the Convection within the interior of the planet transports more energy to the poles, however, balancing out the temperatures at the cloud layer. Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of molecules within Fluids (i [18]

### Great Red Spot and other storms

Main article: Great Red Spot
This dramatic view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and its surroundings was obtained by Voyager 1 on February 25, 1979, when the spacecraft was 9. The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5, Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) 2 million km (5. 7 million mi) from Jupiter. Cloud details as small as 160 km (100 mi) across can be seen here. The colorful, wavy cloud pattern to the left of the Red Spot is a region of extraordinarily complex and variable wave motion. To give a sense of Jupiter's scale, the white oval storm directly below the Great Red Spot is approximately the same diameter as Earth.

The best known feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot, a persistent anticyclonic storm located 22° south of the equator that is larger than Earth. In Meteorology, an anticyclone (that is opposite to a Cyclone) is a Weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical body's atmosphere, especially affecting its surface and strongly implying Severe weather. It is known to have been in existence since at least 1831,[33] and possibly since 1665. [34] Mathematical models suggest that the storm is stable and may be a permanent feature of the planet. Note The term model has a different meaning in Model theory, a branch of Mathematical logic. [35] The storm is large enough to be visible through Earth-based telescopes. A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects and the collection of Electromagnetic radiation.

The oval object rotates counterclockwise, with a period of about 6 days. In geometry an oval or ovoid (from Latin ovum, 'egg' is any Curve resembling an egg or an Ellipse. A rotation is a movement of an object in a circular motion A two- Dimensional object rotates around a center (or point) of rotation A clockwise motion is one that proceeds 'like the Clock 's hands' from the top to the right then down and then to the left and back to the top Periodicity is the quality of occurring at regular intervals or periods (in Time or Space) and can occur in different contexts A Clock marks [36] The Great Red Spot's dimensions are 24–40,000 km × 12–14,000 km. In mathematics the dimension of a Space is roughly defined as the minimum number of Coordinates needed to specify every point within it It is large enough to contain two or three planets of Earth's diameter. [37] The maximum altitude of this storm is about 8 km above the surrounding cloudtops. [38]

Storms such as this are common within the turbulent atmospheres of gas giants. In Fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a fluid regime characterized by chaotic Stochastic property changes An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " A gas giant (sometimes also known as a Jovian planet after the planet Jupiter, or giant planet) is a large Planet that is not primarily Jupiter also has white ovals and brown ovals, which are lesser unnamed storms. White ovals tend to consist of relatively cool clouds within the upper atmosphere. Brown ovals are warmer and located within the "normal cloud layer". Such storms can last as little as a few hours or stretch on for centuries. A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred is One hundred consecutive Years Centuries are numbered ordinally (e

Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager I to Jupiter, showing the motion of atmospheric bands, and circulation of the great red spot. The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5, NASA image.

Even before Voyager proved that the feature was a storm, there was strong evidence that the spot could not be associated with any deeper feature on the planet's surface, as the Spot rotates differentially with respect to the rest of the atmosphere, sometimes faster and sometimes more slowly. During its recorded history it has traveled several times around the planet relative to any possible fixed rotational marker below it.

In 2000, an atmospheric feature formed in the southern hemisphere that is similar in appearance to the Great Red Spot, but smaller in size. This was created when several smaller, white oval-shaped storms merged to form a single feature—these three smaller white ovals were first observed in 1938. The merged feature was named Oval BA, and has been nicknamed Red Spot Junior. It has since increased in intensity and changed color from white to red. [39][40][41]

### Planetary rings

Main article: Rings of Jupiter
The rings of Jupiter. The planet Jupiter has a system of rings known as the rings of Jupiter or the Jovian ring system.

Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer "gossamer" ring. A planetary ring is a ring of Cosmic dust and other small particles Orbiting around a Planet in a flat disc-shaped region In Geometry, a torus (pl tori) is a Surface of revolution generated by revolving a Circle in three dimensional space about an axis Coplanar [42] These rings appear to be made of dust, rather than ice as is the case for Saturn's rings. [22] The main ring is probably made of material ejected from the satellites Adrastea and Metis. Adrastea (, or as in Greek Αδράστεια also known as Jupiter XV, is the second by distance and the smallest of the four inner moons of Jupiter TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Metis (, or as in Greek Μήτις Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational pull. The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts. [43] In a similar way, the moons Thebe and Amalthea probably produce the two distinct components of the gossamer ring. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Thebe (, or as in Greek Θήβη TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Amalthea (, or as in Greek Αμάλθεια [43]

### Magnetosphere

Jupiter's broad magnetic field is 14 times as strong as the Earth's, ranging from 4. In Physics, a magnetic field is a Vector field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving Electric chargesgauss (0. The gauss, abbreviated as G is the Cgs unit of Magnetic field B (which is also known as "magnetic flux density" and "magnetic 42 mT) at the equator to 10–14 gauss (1. The tesla (symbol T) is the SI derived unit of Magnetic field B (which is also known as "magnetic flux density" and "magnetic 0–1. 4 mT) at the poles, making it the strongest in the Solar System (with the exception of sunspots). A sunspot is a region on the Sun 's surface ( Photosphere) that is marked by intense magnetic activity which inhibits Convection, forming [17] This field is believed to be generated by eddy currents—swirling movements of conducting materials—within the metallic hydrogen core. An eddy current (also known as Foucault current) is an electrical phenomenon discovered by French physicist Léon Foucault in The field traps a sheet of ionized particles from the solar wind, generating a highly-energetic magnetic field outside the planet—the magnetosphere. In Physics and Chemistry, plasma is an Ionized Gas, in which a certain proportion of Electrons are free rather than being bound The solar wind is a Stream of charged particles&mdasha plasma &mdashthat are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. A magnetosphere' is a highly magnetized region around and possessed by an Astronomical object. Electrons from this plasma sheet ionize the torus-shaped cloud of sulfur dioxide generated by the tectonic activity on the moon Io. In Geometry, a torus (pl tori) is a Surface of revolution generated by revolving a Circle in three dimensional space about an axis Coplanar This article discusses the geologic usage for the philosophical or architectural usage see Architectonics ' Or see Plate tectonics. Hydrogen particles from Jupiter's atmosphere are also trapped in the magnetosphere. Electrons within the magnetosphere generate a strong radio signature that produces bursts in the range of 0. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. 6–30 MHz. The hertz (symbol Hz) is a measure of Frequency, informally defined as the number of events occurring per Second. [44]

At about 75 Jupiter radii from the planet, the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind generates a bow shock. The solar wind is a Stream of charged particles&mdasha plasma &mdashthat are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. A bow shock is a boundary between a Magnetosphere and an ambient medium Surrounding Jupiter's magnetosphere is a magnetopause, located at the inner edge of a magnetosheath, where the planet's magnetic field becomes weak and disorganized. A magnetopause flows along the boundary between a Magnetic field, (see Magnetosphere) and surrounding plasma. The magnetosheath refers to the region of space between the Magnetopause and the Bow shock of a planet's Magnetosphere. The solar wind interacts with these regions, elongating the magnetosphere on Jupiter's lee side and extending it outward until it nearly reaches the orbit of Saturn. Windward is the direction from which the wind is blowing at the time in question The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind. [22]

Aurora borealis on Jupiter. The three brightest regions are created by tubes of magnetic flux that connect to the Jovian moons Io, Ganymede and Europa. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Ganymede (ˈgænɨmiːd, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as

The magnetosphere of Jupiter is responsible for intense episodes of radio emission from the planet's polar regions. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Volcanic activity on the Jovian moon Io (see below) injects gas into Jupiter's magnetosphere, producing a torus of particles about the planet. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek As Io moves through this torus, the interaction generates Alfven waves that carry ionized matter into the polar regions of Jupiter. An Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic Wave. As a result, radio waves are generated through a cyclotron maser mechanism, and the energy is transmitted out along a cone-shaped surface. A cyclotron is a type of Particle accelerator. Cyclotrons accelerate Charged particles using a high- Frequency, alternating Voltage (potential An astrophysical maser is a naturally occurring source of stimulated Spectral line emission typically in the Microwave portion of the Electromagnetic When the Earth intersects this cone, the radio emissions from Jupiter can exceed the solar radio output. [45]

## Orbit and rotation

The average distance between Jupiter and the Sun is 778 million km (about 5. 2 times the average distance from the Earth to the Sun, or 5. 2 AU) and it completes an orbit every 11. 86 years. The elliptical orbit of Jupiter is inclined 1. 31° compared to the Earth. Because of an eccentricity of 0. In Astrodynamics, under standard assumptions, any Orbit must be of Conic section shape 048, the distance from Jupiter and the Sun varies by 75 million km between perihelion and aphelion, or the nearest and most distant points of the planet along the orbital path respectively. In Celestial mechanics, an apsis, plural apsides (ˈæpsɨdɪːz is the point of greatest or least distance of the Elliptical orbit of an object from In Celestial mechanics, an apsis, plural apsides (ˈæpsɨdɪːz is the point of greatest or least distance of the Elliptical orbit of an object from

The axial tilt of Jupiter is relatively small: only 3. 13°. As a result this planet does not experience significant seasonal changes, in contrast to Earth and Mars for example. A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather. [46]

Jupiter's rotation is the fastest of all the Solar System's planets, completing a rotation on its axis in slightly less than ten hours; this creates an equatorial bulge easily seen through an Earth-based amateur telescope. A rotation is a movement of an object in a circular motion A two- Dimensional object rotates around a center (or point) of rotation In Mathematics and its applications a coordinate system is a system for assigning an n - Tuple of Numbers or scalars to each point An equatorial bulge is a bulge which a planet may have around its Equator, distorting it into an Oblate spheroid. A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects and the collection of Electromagnetic radiation. This rotation requires a centripetal acceleration at the equator of about 1. The centripetal force is the external force required to make a body follow a curved path 67 m/s², compared to the equatorial surface gravity of 24. 79 m/s²; thus the net acceleration felt at the equatorial surface is only about 23. 12 m/s². The planet is shaped as an oblate spheroid, meaning that the diameter across its equator is longer than the diameter measured between its poles. An oblate Spheroid is a rotationally symmetric Ellipsoid having a polar axis shorter than the diameter of the equatorial circle whose plane Geometry, a diameter of a Circle is any straight Line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose Endpoints are on the The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the A geographical pole, or geographic pole, is either of two fixed points on the surface of a spinning body or Planet, at 90 degrees from the Equator, based On Jupiter, the equatorial diameter is 9275 km longer than the diameter measured through the poles. [28]

Because Jupiter is not a solid body, its upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. Differential rotation is seen when different parts of a rotating object move with different angular velocities (rates of Rotation) The rotation of Jupiter's polar atmosphere is about 5 minutes longer than that of the equatorial atmosphere; three "systems" are used as frames of reference, particularly when graphing the motion of atmospheric features. Earth's polar regions are the areas of the globe surrounding the poles also known as frigid zones. The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the System I applies from the latitudes 10° N to 10° S; its period is the planet's shortest, at 9h 50m 30. 0s. System II applies at all latitudes north and south of these; its period is 9h 55m 40. 6s. System III was first defined by radio astronomers, and corresponds to the rotation of the planet's magnetosphere; its period is Jupiter's "official" rotation. Radio astronomy is a subfield of Astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. A magnetosphere' is a highly magnetized region around and possessed by an Astronomical object. [47]

## Observation

Jupiter is usually the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus);[17] however at times Mars appears brighter than Jupiter. The VENUS ( V ictoria E xperimental N etwork U nder the S ea project is a cabled sea floor observatory operated by the University Depending on Jupiter's position with respect to the Earth, it can vary in visual magnitude from as bright as −2. 8 at opposition down to −1. Opposition is a term used in Positional astronomy and Astrology to indicate when one celestial body is on the opposite side of the sky when viewed from 6 during conjunction with the Sun. Conjunction is a term used in Positional astronomy and Astrology. The angular diameter of Jupiter likewise varies from 50. The angular diameter of an object as seen from a given position is the "visual diameter" of the object measured as an angle 1 to 29. 8 arc seconds. A minute of arc, arcminute, or MOA is a unit of angular measurement, equal to one sixtieth (1/60 of one degree. [3] Favorable oppositions occur when Jupiter is passing through perihelion, an event that occurs once per orbit. As Jupiter approaches perihelion in March 2011, there will be a favorable opposition in September of 2010. In Celestial mechanics, an apsis, plural apsides (ˈæpsɨdɪːz is the point of greatest or least distance of the Elliptical orbit of an object from [48]

The retrograde motion of an outer planet is caused by its relative location with respect to the Earth.

Earth overtakes Jupiter every 398. 9 days as it orbits the Sun, a duration called the synodic period. The orbital period is the time taken for a given object to make one complete Orbit about another object As it does so, Jupiter appears to undergo retrograde motion with respect to the background stars. Direct motion is the motion of a Planetary body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within its system and is sometimes called prograde motion. That is, for a period of time Jupiter seems to move backward in the night sky, performing a looping motion.

Jupiter's 12-year orbital period corresponds to the dozen constellations in the zodiac. In common usage a constellation is a group of celestial bodies that are connected together in some arrangement typically stars to form a visible figure or picture Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic [18] As a result, each time Jupiter reaches opposition it has advanced eastward by about the width of a zodiac constellation. The orbital period of Jupiter is also about two-fifths the orbital period of Saturn, forming a 5:2 orbital resonance between the two largest planets in the Solar System. In Celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when two Orbiting bodies exert a regular periodic gravitational influence on each other usually due to their

Because the orbit of Jupiter is outside the Earth's, the phase angle of Jupiter as viewed from the Earth never exceeds 11. Phase angle in astronomical observations is the angle between the light incident onto an observed object and the light reflected from the object 5°, and is almost always close to zero. That is, the planet always appears nearly fully illuminated when viewed through Earth-based telescopes. It was only during spacecraft missions to Jupiter that crescent views of the planet were obtained. [49]

## Research and exploration

### Ground-based telescope research

In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (now known as the Galilean moons) using a telescope; thought to be the first observation of moons other than Earth's. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher A natural satellite or moon is a Celestial body that Orbits a Planet or smaller body which is called the primary. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Ganymede (ˈgænɨmiːd, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Callisto (kəˈlɪstoʊ, or as Greek The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei. Note, however, that Chinese historian of astronomy, Xi Zezong, has claimed that Gan De, a Chinese astronomer, made this discovery of one of Jupiter's moons in 362 BC with the unaided eye, nearly 2 millennia earlier. Gan De ( fl 4th century BC was a Chinese Astronomer / Astrologer born in the State of Qi also known as the Lord Gan (Gan Gong Events By place Persian Empire Mausolus of Caria joins the revolt of the Satraps of Anatolia against the Persian [50][51] Galileo's was also the first discovery of a celestial motion not apparently centered on the Earth. Celestial mechanics is the branch of Astrophysics that deals with the motions of Celestial objects The field applies principles of Physics, historically It was a major point in favor of Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets; Galileo's outspoken support of the Copernican theory placed him under the threat of the Inquisition. In Astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System. The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and [52]

During 1660s, Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles. He was also able to estimate the rotation period of the planet. [12] In 1690 Cassini noticed that the atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. Differential rotation is seen when different parts of a rotating object move with different angular velocities (rates of Rotation) [22]

False-color detail of Jupiter's atmosphere, imaged by Voyager 1, showing the Great Red Spot and a passing white oval. A false-color image is an image that depicts a subject in Colors that differ from those a faithful full-color photograph would show The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5,

The Great Red Spot, a prominent oval-shaped feature in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, may have been observed as early as 1664 by Robert Hooke and in 1665 by Giovanni Cassini, although this is disputed. Robert Hooke, FRS (18 July 1635 – 3 March 1703 was an English Natural philosopher and Polymath who played an important role in the Giovanni Domenico Cassini ( June 8, 1625 &ndash September 14, 1712) was an Italian Mathematician, Astronomer The pharmacist Heinrich Schwabe produced the earliest known drawing to show details of the Great Red Spot in 1831. Samuel Heinrich Schwabe ( October 25, 1789 &ndash April 11, 1875) a German Astronomer remembered for his work on Sunspots [53]

The Red Spot was reportedly lost from sight on several occasions between 1665 and 1708 before becoming quite conspicuous in 1878. It was recorded as fading again in 1883 and at the start of the twentieth century. [54]

Both Giovanni Borelli and Cassini made careful tables of the motions of the Jovian moons, allowing predictions of the times when the moons would pass before or behind the planet. Giovanni Alfonso Borelli ( Pisa January 28, 1608 - December 31, 1679) was a Renaissance Italian Physiologist By the 1670s, however, it was observed that when Jupiter was on the opposite side of the Sun from the Earth, these events would occur about 17 minutes later than expected. Ole Rømer deduced that sight is not instantaneous (a finding that Cassini had earlier rejected[12]), and this timing discrepancy was used to estimate the speed of light. Ole Christensen Rømer (o(ːlə ˈʁœːˀmɐ in Danish 25 September 1644, Århus – 19 September 1710, Copenhagen) [55]

In 1892, E. E. Barnard observed a fifth satellite of Jupiter with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory in California. Edward Emerson Barnard ( December 16, 1857 – February 6, 1923) was an American Astronomer. The Lick Observatory is an astronomical Observatory, owned and operated by the University of California. The discovery of this relatively small object, a testament to his keen eyesight, quickly made him famous. The moon was later named Amalthea. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Amalthea (, or as in Greek Αμάλθεια [56] It was the last planetary moon to be discovered directly by visual observation. [57] An additional eight satellites were subsequently discovered prior to the flyby of the Voyager 1 probe in 1979. The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5,

In 1932, Rupert Wildt identified absorption bands of ammonia and methane in the spectra of Jupiter. Rupert Wildt ( June 25, 1905 &ndash January 9, 1976) was a German - American Astronomer. [58]

Three long-lived anticyclonic features termed white ovals were observed in 1938. For several decades they remained as separate features in the atmosphere, sometimes approaching each other but never merging. Finally, two of the ovals merged in 1998, then absorbed the third in 2000, becoming Oval BA. [59]

In 1955, Bernard Burke and Kenneth Franklin detected bursts of radio signals coming from Jupiter at 22. Kenneth Linn Franklin ( March 25, 1923 – June 18, 2007) was an American Astronomer and educator 2 MHz. [22] The period of these bursts matched the rotation of the planet, and they were also able to use this information to refine the rotation rate. Radio bursts from Jupiter were found to come in two forms: long bursts (or L-bursts) lasting up to several seconds, and short bursts (or S-bursts) that had a duration of less than a hundredth of a second. [60]

Scientists discovered that there were three forms of radio signals being transmitted from Jupiter.

• Decametric radio bursts (with a wavelength of tens of meters) vary with the rotation of Jupiter, and are influenced by interaction of Io with Jupiter's magnetic field. [61]
• Decimetric radio emission (with wavelengths measured in centimeters) was first observed by Frank Drake and Hein Hvatum in 1959. Dr Frank Donald Drake (born May 28 1930, Chicago) is an American Astronomer and Astrophysicist. [22] The origin of this signal was from a torus-shaped belt around Jupiter's equator. This signal is caused by cyclotron radiation from electrons that are accelerated in Jupiter's magnetic field. Cyclotron radiation is Electromagnetic radiation emitted by moving charged particles deflected by a Magnetic field. [62]
• Thermal radiation is produced by heat in the atmosphere of Jupiter. [22]

During the period July 16, 1994 to July 22, 1994, over twenty fragments from the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit Jupiter's southern hemisphere, providing the first direct observation of a collision between two Solar System objects. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) A comet is a small Solar System body that orbits the Sun and when close enough to the Sun exhibits a visible coma (atmosphere or a tail — Shoemaker-Levy redirects here For other Shoemaker-Levy comets see List of periodic comets. This impact provided useful data on the composition of Jupiter's atmosphere. [63][64]

### Exploration with space probes

Since 1973 a number of automated spacecraft have visited Jupiter. The exploration of Jupiter has consisted of a few automated spacecraft visiting the planet since 1973 Flights to other planets within the Solar System are accomplished at a cost in energy, which is described by the net change in velocity of the spacecraft, or delta-v. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός In Astrodynamics, the term delta-v, literally "change in velocity" (see symbol delta) has a specific meaning it is a Scalar which takes Reaching Jupiter from Earth requires a delta-v of 9. 2 km/s,[65] which is comparable to the 9. 7 km/s delta-v needed to reach low Earth orbit. [66] Fortunately, gravity assists through planetary flybys can be used to reduce the energy required to reach Jupiter, albeit at the cost of a significantly longer flight duration. In Orbital mechanics and Aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist or swing-by is the use of the relative movement and In Orbital mechanics and Aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist or swing-by is the use of the relative movement and [65]

#### Flyby missions

Flyby missions
SpacecraftClosest
approach
Distance
Pioneer 10December 3, 1973130,000 km
Pioneer 11December 4, 197434,000 km
Voyager 1March 5, 1979349,000 km
Voyager 2July 9, 1979570,000 km
UlyssesFebruary 1992409,000 km
February 2004240,000,000 km
CassiniDecember 30, 200010,000,000 km
New HorizonsFebruary 28, 20072,304,535 km
Voyager 1 took this photo of the planet Jupiter on January 24, 1979 while still more than 25 million mi (40 million km) away. Pioneer 10 ( Pioneer-F) was the first Spacecraft to travel through the Asteroid belt, which it entered on July 15, 1972 Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Pioneer 11 was the second mission (after its sister probe Pioneer 10) to investigate Jupiter and the Outer solar system and the first to explore the planet "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5, Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Voyager 2 is an unmanned Interplanetary Spacecraft launched on August 20, 1977. Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Ulysses is a robotic Space probe designed to study the Sun at all latitudes Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA / ESA / ASI Robotic spacecraft mission currently studying the planet Saturn and its Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. New Horizons is a Robotic spacecraft mission by NASA currently underway Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar)

Beginning in 1973, several spacecraft have performed planetary flyby maneuvers that brought them within observation range of Jupiter. The Pioneer missions obtained the first close-up images of Jupiter's atmosphere and several of its moons. They discovered that the radiation fields in the vicinity of the planet were much stronger than expected, but both spacecraft managed to survive in that environment. The trajectories of these spacecraft were used to refine the mass estimates of the Jovian system. Occultations of the radio signals by the planet resulted in better measurements of Jupiter's diameter and the amount of polar flattening. [18][67]

Six years later, the Voyager missions vastly improved the understanding of the Galilean moons and discovered Jupiter's rings. The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei. They also confirmed that the Great Red Spot was anticyclonic. Comparison of images showed that the Red Spot had changed hue since the Pioneer missions, turning from orange to dark brown. A torus of ionized atoms was discovered along Io's orbital path, and volcanoes were found on the moon's surface, some in the process of erupting. As the spacecraft passed behind the planet, it observed flashes of lightning in the night side atmosphere. [18][11]

The next mission to encounter Jupiter, the Ulysses solar probe, performed a flyby maneuver in order to attain a polar orbit around the Sun. During this pass the spacecraft conducted studies on Jupiter's magnetosphere. However, since Ulysses has no cameras, no images were taken. A second flyby six years later was at a much greater distance. [68]

In 2000, the Cassini probe, en route to Saturn, flew by Jupiter and provided some of the highest-resolution images ever made of the planet. On December 19, 2000, the spacecraft captured an image of the moon Himalia, but the resolution was too low to show surface details. Events 324 - Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Himalia (, or as in Greek ‘Ιμαλíα [69]

The New Horizons probe, en route to Pluto, flew by Jupiter for gravity assist. New Horizons is a Robotic spacecraft mission by NASA currently underway Closest approach was on February 28, 2007. Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. [70] The probe's cameras measured plasma output from volcanoes on Io and studied all four Galilean moons in detail, as well as making long-distance observations of the outer moons Himalia and Elara. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Himalia (, or as in Greek ‘Ιμαλíα TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Elara (, or as in Greek Ελάρα [71] Imaging of the Jovian system began September 4, 2006. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. [72][73]

#### Galileo mission

Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini. Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA / ESA / ASI Robotic spacecraft mission currently studying the planet Saturn and its This is the most detailed global color portrait of Jupiter ever assembled.

So far the only spacecraft to orbit Jupiter is the Galileo orbiter, which went into orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Galileo was an Unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the Planet Jupiter and its moons Named after the Astronomer Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 It orbited the planet for over seven years, conducting multiple flybys of all of the Galilean moons and Amalthea. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Amalthea (, or as in Greek Αμάλθεια The spacecraft also witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 as it approached Jupiter in 1994, giving a unique vantage point for the event. Shoemaker-Levy redirects here For other Shoemaker-Levy comets see List of periodic comets. However, while the information gained about the Jovian system from Galileo was extensive, its originally-designed capacity was limited by the failed deployment of its high-gain radio transmitting antenna. [74]

An atmospheric probe was released from the spacecraft in July 1995, entering the planet's atmosphere on December 7. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways It parachuted through 150 km of the atmosphere, collecting data for 57. 6 minutes, before being crushed by the pressure to which it was subjected by that time (about 22 times Earth normal, at a temperature of 153 °C). [75] It would have melted thereafter, and possibly vaporized. The Galileo orbiter itself experienced a more rapid version of the same fate when it was deliberately steered into the planet on September 21, 2003 at a speed of over 50 km/s, in order to avoid any possibility of it crashing into and possibly contaminating Europa—a moon which has been hypothesized to have the possibility of harboring life. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as [74]

#### Future probes

NASA is planning a mission to study Jupiter in detail from a polar orbit. A polar orbit is an Orbit in which a Satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly Named Juno, the spacecraft is planned to launch by 2011. Juno is a NASA mission to Jupiter, slated to cost about USD \$700 million (FY03 and scheduled to launch in August 2011 [76]

Because of the possibility of a liquid ocean on Jupiter's moon Europa, there has been great interest in studying the icy moons in detail. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as A mission proposed by NASA was dedicated to doing so. The JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter) was expected to be launched sometime after 2012. The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter ( JIMO) was a proposed Spacecraft designed to explore the icy moons of Jupiter. However, the mission was deemed too ambitious and its funding was canceled. [77] A European Jovian Europa Orbiter mission is being studied, but its launch is unscheduled. The Jovian Europa Orbiter (JEO is a future mission by the European Space Agency to Jupiter's moon Europa. [78]

## Moons

Main article: Moons of Jupiter
See also: Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their moons

Jupiter has 63 named natural satellites. Jupiter has 62 confirmed moons, giving it the largest retinue of moons with "reasonably secure" orbits of any planet in the Solar System Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below-->This timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural A natural satellite or moon is a Celestial body that Orbits a Planet or smaller body which is called the primary. Of these, 47 are less than 10 kilometres in diameter and have only been discovered since 1975. The four largest moons, known as the "Galilean moons", are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Ganymede (ˈgænɨmiːd, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Callisto (kəˈlɪstoʊ, or as Greek

Jupiter's 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). From the top they are: Callisto, Ganymede, Europa and Io. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Callisto (kəˈlɪstoʊ, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Ganymede (ˈgænɨmiːd, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek

### Galilean moons

Main article: Galilean moons

The orbits of Io, Europa , and Ganymede , some of the largest satellites in the Solar System, form a pattern known as a Laplace resonance; for every four orbits that Io makes around Jupiter, Europa makes exactly two orbits and Ganymede makes exactly one. The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Ganymede (ˈgænɨmiːd, or as Greek In Celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when two Orbiting bodies exert a regular periodic gravitational influence on each other usually due to their This resonance causes the gravitational effects of the three large moons to distort their orbits into elliptical shapes, since each moon receives an extra tug from its neighbors at the same point in every orbit it makes. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another The tidal force from Jupiter, on the other hand, works to circularize their orbits. The tidal force is a secondary effect of the Force of Gravity and is responsible for the Tides It arises because the gravitational acceleration experienced [79]

The eccentricity of their orbits causes regular flexing of the three moons' shapes, with Jupiter's gravity stretching them out as they approach it and allowing them to spring back to more spherical shapes as they swing away. In Astrodynamics, under standard assumptions, any Orbit must be of Conic section shape This tidal flexing heats the moons' interiors via friction. Tidal acceleration is an effect of the Tidal forces between an orbiting Natural satellite ( i Friction is the Force resisting the relative motion of two Surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid (e This is seen most dramatically in the extraordinary volcanic activity of innermost Io (which is subject to the strongest tidal forces), and to a lesser degree in the geological youth of Europa's surface (indicating recent resurfacing of the moon's exterior). TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as

The Galilean moons, compared to Earth's Moon
Name

(Pronunciation key)

km %kg %km %days %
Ioeye'-oe
ˈaɪəʊ
36431058. The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek 9×1022120421,7001101. 777
Europaew-roe'-pə
jʊˈrəʊpə
3122904. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as 8×102265671,0341753. 5513
Ganymedegan'-ə-meed
ˈgænəmid
526215014. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Ganymede (ˈgænɨmiːd, or as Greek 8×10222001,070,4122807. 1526
Callistokə-lis'-toe
kəˈlɪstəʊ
482114010. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Callisto (kəˈlɪstoʊ, or as Greek 8×10221501,882,70949016. 6961

Callisto, Ganymede, Jupiter and Europa

### Classification of moons

Europa, one of Jupiter's many moons. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as A natural satellite or moon is a Celestial body that Orbits a Planet or smaller body which is called the primary.

Before the discoveries of the Voyager missions, Jupiter's moons were arranged neatly into four groups of four, based on commonality of their orbital elements. The elements of an orbit are the parameters needed to specify that Orbit uniquely given a model of two point-masses obeying the Newtonian laws of motion and the Since then, the large number of new small outer moons has complicated this picture. There are now thought to be six main groups, although some are more distinct than others.

A basic sub-division is a grouping of the eight inner regular moons, which have nearly circular orbits near the plane of Jupiter's equator and are believed to have formed with Jupiter. The remainder of the moons consist of an unknown number of small irregular moons with elliptical and inclined orbits, which are believed to be captured asteroids or fragments of captured asteroids. Irregular moons that belong to a group share similar orbital elements and thus may have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up. [80][81]

 Regular moons Inner group The inner group of four small moons all have diameters of less than 200 km, orbit at radii less than 200,000 km, and have orbital inclinations of less than half a degree. Galilean moons[82] These four moons, discovered by Galileo Galilei and by Simon Marius in parallel, orbit between 400,000 and 2,000,000 km, and include some of the largest moons in the Solar System. The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Simon Marius ( Latinized from German Simon Mayr) ( January 10, 1573 &ndash December 26, 1624) was a German Irregular moons Themisto This is a single moon belonging to a group of its own, orbiting halfway between the Galilean moons and the Himalia group. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Themisto ( thə-MIS-toe Himalia group A tightly clustered group of moons with orbits around 11,000,000–12,000,000 km from Jupiter. The Himalia group is a group of Prograde Irregular satellites of Jupiter that follow similar Orbits to Himalia and are thought to have a common Carpo Another isolated case; at the inner edge of the Ananke group, it revolves in the direct sense. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Carpo ( KAR-poh Ananke group This group has rather indistinct borders, averaging 21,276,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 149 degrees. The Ananke group is a group of Retrograde Irregular satellites of Jupiter that follow similar Orbits to Ananke and are thought to have Carme group A fairly distinct group that averages 23,404,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 165 degrees. The Carme group is a group of retrograde Irregular satellites of Jupiter that follow similar Orbits to Carme and are thought to have a common origin Pasiphaë group A dispersed and only vaguely distinct group that covers all the outermost moons. The Pasiphaë group is a group of Retrograde Irregular satellites of Jupiter that follow similar Orbits to Pasiphaë and are thought

## Interaction with the Solar System

Along with the Sun, the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane (Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt), the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly due to Jupiter, and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner Solar System's history. The orbital plane of an object orbiting another is the geometrical plane in which the orbit is embedded. The celestial equator is a Great circle on the imaginary Celestial sphere, in the same plane as the Earth 's Equator. Kirkwood gaps are gaps or dips in the distribution of Main belt Asteroids with Semi-major axis (or equivalently their Orbital period) as seen The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the Planets Mars and Jupiter. The Late Heavy Bombardment (commonly referred to as the lunar cataclysm, or LHB) is a period of time approximately 3800 to 4100 million years ago ( mya [83]

This diagram shows the Trojan Asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, as well as the main asteroid belt. The asteroid belt is the region of the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the Planets Mars and Jupiter.

In addition to its moons, Jupiter's gravitational field controls numerous asteroids that have settled into the regions of the Lagrangian points preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the sun. Asteroids, sometimes called Minor planets or planetoids', are bodies—primarily of the inner Solar System —that are smaller than planets but These are known as the Trojan asteroids, and are divided into Greek and Trojan "camps" to commemorate the Iliad. List of Trojan asteroids (Trojan campThis is a list of Jupiter 's Trojan asteroids that lie in the elongated curved regions around the leading L4 Lagrangian point List of Trojan asteroids (Greek campThis is a list of Jupiter 's Trojan asteroids that lie in the elongated curved regions around the trailing L5 Lagrangian point The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient The first of these, 588 Achilles, was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906; since then more than two thousand have been discovered. TemplateInfobox Planet. --> 588 Achilles is an Asteroid discovered on February 22, 1906 Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf ( June 21 1863 – October 3 1932) was a German Astronomer, a pioneer of Astrophotography [84] The largest is 624 Hektor. TemplateInfobox Planet. --> 624 Hektor (ˈhektɔr hek'-tor) is the largest of the Jovian

Jupiter has been called the Solar System's vacuum cleaner,[85] because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner Solar System. In Physics, a gravity well is the Gravitational potential field around a massive body (a particular kind of Potential well) It receives the most frequent comet impacts of the Solar System's planets. [86] In 1994 comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9, formally designated D/1993 F2) collided with Jupiter and gave informations about the structure of Jupiter. Shoemaker-Levy redirects here For other Shoemaker-Levy comets see List of periodic comets. It was thought that the planet served to partially shield the inner system from cometary bombardment. However, recent computer simulations suggest that Jupiter doesn't cause a net decrease in the number of comets that pass through the inner Solar System, as its gravity perturbs their orbits inward in roughly the same numbers that it accretes or ejects them. [87]

The majority of short-period comets belong to the Jupiter family—defined as comets with semi-major axes smaller than Jupiter's. Periodic comets are defined for these purposes as those Comets having orbital periods of less than 200 years (also known as "short-period comets" or which In Geometry, the semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae Jupiter family comets are believed to form in the Kuiper belt outside the orbit of Neptune. The Kuiper belt (ˈkaɪpɚ to rhyme with "viper" sometimes called the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, is a region of the Solar System beyond the planets extending During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter. [88]

## Possibility of life

In 1953, the Miller-Urey experiment demonstrated that a combination of lightning and the chemical compounds that existed in the atmosphere of a primordial Earth could form organic compounds (including amino acids) that could serve as the building blocks of life. The Miller-Urey experiment (or Urey-Miller experiment) was an Experiment that simulated hypothetical conditions present on the Early Earth and tested In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this The simulated atmosphere included water, methane, ammonia and molecular hydrogen; all molecules still found in the atmosphere of Jupiter. However, the atmosphere of Jupiter has a strong vertical air circulation, which would carry these compounds down into the lower regions. The higher temperatures within the interior of the atmosphere breaks down these chemicals, which would hinder the formation of Earth-like life. [89]

It is considered highly unlikely that there is any Earth-like life on Jupiter, as there is only a small amount of water in the atmosphere and any possible solid surface deep within Jupiter would be under extraordinary pressures. Extraterrestrial life is Life originating outside of the Earth. However, in 1976, before the Voyager missions, it was hypothesized[90][91] that ammonia- or water-based life, such as the so-called atmospheric beasts, could evolve in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. See also Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. The Voyager program consists of a pair of unmanned scientific probes Voyager 1 and Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. This hypothesis is based on the ecology of terrestrial seas which have simple photosynthetic plankton at the top level, fish at lower levels feeding on these creatures, and marine predators which hunt the fish. Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. Plankton consist of any drifting Organisms ( Animals Plants Archaea, or Bacteria) that inhabit the Pelagic zone of Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two

## Human culture

The planet Jupiter has been known since ancient times. It is visible to the naked eye in the night sky and can occasionally be seen in the daytime when the sun is low. [92] To the Babylonians, this object represented their god Marduk. Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq Marduk ( Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMARUTU 𒀫 𒌓 "solar calf" perhaps from MERI They used the roughly 12-year orbit of this planet along the ecliptic to define the constellations of their zodiac. The ecliptic is the apparent path that the Sun traces out in the sky during the year In common usage a constellation is a group of celestial bodies that are connected together in some arrangement typically stars to form a visible figure or picture Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic [18][93]

The Romans named it after Jupiter (Latin: Iuppiter, Iūpiter) (also called Jove), the principal god of Roman mythology, whose name comes from the Proto-Indo-European vocative form *dyeu ph2ter, meaning "god-father. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. God, as a male Deity, contrasts with female deities or " goddesses " Roman mythology, or more appropriately Latin mythology, refers to the mythological beliefs of the Italic people inhabiting the region of Latium and its The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European (IE peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European The vocative case is the case used for a Noun identifying the person (animal object etc "[10] The astronomical symbol for the planet, , is a stylized representation of the god's lightning bolt. Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent various Celestial objects theoretical constructs and observational events in Astronomy. The Greek equivalent Zeus supplies the root zeno-, used to form some Jupiter-related words, such as zenographic. Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology [94]

Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the The older adjectival form jovial, employed by astrologers in the Middle Ages, has come to mean "happy" or "merry," moods ascribed to Jupiter's astrological influence. Planets in astrology have a meaning different from the modern astronomical understanding of what a planet is. [95]

The Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese referred to the planet as the wood star, 木星,[96] based on the Chinese Five Elements. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Wu Xing ( or the Five Phases, usually translated as five elements, The Greeks called it Φαέθων, Phaethon, "blazing". In Vedic Astrology, Hindu astrologers named the planet after Brihaspati, the religious teacher of the gods, and often called it "Guru," which literally means the "Heavy One". Jyotiṣa ( Sanskrit jyotiṣa, from jyótis- "light heavenly body" also spelled Jyotish and Jyotisha in English Brihaspati (or Brahmanaspati) is the name of a Vedic deity, personification of piety and religion the chief offerer of prayers and sacrifices represented as A guru (गुरु গুরু is a person who is regarded as having great knowledge wisdom and authority in a certain area and uses it to guide others [97] In the English language Thursday is rendered as Thor's day, with Thor being associated with the planet Jupiter in Germanic mythology. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Thursday is the fourth day of the week in most western countries and the fourth day of the week in the Judeo-Christian Calendar, falling between Wednesday Thor ( Old Norse: Þórr) is the red-haired and bearded God of Thunder in Germanic paganism and its subset Norse paganism [98]

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39. ^ Jupiter's New Red Spot (2006). Retrieved on 2006-03-09. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia.
40. ^ Steigerwald, Bill (October 14, 2006). Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Jupiter's Little Red Spot Growing Stronger. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-02-02. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor
41. ^ Goudarzi, Sara (May 4, 2006). Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. New storm on Jupiter hints at climate changes. USA Today. Retrieved on 2007-02-02. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor
42. ^ Showalter, M. A. ; Burns, J. A. ; Cuzzi, J. N. ; Pollack, J. B. (1987). "Jupiter's ring system: New results on structure and particle properties". Icarus 69 (3): 458–98. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90018-2. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
43. ^ a b Burns, J. A. ; Showalter, M. R. ; Hamilton, D. P. ; et. al. (1999). "The Formation of Jupiter's Faint Rings". Science 284: 1146–50. doi:10.1126/science.284.5417.1146. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
44. ^ "Jupiter's Magnetosphere", The Astrophysics Spectator, November 24, 2004. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Retrieved on 2006-05-24. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned
45. ^ Radio Storms on Jupiter. NASA (February 20, 2004). Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Retrieved on 2007-02-01. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen
46. ^ Interplanetary Seasons. Science@NASA. Retrieved on 2007-02-20. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment
47. ^ Ridpath, Ian (1998). Norton's Star Atlas, 19th ed. , Prentice Hall. ISBN 0582356555.
48. ^ Anonymous. Favorable Appearances by Jupiter. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. (Horizons)
49. ^ Encounter with the Giant. NASA (1974). Retrieved on 2007-02-17. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1500 - Battle of Hemmingstedt. 1600 - Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori
50. ^ Xi, Z. Z. (1981). "The Discovery of Jupiter's Satellite Made by Gan-De 2000 Years Before Galileo". Acta Astrophysica Sinica 1 (2): 87.
51. ^ Dong, Paul (2002). China's Major Mysteries: Paranormal Phenomena and the Unexplained in the People's Republic. China Books. ISBN 0835126765.
52. ^ Westfall, Richard S. Galilei, Galileo. The Galileo Project. Retrieved on 2007-01-10. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war.
53. ^ Murdin, Paul (2000). Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing. ISBN 0122266900.
54. ^ SP-349/396 Pioneer Odyssey—Jupiter, Giant of the Solar System. NASA (August 1974). Retrieved on 2006-08-10. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire
55. ^ Roemer's Hypothesis. MathPages. Retrieved on 2007-01-12. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 475 - Basiliscus becomes Byzantine Emperor, with a coronation ceremony in the Hebdomon palace in Constantinople
56. ^ Tenn, Joe (March 10, 2006). Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Edward Emerson Barnard. Sonoma State University. Retrieved on 2007-01-10. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war.
57. ^ Amalthea Fact Sheet. NASA JPL (October 1, 2001). Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Retrieved on 2007-02-21. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland
58. ^ Dunham Jr. , Theodore (1933). "Note on the Spectra of Jupiter and Saturn". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 45: 42–44. doi:10.1086/124297. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
59. ^ Youssef, A. ; Marcus, P. S. (2003). "The dynamics of jovian white ovals from formation to merger". Icarus 162 (1): 74–93. doi:10.1016/S0019-1035(02)00060-X. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
60. ^ Weintraub, Rachel A. (September 26, 2005). Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. How One Night in a Field Changed Astronomy. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-02-18. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy
61. ^ Garcia, Leonard N. . The Jovian Decametric Radio Emission. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-02-18. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy
62. ^ Klein, M. J. ; Gulkis, S. ; Bolton, S. J. (1996). Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation: Observed Variations Before, During and After the Impacts of Comet SL9. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-02-18. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy
63. ^ Baalke, Ron. Comet Shoemaker-Levy Collision with Jupiter. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire.
64. ^ Britt, Robert R. . "Remnants of 1994 Comet Impact Leave Puzzle at Jupiter", space. com, August 23, 2004. Events 79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring on the feast day of Vulcan the Roman god of fire "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Retrieved on 2007-02-20. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment
65. ^ a b Wong, Al (May 28, 1998). Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Galileo FAQ - Navigation. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-11-28. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events
66. ^ Hirata, Chris. Delta-V in the Solar System. California Institute of Technology. Retrieved on 2006-11-28. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events
67. ^ Lasher, Lawrence (August 1, 2006). Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Pioneer Project Home Page. NASA Space Projects Division. Retrieved on 2006-11-28. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events
68. ^ Chan, K. ; Paredes, E. S. ; Ryne, M. S. (2004). Ulysses Attitude and Orbit Operations: 13+ Years of International Cooperation (PDF). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Retrieved on 2006-11-28. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events
69. ^ Hansen, C. J. ; Bolton, S. J. ; Matson, D. L. ; Spilker, L. J. ; Lebreton, J. -P. (2004). "The Cassini-Huygens flyby of Jupiter". Icarus 172 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.06.018. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
70. ^ "Mission Update: At Closest Approach, a Fresh View of Jupiter". Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England.
71. ^ "Pluto-Bound New Horizons Provides New Look at Jupiter System". Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England.
72. ^ New Horizons targets Jupiter kick. BBC News Online (January 19, 2007). Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Retrieved on 2007-01-20. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome.
73. ^ Alexander, Amir (September 27, 2006). Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. New Horizons Snaps First Picture of Jupiter. The Planetary Society. Retrieved on 2006-12-19. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 324 - Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor.
74. ^ a b McConnell, Shannon (April 14, 2003). Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Galileo: Journey to Jupiter. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved on 2006-11-28. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events
75. ^ Magalhães, Julio (December 10, 1996). Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Galileo Probe Mission Events. NASA Space Projects Division. Retrieved on 2007-02-02. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor
76. ^ New Frontiers - Missions - Juno. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire.
77. ^ Berger, Brian. "White House scales back space plans", MSNBC, February 7, 2005. Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire.
78. ^ Atzei, Alessandro (April 27, 2007). Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Jovian Minisat Explorer. ESA. Retrieved on 2008-05-08. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen
79. ^ Musotto, S. ; Varadi, F. ; Moore, W. B. ; Schubert, G. (2002). "Numerical simulations of the orbits of the Galilean satellites". Icarus 159: 500–504. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6939. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
80. ^ Jewitt, D. C. ; Sheppard, S. ; Porco, C. (2004). in Bagenal, F. ; Dowling, T. ; McKinnon, W. : Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521818087.
81. ^ Nesvorný, D. ; Alvarellos, J. L. A. ; Dones, L. ; Levison, H. F. (2003). "Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites". The Astronomical Journal 126 (1): 398–429. doi:10.1086/375461. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
82. ^ Showman, A. P. ; Malhotra, R. (1999). "The Galilean Satellites". Science 286 (5437): 77–84. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.77. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
83. ^ Kerr, Richard A. (2004). "Did Jupiter and Saturn Team Up to Pummel the Inner Solar System?". Science 306 (5702): 1676. doi:10.1126/science.306.5702.1676a. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
84. ^ List Of Jupiter Trojans
85. ^ Lovett, Richard A. . "Stardust's Comet Clues Reveal Early Solar System", National Geographic News, December 15, 2006. Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Retrieved on 2007-01-08. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army
86. ^ Nakamura, T. ; Kurahashi, H. (1998). "Collisional Probability of Periodic Comets with the Terrestrial Planets: An Invalid Case of Analytic Formulation" (). Astronomical Journal 115 (1): 848–854. doi:10.1086/300206. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
87. ^ Heward, Anita (August 17, 2007). Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Jupiter: Friend or Foe?. Europlanet Commission. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital
88. ^ Quinn, T. ; Tremaine, S. ; Duncan, M. (1990). "Planetary perturbations and the origins of short-period comets". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 355: 667–679. doi:10.1086/168800. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
89. ^ Heppenheimer, T. A. (2007). Colonies in Space, Chapter 1: Other Life in Space. National Space Society. Retrieved on 2007-02-26. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 747 BC - Epoch (origin of Ptolemy 's Nabonassar Era 364 - Valentinian I is proclaimed
90. ^ Life on Jupiter. Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy & Spaceflight. Retrieved on 2006-03-09. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia.
91. ^ Sagan, C. ; Salpeter, E. E. (1976). "Particles, environments, and possible ecologies in the Jovian atmosphere". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 32: 633–637. doi:10.1086/190414. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
92. ^ Staff. "Stargazers prepare for daylight view of Jupiter", ABC News Online, June 16, 2005. Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Retrieved on 2008-02-28. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule
93. ^ Rogers, J. H. (1998). "Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions". Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 108: 9–28.
94. ^ See for example: "IAUC 2844: Jupiter; 1975h", International Astronomical Union, October 1, 1975. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat   That particular word has been in use since at least 1966. See: Query Results from the Astronomy Database. Smithsonian/NASA. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat
95. ^ Jovial. Dictionary. com. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat
96. ^ Arnett, Bill (January 28, 2007). Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Planetary Linguistics. The Nine Planets Solar System Tour. Retrieved on 2007-03-08. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion.
97. ^ Guru. Indian Divinity. com. Retrieved on 2007-02-14. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German
98. ^ Falk, Michael (1999). "Astronomical Names for the Days of the Week". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 93: 122–33.